Scandium Its Occurrence, Chemistry Physics, Metallurgy, Biology and Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123558503, 9780323144513

Scandium Its Occurrence, Chemistry Physics, Metallurgy, Biology and Technology

1st Edition

Editors: C.T. Horovitz
eBook ISBN: 9780323144513
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 614
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Scandium provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of scandium, including its occurrence in nature; its chemical, physical and technological properties; its biological significance and toxic effects; and its applications.

The book covers the discovery and history of scandium, its abundance in rock-forming minerals and common type rocks, and its derivation, extraction, and preparation. It also deals with the physical metallurgy of scandium, its physical and chemical properties, its isotopes, its alloys and intermetallic compounds, and its economic and technological applications.

The text is recommended for chemists, metallurgists, and experts who would like to know particularly more about scandium and its possible uses.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors



Chapter 1. Discovery and History

1. The Prediction of Eka-Boron

2. The Discovery of Scandium

3. Early Investigations

4. Intensive Investigations


Chapter 2. Distribution in Nature

1. Cosmic Abundance and Occurrence in Meteorites

2. Occurrence in Sun and Moon

3. Occurrence in Earth's Atmosphere and Waters

4. Occurrence in Soils

5. Occurrence in Oils, Coals and Fertilizers

6. Occurrence in other Various Materials

7. The Cycling of Scandium


Chapter 3. Geochemistry and Mineralogy

1. Introduction

2. Scandium Minerals

A. Thortveitite

B. Bazzite

C. Kolbeckite

D. Sc-Ixiolite

E. Sc-Perrierite

F. Magbasite

3. Abundance in Rock-Forming Minerals

4. Abundance in Common Rock Types

A. Igneous Rocks

B. Sedimentary Rocks

C. Metamorphic Rocks

5. Types of Deposits


Chapter 4. Derivation, Extraction, and Preparation

1. Introduction

2. Derivation

A. By-Product from Uranium Ores

B. By-Product from Wolframite

C. Thortveitite.

D. Miscellaneous

3. Other Separation Processes

4. Metal Preparation

A. Historical

B. Preparation of High Purity Scandium

C. Preparation of Special forms of Scandium


Chapter 5. Physical Metallurgy

1. Introduction

2. Atomic Properties

3. Nuclear Properties

4. Polymorphism and Crystal Structure

5. Change of State

6. Thermodynamic Properties

7. Magnetic Susceptibility

A. Ionic Diamagnetic Susceptibilities

B. Poly Crystalline Scandium

C. Single Crystal Scandium

D. Effect of Impurities

8. Electrical Properties

A. Electrical Resistivity

B. Superconductivity

C. Hall Coefficient and Magnetoresistance

D. Thermoelectric Power

E. Work Function

9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

10. Band Structure

11. Phonon Dispersion

12. Thermal Expansion

13. Thermal Conductivity

14. Elastic Properties

A. Elastic Constants

B. Compressibility (Bulk Modulus)

C. Young's Modulus (Elastic Modulus)

D. Shear Modulus

E. Poisson's Ratio

F. Grüneisen Constant

15. Mechanical Properties

A. Hardness

B. Strength, Elongation and Reduction in Area

16. Fabrication and Workability

17. Oxidation and Nitration

18. Metallography

19. Diffusion

20. Liquid Metal Properties


Chapter 6. Chemical Properties

1. Introduction

2. Oxygen-Containing Compounds

A. Hydroxide

B. Water

C. Carbonate

D. Nitrate

E. Phosphites and Phosphates

F. Sulphites and Sulphates

G. Selenites and Selenates

H. Halates and Perhalates

3. Halides

A. Fluorides

B. Chlorides

C. Bromides

D. Iodides

4. Nitrogen Containing Compounds

A. Ammonia

B. Thiocyanates


Chapter 7. Scandium Isotopes

1. Discovery of the Isotopes

2. Properties of Ground State and Isomeric State Decays

3. Nuclear Configurations and Level Structure

A. General Structure

B. Individual Isotopic Structure


Chapter 8. Inorganic Compounds

1. Introduction

2. Binary Compounds

A. Hydrogen

B. Boron

C. Carbon

D. Silicon

E. Nitrogen

F. Phosphorus and Arsenic

G. Oxygen

H. Chalcogenides: S, Se and Te

J. Halides

3. Ternary and more Complex Non-Oxy Compounds

A. Sc-Metal-Hydrogen Systems

B. Sc-Metal-Boron Systems

C. Sc-Metal-Carbon Systems

D. Sc-Metal-Silicon Systems

E. Sc-Metal-Sulphur Systems

F. Sc-Metal-Selenium Systems

G. Sc-Metal-Halide Systems

H. Sc-Non Metal-Non Metal Systems

4. Ternary and more Complex Oxy Compounds

A. Peroxides, Hydroxides and Oxyhydroxides

B. Alkali Metal Oxides

C. Be, Mg and Alkaline Earth Oxides

D. Rare Earth Oxides

E. Perovskites

F. Actinide Oxides

G. Ti, Zr and Hf Oxides

H. V, Nb and Ta Oxides

J. Cr, Mo and W Oxides

K. Mn and Re Oxides

L. The Group VIIIA Metal Oxides

M. Garnets, Spinels and Ferrites

N. Cd and Zn Oxides

O. B, Al, Ga, and In Oxides

P. Carbonates and Oxalates

Q. Si, Ge, Sn and Pb Oxides

R. Oxynitride and Nitrates

S. Phosphites and Phosphates

T. As and Sb Oxides

U. Oxysulphide, Sulphites and Sulphates

V. Selenites and Selenates

W. Oxyhalides, Basic Halides and Halates

X. Miscellaneous


Chapter 9. Alloys and Intermetallic Compounds

1. Introduction

2. Alloy Theory and Summary of Physical Properties

A. Solid Solutions

B. Intermetallic Compounds

C. Eutectic Systems

D. Knight Shifts

E. Super Conducting Properties

3. Scandium—Intra Rare Earth Alloys

A. Scandium-Yttrium

B. Scandium-Lanthanum

C. Scandium-Cerium

D. Scandium-Neodymium

E. Scandium-Gadolinium

F. Scandium-Terbium, -Dysprosium and -Holmium

G. Scandium-Erbium

H. Magnetic Properties of Scandium-Lanthanide Alloys

4. Binary Alloys with Non-Rare Earth Metals

A. Aluminium

B. Antimony

C. Beryllium

D. Bismuth

E. Cadmium

F. Chromium

G. Cobalt

H. Copper

J. Gallium

K. Germanium

L. Gold

M. Hafnium

N. Indium

O. Iridium

P. Iron

Q. Lead

R. Magnesium

S. Manganese

T. Mercury

U. Molybdenum

V. Nickel

W. Niobium

X. Osmium

Y. Palladium

Z. Platinum

AA. Plutonium

BB. Polonium

CC. Rhenium

DD. Rhodium

EE. Ruthenium

FF. Silver

GG. Tantalum

HH. Technetium

JJ. Thorium

KK. Tin

LL. Titanium

MM. Tungsten

NN. Uranium

OO. Vanadium

PP. Zinc

QQ. Zirconium

5. Ternary and Higher Alloy Systems

A. Scandium-Intra Rare Earth Alloys

B. Scandium-Rare Earth-Non-Rare Earth Alloys

C. Scandium—Non-Rare Earth Alloys


Chapter 10. Organic Compounds

1. Introduction

2. Organoscandium Compounds

3. Coordination Compounds with Nitrogen Donor Ligands

A. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines

B. Heterocyclic Amines

C. Nitriles

4. Coordination Compounds with Oxygen Donor Ligands

A. Neutral Ligands

B. Anionic Ligands

5. Coordination Compounds with Nitrogen and Oxygen Donor Ligands

A. Carboxylates

B. Hydroxyquinolinates

C. Miscellaneous

6. Coordination Compounds with Phosphorus and Sulphur Donor Ligands


Chapter 11. Analytical Chemistry

1. Introduction

2. Separation Methods

A. Precipitation and Volatilization

B. Solvent Extraction Methods

C. Ion Exchangers

D. Thin Layer, Column and Paper Chromatography

E. Electrochromatography

F. Gas Chromatography

3. Determination Methods

A. Detection and Identification

B. Gravimetric Methods

C. Titrimetric Methods

D. Polarographic and other Electrochemical Methods

E. Spectrophotometric Methods

F. Fluorimetric, Luminescence and Candoluminescence Methods

G. Flame Spectroscopy

H. Emission Spectroscopy

J. Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy

K. X-ray Fluorescence

L. Mass Spectrometry

M. Radiochemical Methods

N. Neutron Activation Analysis

O. Other Methods Spectropolarimetric Titrimetry

P. Special Methods of Determination in Various Materials

4. Standard and Reference Samples, High-Purity Materials and Scandium Chemicals Available

5. Epilogue

Appendix 11.1 (List of Abbreviations)


Chapter 12. Technology, Applications and Economy

1. Introduction

2. Metallurgical Applications

3. Ceramic Applications

4. Catalysts

5. Electronics

6. Lighting and Phosphors

7. Nuclear

8. Miscellaneous


Chapter 13. Occurrence in Living Systems

1. General Considerations

2. Occurrence in Plants

3. Occurrence in Animals

4. Occurrence in Humans


Chapter 14. Biological Significance

1. General Considerations

2. Significance in Plants

3. Significance in Animals

4. Significance in Humans

5. Biochemical Functions

6. Biological uses of Scandium Radionuclides


Chapter 15. Toxicology

1. General Considerations

2. Acute Toxicity

3. Chronic Toxicity

4. Ocular Effects

5. Effects on the Skin

6. Pathological and other Effects

7. Pharmacological Effects

8. Carcinogenic Studies

9. Radiotoxicity


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1975
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

C.T. Horovitz

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