Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture

Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture

2nd Edition - March 6, 2006
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors: Sandra Shumway, Jay Parsons
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080480770

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Description

Scallops are among the better known shellfish and are widely distributed throughout the world. They are of great economic importance, support both commercial fisheries and mariculture efforts and occupy a unique niche in the marine environment. Contributions from world leaders in scallop research and culture cover all facets of scallop biology including anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, larval biology and neurobiology. Chapters are also devoted to diseases and parasites, genetics, population dynamics and the adductor muscle, with extensive reference lists provided for each chapter. Since the publication of the first edition of Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture in 1991, commercial interest in scallops has grown globally and this is reflected in the seventeen extensive chapters covering both fisheries and aquaculture for all species of scallops in all countries where they are fished or cultured. The Second Edition is the only comprehensive treatise on the biology of scallops and is the definitive reference source for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mariculturists, managers and researchers. It is a valuable reference for anyone interested in staying abreast of the latest advances in scallops.

Key Features

* Offers over 30 detailed chapters on the developments and ecology of scallops
* Provides chapters on various cultures of scallops in China, Japan, Scandinivia, Eastern North American, Europe, and Eastern North America
* Includes details of their reproduction, nervous system and behavior, genetics, disease and parasites, and much more
* Complete updated version of the first edition

Readership

Fisheries, marine biologists, researchers studying shellfish and the ocean environment

Table of Contents

  • Table of Contents

    Dedication               v
    Preface             vii
    Preface from first edition              ix
    List of contributors              xi

    Chapter 1.  New Phylogenies of the Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Reconciling Morphological and Molecular Approaches
    Thomas R. Waller

    1.1 Introduction               1
    1.1.1 Molecular genetic studies               1
    1.1.2 Methods and materials               7
    1.2 New observations             10
    1.2.1 Subfamily Camptonectinae Habe, 1977             10
    1.2.2 Subfamily Palliolinae Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960             10
    1.2.2.1 Tribe Pseudentoliini, new tribe             12
    1.2.2.2 Tribe Adamussiini Habe, 1977             13
    1.2.2.3 Tribe Eburneopectinini, new tribe             14
    1.2.2.4 Tribe Serripectinini, new tribe             15
    1.2.2.5 Tribe Palliolini Korobkov in Eberzin, 1960             17
    1.2.2.6 Tribe Mesopeplini, new tribe             20
    1.2.3 Origins of the Decatopecten and Pecten Groups             22
    1.2.4 Eastern Atlantic Pecten             28
    1.3 Conclusions             30
    Acknowledgments             32
    References             32
    Appendix             43

    Chapter 2.  Development, Physiology, Behaviour and Ecology of Scallop Larvae
    Simon M. Cragg

    2.1 Introduction             45
    2.2 Scallop life history characteristics             45
    2.3 Larval development             55
    2.3.1 Embryogenesis             55
    2.3.2 Development of the larval shell             56
    2.3.3 Organogenesis             59
    2.3.3.1 Development of ciliation, the prototroch and the velum             59
    2.3.3.2 Larval mantle             64
    2.3.3.3 Musculature             64
    2.3.3.4 Digestive tract             68
    2.3.3.5 Sense organs             68
    2.3.3.6 Apical organ             68
    2.3.3.7 Statocysts             73
    2.3.3.8 Eye spots             73
    2.3.3.9 Mantle ciliation             74
    2.3.3.10 Foot             77
    2.3.3.11 Nervous system             78
    2.3.3.12 Other organs             79
    2.3.4 Metamorphosis             79
    2.4 Comparative anatomy             81
    2.5 Functional morphology             84
    2.5.1 Locomotion             84
    2.5.2 Feeding             85
    2.5.3 Respiration             85
    2.5.4 Sensory reception             86
    2.6 Physiology and effects of environmental variables             87
    2.6.1 Energy reserves and feeding             87
    2.6.2 Respiration             88
    2.6.3 Growth             89
    2.6.4 Biochemical events during metamorphosis             90
    2.7 Behaviour and larval distribution             90
    2.7.1 Characteristics of locomotion during larval development             90
    2.7.2 Responses to stimuli             91
    2.7.3 Distribution of larvae             94
    2.7.4 Development and the larval environment             98
    2.7.5 Tolerance of environmental variables             99
    2.8 Rearing methods           101
    2.8.1 Spawning and manipulation of zygotes           101
    2.8.2 Feeding           102
    2.8.3 Control of disease in cultures           103
    2.8.4 Collection of spat from wild stocks           104
    References           105

    Chapter 3.  Structure and Function in Scallops
    Peter G. Beninger and Marcel Le Pennec

    3.1 Introduction           123
    3.1.1 An overview of the scallop body           123
    3.2 The mantle and its derivatives           126
    3.2.1 Gross functional anatomy           127
    3.2.2 Microanatomy and functions           130
    3.3 Pallial organs and particle processing           132
    3.3.1 Gills           132
    3.3.1.1 Gill axis and arch           135
    3.3.1.2 Principal filaments and dorsal expansion           135
    3.3.1.3 Ordinary filament           137
    3.3.1.4 Haemolymph circulation in the gill           141
    3.3.1.5 Particle processing on the gill           141
    3.3.1.6 Particle selection at the gill           141
    3.3.1.7 Particle retention lower size limit           143
    3.3.1.8 Ingestion volume regulation on the gill           143
    3.3.2 Labial palps and lips           144
    3.3.2.1 Labial palps           144
    3.3.2.2 Particle processing on the labial palps           144
    3.3.2.3 Lips           147
    3.4 Digestive system and digestion           150
    3.4.1 Mouth and oesophagus           150
    3.4.2 Stomach, crystalline style and gastric shield           150
    3.4.3 The digestive gland           154
    3.4.4 Intestine, rectum and anus           157
    3.4.5 Digestive sites and postingestive selection           159
    3.5 Cardio-Vascular system           159
    3.5.1 General circulation           160
    3.5.1.1 The arterial system           160
    3.5.1.1.1 Anterior aorta           160
    3.5.1.1.2 Posterior aorta           160
    3.5.1.2 The venous system           162
    3.5.2 The heart           162
    3.5.2.1 The ventricle           162
    3.5.2.2 The auricles and their excretory structures           163
    3.5.2.3 Structure and ultrastructure of heart cells           163
    3.5.2.4 Contraction           165
    3.5.2.4.1 Refilling           165
    3.5.2.4.2 Coordination of alternate AV beat           166
    3.5.2.4.3 Pacemaker mechanism           166
    3.5.2.4.4 Regulation of pacemaker           167
    3.5.3 Haemolymph           167
    3.5.3.1 Plasma           168
    3.5.3.2 Haemocytes           168
    3.5.3.2.1 Haemocyte types           169
    3.5.3.2.2 Functions of haemocytes           169
    3.6 Excretory system           170
    3.6.1 Pericardial (auricular) glands           170
    3.6.2 Kidney           172
    3.6.3 Functions of the kidney and pericardial glands           173
    3.7 Reproductive system           173
    3.7.1 Sexuality:  Gonochory, hermaphroditism and their variants           173
    3.7.2 Origin and formation of the gonad           176
    3.7.3 Anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the adult gonad           177
    3.7.3.1 Outer epithelium           177
    3.7.3.2 Perigonadal connective tissue           179
    3.7.3.3 Inter-acinal connective tissue           179
    3.7.3.4 Haemolymph sinuses           179
    3.7.3.5 Acini           180
    3.7.3.6 Evacuating ducts           180
    3.7.4 Gametogenesis           180
    3.7.4.1 Oogenesis           180
    3.7.4.1.1 Premeiotic stage           180
    3.7.4.1.2 Previtellogenic stage           181
    3.7.4.1.3 Vitellogenesis and metabolite transport to the oocyte           181
    3.7.5 Oocyte atresia           185
    3.7.6 Spermatogenesis, spermatozoon ultrastructure and taxonomy           188
    3.7.7 Fertilisation           190
    3.8 Nervous and sensory systems           191
    3.8.1 General organisation of the nervous system and functional
    anatomy of principal ganglia           191
    3.8.1.1 Cerebral and pedal ganglia           191
    3.8.1.2 The parietovisceral ganglion and its nerves           191
    3.8.1.3 Histology and neurosecretions of the ganglia           196
    3.8.1.4 The circumpallial nerve           198
    3.8.2 Sensory structures           198
    3.8.2.1 Visual system           198
    3.8.2.2 Epithelial sensory cells and tentacles           198
    3.8.2.3 Abdominal sense organ           199
    3.8.2.4 Osphradia           201
    3.8.2.5 Statoreceptors           204
    3.8.3 Neurotransmitters and neurohormones           204
    3.9 Foot-byssal complex           205
    3.9.1 External morphology and development of the foot-byssal complex           207
    3.9.2 Anatomy and histology of the foot-byssal gland complex           208
    3.9.2.1 The protein gland           208
    3.9.2.2 The enzyme gland           208
    3.9.2.3 The byssus           210
    3.9.3 Functioning of the foot-byssal complex           210
    Acknowledgments           210
    References           211

    Chapter 4.  Scallop Adductor Muscles: Structure and Function
    Peter D. Chantler

    4.1 Introduction           229
    4.2 Structure of the striated adductor muscle           231
    4.2.1 Fibre microanatomy           231
    4.2.2 Actin and thin filament structure           233
    4.2.3 Thick filament structure           240
    4.3 Structure of the smooth adductor muscle           243
    4.3.1 Fibre microanatomy           243
    4.3.2 Thin filament structure           245
    4.3.3 The structure of paramyosin-rich thick filaments           247
    4.4 Myosin           253
    4.5 Function of the striated adductor           271
    4.5.1 Mechanics           271
    4.5.2 The interaction of myosin with actin           272
    4.5.3 The crossbridge cycle           277
    4.5.4 Myosin-linked regulation           282
    4.6 Function of the smooth adductor           289
    4.6.1 Physiology           289
    4.6.2 Catch mechanism           292
    4.7 Achievements and goals           296
    Acknowledgments           298
    References           298

    Chapter 5.  Neurobiology and Behaviour of the Scallop
    Lon A. Wilkens

    5.1 Introduction           317
    5.2 The visual system           317
    5.2.1 Functional anatomy of the eyes           317
    5.2.2 Retinal physiology           322
    5.2.3 Receptor potential biophysics           324
    5.2.4 Anatomy and physiology of vision in the central nervous system           328
    5.2.5 Visual behaviours           332
    5.3 The locomotory system           335
    5.3.1 Escape responses and swimming           335
    5.3.2 Sensory and motor functions of the mantle           341
    5.3.3 Innervation and neuromuscular physiology of the adductor muscle           345
    5.3.4 Coordination of locomotory behaviour by the central nervous
    system           348
    Acknowledgments           352
    References           352

    Chapter 6.  Reproductive Physiology
    Bruce J. Barber and Norman J. Blake

    6.1 Introduction           357
    6.2 Gametogenic cycles           358
    6.2.1 Definition           358
    6.2.2 Means of assessment           358
    6.2.2.1 Visual observation           360
    6.2.2.2 Gonad mass and index           360
    6.2.2.3 Histology           367
    6.2.2.4 Abundance of larvae and spat           369
    6.2.3 Variations in gametogenic cycles           370
    6.2.3.1 Intra-specific variations           370
    6.2.3.2 Inter-specific variations           375
    6.3 Regulation of gametogenic cycles           375
    6.3.1 Gametogenesis and fecundity           376
    6.3.1.1 Exogenous regulation           376
    6.3.1.2 Endogenous regulation           381
    6.3.2 Spawning and spawning synchrony           385
    6.3.2.1 Exogenous regulation           385
    6.3.2.2 Endogenous regulation           389
    6.4 Energy metabolism           390
    6.4.1 Tissue weights and indices           391
    6.4.2 Tissue biochemical composition           392
    6.4.3 Physiological indices           395
    6.4.4 Radiotracer experiments           398
    6.4.5 Ultrastructure and histochemistry           398
    6.4.6 Mechanisms           400
    6.5 Applications to aquaculture           401
    6.5.1 Broodstock conditioning           401
    6.5.2 Spawning           403
    6.5.3 Larval growth and survival           403
    6.6 Summary           404
    6.6.1 Gametogenic cycles           404
    6.6.2 Regulation of gametogenesis           404
    6.6.3 Energy metabolism           405
    6.6.4 Applications to aquaculture           406
    References           406

    Chapter 7.  Physiology: Energy Acquisition and Utilisation
    Bruce A. MacDonald, V. Monica Bricelj and Sandra E. Shumway

    7.1 Introduction           417
    7.2 Energy acquisition           417
    7.2.1 Food sources           417
    7.2.2 Feeding currents and mechanisms of particle capture           420
    7.2.3 Particle retention efficiency           421
    7.2.4 Feeding rates           424
    7.2.5 Clearance rate in relation to food concentration           427
    7.2.6 Influence of temperature on feeding rates           430
    7.2.7 Pseudofeces production, pre- and post-ingestive particle selection           432
    7.2.8 Absorption efficiency           436
    7.2.9 Effects of suspended sediments on feeding and growth           439
    7.2.10 Effects of flow on feeding and growth           445
    7.2.11 Effects of harmful and toxic algae           447
    7.3 Energy utilisation: Metabolic expenditure           453
    7.3.1 Metabolic rate and oxygen availability           455
    7.3.2 Metabolic cost of reproduction           458
    7.3.3 Metabolic rate in relation to temperature and latitude           460
    7.3.4 Metabolic rate in relation to activity levels           461
    7.3.5 Anaerobic metabolism           463
    7.4 Energy utilisation           467
    7.4.1 Excretion and byssus secretion           467
    7.4.2 Growth           468
    References           474

    Chapter 8.  Physiological Integrations and Energy Partitioning
    Raymond J. Thompson and Bruce A. MacDonald

    8.1 Introduction           493
    8.2 Energy balance, physiological integrations and the partitioning of
    energy between growth and reproduction           493
    8.2.1 Energy budgets           493
    8.2.2 Scope for growth           494
    8.2.3 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio           494
    8.2.4 Growth of shell and somatic tissue           495
    8.2.5 Reproductive effort           496
    8.3 Changes related to age of individuals           498
    8.3.1 Scope for growth           498
    8.3.2 Growth efficiency and turnover ratio           498
    8.3.3 Somatic growth and maximum size           499
    8.3.4 Somatic production and reproductive output           500
    8.3.5 Reproductive effort           502
    8.4 Environmental influence on production           504
    8.4.1 Scope for growth and growth efficiency           504
    8.4.2 Growth of shell and somatic tissue           506
    8.4.3 Reproductive effort           509
    8.5 Reproductive value and cost           511
    8.5.1 Residual reproductive value           511
    8.5.2 Reproductive cost           512
    8.6 Population production           514
    Acknowledgments           516
    References           516

    Chapter 9.  Nutrition in Pectinids
    Ana Farías and Iker Uriarte

    9.1 Introduction           521
    9.2 Pectinid feeding           521
    9.3 Nutritional requirements during reproductive conditioning           528
    9.4 Nutritional requirements of the larvae           529
    9.5 Post-metamorphic nutritional requirements           533
    9.6 Summary           536
    References           536

    Chapter 10.  Genetics
    Andy Beaumont

    10.1 Introduction           543
    10.2 Chromosomal genetics and ploidy manipulation           544
    10.2.1 Chromosome numbers and karyotypes           544
    10.2.2 Ploidy manipulation           548
    10.3 Genetic markers and population genetics           550
    10.3.1 Genetic markers           550
    10.3.1.1 Allozymes           551
    10.3.1.2 DNA methods           551
    10.3.1.3 DNA based markers           552
    10.3.1.3.1 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)           552
    10.3.1.3.2 Random amplified polymorhic DNA (RAPDs)           552
    10.3.1.3.3 Microsatellites           553
    10.3.1.3.4 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)           553
    10.3.1.4 Mitochondrial DNA in scallops           554
    10.3.1.5 Types of data produced by different markers           555
    10.3.1.6 Analysis of data           555
    10.3.2 Overall genetic variation           557
    10.3.3 Genetic differentiation of populations           559
    10.3.3.1 Placopecten magellanicus           559
    10.3.3.2 Patinopecten (= Mizuhopecten) yessoensis           561
    10.3.3.3 Pecten maximus           562
    10.3.3.4 Aequipecten opercularis           563
    10.3.3.5 Chlamys islandica           564
    10.3.3.6 Chlamys farreri           565
    10.3.3.7 Mimachlamys varia           565
    10.3.3.8 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac           565
    10.3.3.9 Argopecten gibbus           565
    10.3.3.10 The Argopecten irradians species complex           566
    10.3.4 Genetic differences at species level and above           567
    10.3.5 Heterozygote deficiency           568
    10.3.6 Heterozygosity and growth           571
    10.4 Quantitative genetics           575
    10.4.1 Heritability and artificial selection           575
    10.4.2 Inbreeding and hybridisation           577
    10.5 Genome mapping and gene sequences           579
    10.6 Conclusion           580
    Acknowledgments           581
    References           581

    Chapter 11.  Diseases and Parasites of Scallops
    Sharon E. McGladdery, Susan M. Bower and Rodman G. Getchell

    11.1 Introduction           595
    11.2 Microbial diseases           595
    11.2.1 Viruses           595
    11.2.2 Prokaryota           605
    11.2.2.1 Vibrionaceae           605
    11.2.2.2 Intracellular prokaryotes (Rickettsiales; Chlamydiales
    and Mycoplasma)           607
    11.2.2.3 Other bacterial pathogens of scallops           610
    11.2.2.4 Bacterial management under hatchery conditions           611
    11.3 Mycota           612
    11.4 Protista           614
    11.4.1 Sarcomastigophorea (Amoebae and Flagellates)           614
    11.4.2 Labyrinthomorpha (Thraustochytrids and Labythinuloids)           615
    11.4.3 Apicomplexa           615
    11.4.3.1 Perkinsorida           615
    11.4.3.2 Eucoccidiia           617
    11.4.3.3 Eugregarinida           618
    11.4.4 Microspora           619
    11.4.5 Ascetospora           620
    11.4.5.1 Marteiliida           621
    11.4.5.2 Balanosporida           621
    11.4.6 Ciliates           621
    11.5 Platyhelminths           623
    11.5.1 Trematodes           623
    11.5.2 Cestodes           626
    11.5.3 Turbellaria           626
    11.5.4 Nematodes           628
    11.6 Polychaetes           629
    11.7 Crustacea           632
    11.7.1 Pinnotheriidae           632
    11.7.2 Copepodidae           632
    11.8 Gastropods           633
    11.9 Algae           635
    11.10 Foraminiferans           636
    11.11 Porifera           636
    11.12 Cnidaria           637
    11.13 Non-Infectious diseases           638
    11.14 Summary           638
    Acknowledgments           639
    References           639

    Chapter 12.  Scallop Ecology: Distributions and Behaviour
    Andrew R. Brand

    12.1 Introduction           651
    12.2 Geographical distribution           653
    12.2.1 Geographical distribution of commercially important species           653
    12.2.1.1 North Atlantic species           653
    12.2.1.1.1 Pecten maximus and P. jacobaeus           653
    12.2.1.1.2 Aequipecten opercularis           655
    12.2.1.1.3 Mimachlamys varia           655
    12.2.1.1.4 Placopecten magellanicus           655
    12.2.1.1.5 Argopecten irradians           657
    12.2.1.1.6 Argopecten gibbus           659
    12.2.1.2 Sub-arctic species           659
    12.2.1.2.1 Chlamys islandica           659
    12.2.1.3 North Pacific species           661
    12.2.1.3.1 Patinopecten caurinus           661
    12.2.1.3.2 Mizuhopecten yessoensis           661
    12.2.1.3.3 Pecten albicans, Mimachlamys nobilis and
    Chlamys farreri           662
    12.2.1.4 Southern hemisphere species           662
    12.2.1.4.1 Pecten fumatus           662
    12.2.1.4.2 Mimachlamys asperrima and Equichlamys bifrons           663
    12.2.1.4.3 Amusium balloti and A. pleuronectes           664
    12.2.1.4.4 Pecten novaezelandiae           664
    12.2.1.4.5 Argopecten purpuratus and A. ventricosus           665
    12.2.1.4.6 Aequipecten tehuelchus           665
    12.2.1.4.7 Zygochlamys patagonica           665
    12.2.2 Factors affecting geographical distribution           666
    12.3 Local distribution           669
    12.3.1 Spatial distribution           669
    12.3.2 Year-class separation           676
    12.3.3 Factors affecting local distribution           677
    12.3.3.1 Depth           678
    12.3.3.2 Substrate type           678
    12.3.3.3 Currents           679
    12.3.3.4 Turbidity           680
    12.3.3.5 Salinity           681
    12.3.3.6 Competitors and predators           684
    12.4 Scallop behaviour - aspects affecting distribution           689
    12.4.1 Byssus attachment           689
    12.4.2 Recessing           692
    12.4.3 Orientation           695
    12.4.4 Swimming           698
    12.4.5 Reactions to predators           707
    12.4.6 Dispersal and migrations           709
    12.5 Further study           712
    Acknowledgments           713
    References           713

    Chapter 13.  Scallops and Marine Contaminants
    Peter J. Cranford

    13.1 Introduction           745
    13.2 Trace metals           746
    13.3 Trace organics           748
    13.4 Offshore oil and gas operations           750
    13.5 Scallops as sentinel organisms           754
    Acknowledgments           759
    References           759

    Chapter 14.  Dynamics, Assessment and Management of Exploited Natural Populations
    J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz, Ana M. Parma, Teresa Turk and Juan Valero

    14.1 Introduction           765
    14.2 Spatial scales           765
    14.3 Population structure and dynamics           769
    14.3.1 Aggregate stocks           769
    14.3.1.1 Patterns of fluctuation           769
    14.3.1.2 Climatic forcing           771
    14.3.1.3 Correlation between consecutive life-history stages           773
    14.3.1.4 The relation between aggregate stock and settlement/
    recruitment           774
    14.3.2 Macroscale           777
    14.3.2.1 Patterns of connectivity: metapopulation structure           777
    14.3.2.2 Metapopulation structure and geographic genetic
    differentiation           780

    14.3.2.3 Larval retention/dispersal: mechanisms and oceanographic
    scenarios           782
    14.3.2.4 Metapopulation models            784
    14.3.3 Mesoscale           785
    14.3.3.1 Persistence, extinction and resurgence of subpopulations           785
    14.3.3.2 Relation between abundance and area occupied by a
    subpopulation           785
    14.3.4 Microscale           786
    14.3.4.1 Density, neighbourhoods and concentration           786
    14.3.4.2 Concentration profiles           788
    14.3.4.3 Density- vs. concentration-dependence; compensation vs.
    depensation           789
    14.4 The fishing process           795
    14.4.1 Types of fishing gear used in scallop fisheries           796
    14.4.2 Effort and fishing mortality           797
    14.4.2.1 Effort data           797
    14.4.2.2 Effort units           797
    14.4.2.3 Components of fishing mortality under homogeneity
    assumptions           798
    14.4.2.4 Relative fishing power and standardisation of effort           799
    14.4.3 Spatial patterns of effort allocation           799
    14.4.4 The depletion process           803
    14.4.5 Vulnerability and selectivity           805
    14.4.6 Gear performance           806
    14.4.7 Incidental fishing mortality and sub-lethal damage           808
    14.5 Assessment           811
    14.5.1 Macroscale           811
    14.5.2 Mesoscale           812
    14.5.2.1 Estimation of aggregated abundance: methods based on
    sampling           812
    14.5.2.2 Mapping           815
    14.5.2.3 Methods based on modelling the depletion process           816
    14.5.3 Microscale           819
    14.5.3.1 Small-scale spatial data           819
    14.5.3.2 Spatial pattern           820
    14.5.3.3 Scaling problems           821
    14.6 Management           823
    14.6.1 Types of scallop fisheries           823
    14.6.2 Overfishing           824
    14.6.2.1 Growth overfishing: yield-per-recruit (Y/R) analysis           824
    14.6.2.2 Recruitment overfishing           826
    14.6.2.3 A special case: recruitment fisheries           829
    14.6.3 Sustainability           830

    14.6.3.1 The precautionary approach to fisheries management
    (PAFM) and risk assessment (RA)            830
    14.6.3.2 Marine protected areas (MPAs)            832
    14.6.3.3 Ecosystem management concerns           834
    14.6.3.4 Strategic structures: use and property rights           835
    14.6.3.5 Diversification of the resource-base           837
    14.6.4 Tactics           838
    14.6.4.1 Size limits           838
    14.6.4.2 Quota regulations           840
    14.6.4.3 Escapement regulations           840
    14.6.4.4 Direct effort regulations           840
    14.6.4.5 Rotation           841
    14.6.4.6 Direct interventions to enhance productivity           842
    14.6.4.7 Experimental management           844
    Acknowledgments           844
    References           844
    Endnotes           867

    Chapter 15.  Fisheries Sea Scallop, Placopecten magellanicus
    K.S. Naidu and G. Robert

    15.1 Introduction           869
    15.2 Distribution           871
    15.3 History of fishery           874
    15.4 Population biology           878
    15.5 Growth and yield per recruit           880
    15.6 Gear and boats           883
    15.7 Exploitation and resource management           886
    15.8 Outlook           895
    References           897

    Chapter 16.  Sea Scallop Aquaculture in the Northwest Atlantic
    G. Jay Parsons and Shawn M. C. Robinson

    16.1 Introduction           907
    16.2 History of sea scallop culture           908
    16.3 Hatchery spat production           909
    16.3.1 Broodstock conditioning           909
    16.3.2 Spawning methods           910
    16.3.3 Egg and larval development           910
    16.3.4 Settlement and metamorphosis           911
    16.3.5 Spat husbandry           911
    16.4 Wild spat collection           912
    16.4.1 Spat collection techniques           912
    16.4.2 Settlement intensity           913
    16.4.3 Maximising spat collection           914
    16.4.4 Spat growth           916
    16.4.5 Spat sorting           916
    16.5 Intermediate culture           916
    16.5.1 Growth           917
    16.5.2 Stocking density           917
    16.5.3 Depth           919
    16.5.4 Season           919
    16.5.5 Location           919
    16.5.6 Survival           920
    16.5.7 Gear selection           920
    16.5.8 Strategies for intermediate culture           921
    16.6 Final grow-out           922
    16.6.1 Suspension culture           922
    16.6.2 Bottom culture           922
    16.6.3 Growth           923
    16.7 Scheduling and strategies           924
    16.8 Site selection           924
    16.8.1 Environmental criteria           925
    16.8.1.1 Temperature and salinity regime           925
    16.8.1.2 Ice coverage           925
    16.8.1.3 Wind           925
    16.8.1.4 Bottom type           925
    16.8.1.5 Turbidity           926
    16.8.2 Biological constraints           926
    16.8.2.1 Predators           926
    16.8.2.2 Fouling organisms           926
    16.8.2.3 Phycotoxins           926
    16.8.2.4 Diseases and parasites           927
    16.9 Products and marketing           928
    16.10 Economics           928
    16.11 Social issues           929
    16.12 Future prospects           930
    Acknowledgments           930
    References           930

    Chapter 17.  Bay Scallop and Calico Scallop Fisheries, Culture and Enhancement in Eastern North America
    Norman J. Blake and Sandra E. Shumway

    17.1 Introduction           945
    17.2 Fisheries           945
    17.2.1 Bay scallop, Argopecten irradians           945
    17.2.1.1 Distribution           945
    17.2.1.2 Biology           948
    17.2.1.3 Fishery           950
    17.2.2 Calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus           952
    17.2.2.1 Distribution           952
    17.2.2.2 Biology           953
    17.2.2.3 Fishery           955
    17.3 Aquaculture and enhancement           958
    17.4 Future           961
    References           961

    Chapter 18.  Scallops of the West Coast of North America
    Raymond B. Lauzier and Neil F. Bourne

    18.1 Introduction           965
    18.2 Fisheries           967
    18.2.1 Weathervane scallop           967
    18.2.1.1 Biology           967
    18.2.1.2 Fishery           971
    18.2.1.3 Gear           973
    18.2.1.4 Management           973
    18.2.2 Rock scallop           973
    18.2.2.1 Biology           974
    18.2.2.2 Fishery           975
    18.2.3 Pink and spiny scallops           975
    18.2.3.1 Biology           975
    18.2.3.2 Fisheries           977
    18.2.3.3 Management           979
    18.3 Aquaculture           979
    18.3.1 Pink and spiny scallops           980
    18.3.2 Weathervane scallop           980
    18.3.3 Rock scallops           981
    18.3.4 Japanese weathervane scallop           982
    18.3.5 Pacific calico scallop           983
    18.4 Future           983
    Acknowledgments           984
    References           984

    Chapter 19.  The European Scallop Fisheries for Pecten maximus, Aequipecten opercularis and Mimachlamys varia
    Andrew R. Brand

    19.1 Introduction           991
    19.2 Biology and ecology           993
    19.2.1 The great scallop, Pecten maximus (L.)           993
    19.2.2 The queen scallop, Aequipecten opercularis (L.)         1006
    19.2.3 The black or variegated scallop, Mimachlamys varia (L.)         1011
    19.3 Fisheries         1014
    19.3.1 Isle of Man         1017
    19.3.2 Scotland         1023
    19.3.3 England and Wales         1025
    19.3.4 Northern Ireland         1027
    19.3.5 Republic of Ireland         1027
    19.3.6 France         1029
    19.3.7 Spain         1031
    19.4 The future         1031
    Acknowledgments         1035
    References         1035

    Chapter 20.  European Aquaculture
    Mark Norman, Guillermo Román and Øivind Strand

    20.1 Introduction         1059
    20.2 Pecten maximus         1060
    20.3 Aequipecten opercularis         1062
    20.4 Chlamys varia         1063
    20.5 Summary         1063
    References         1063

    Chapter 21.  Scandinavia
    Øivind Strand and G. Jay Parsons

    21.1 Introduction         1067
    21.2 Chlamys islandica         1067
    21.2.1 Biology         1067
    21.2.2 Fishery         1073
    21.2.3 Aquaculture         1076
    21.3 Pecten maximus         1077
    21.3.1 Biology         1077
    21.3.2 Fishery         1078
    21.3.3 Aquaculture         1079
    21.4 Aequipecten opercularis         1085
    Acknowledgments         1086
    References         1086

     


    Chapter 22.  Japan
    Yoshinobu Kosaka and Hiroshi Ito

    22.1 Introduction         1093
    22.2 Patinopecten (Mizuhopecten) yessoensis         1099
    22.2.1 Biology         1099
    22.2.2 Fishery         1104
    22.2.3 Culture         1111
    22.2.4 Seed production         1111
    22.2.5 Spat collection         1111
    22.2.6 Intermediate culture         1116
    22.2.7 Hanging culture         1116
    22.2.8 Fouling         1118
    22.2.9 Sowing culture         1120
    22.2.10 Enemy clearance         1120
    22.2.11 Seed sowing         1120
    22.2.12 Care         1121
    22.2.13 Recapture         1121
    22.2.14 Value         1124
    22.2.15 Processing         1127
    22.2.16 Occurrence of shellfish poisoning         1130
    22.3 Future         1130
    22.3.1 Technology         1130
    22.3.2 Control of culture         1133
    22.3.3 Cost-reduction         1133
    22.3.4 Concept         1133
    22.4 Pecten albicans         1134
    22.4.1 Biology         1134
    22.4.2 Fishery         1134
    22.4.3 Culture         1135
    22.5 Chlamys (Mimachlamys) nobilis         1135
    22.5.1 Biology         1135
    22.5.2 Culture         1135
    Acknowledgments         1136
    References         1136

    Chapter 23.  Scallop Culture in China
    Ximing Guo and Yousheng Luo

    23.1 Introduction         1141
    23.2 Zhikong scallop         1146
    23.2.1 Shell morphology         1146
    23.2.2 Distribution         1146
    23.2.3 Growth         1147
    23.2.4 Reproduction         1149
    23.3 Other scallop species         1151
    23.3.1 Huagui scallop         1151
    23.3.2 Non-native species         1152
    23.4 Fishery         1153
    23.5 Aquaculture         1154
    23.5.1 Species and history         1154
    23.5.2 Collection of natural seed for Zhikong scallop         1155
    23.5.3 Hatchery production of bay scallop         1155
    23.5.4 Grow-out         1158
    23.6 Harvest, processing and marketing         1160
    Acknowledgments         1160
    References         1161

    Chapter 24.  Scallops Fisheries and Aquaculture of Northwestern Pacific, Russian Federation
    Victor V. Ivin, Vasily Z. Kalashnikov, Sergey I. Maslennikov and Vitaly G. Tarasov

    24.1 Introduction         1163
    24.2 Taxonomic status         1163
    24.3 Biology and ecology         1164
    24.3.1 Chlamys albida         1164
    24.3.2 Chlamys asiatica         1166
    24.3.3 Chlamys behringiana         1167
    24.3.4 Chlamys chosenica         1168
    24.3.5 Chlamys farreri         1170
    24.3.6 Chlamys swifti         1172
    24.3.7 Delectopecten randolphi         1174
    24.3.8 Mizuhopecten yessoensis         1174
    24.3.8.1 Total populations and biomass         1175
    24.3.8.2 Distribution in Primorye         1176
    24.3.8.3 Distribution over depths         1176
    24.3.8.4 Age structure of scallop settlements         1176
    24.3.8.5 Scallop growth         1177
    24.3.8.6 Sex structure of settlements         1178
    24.3.8.7 Replenishment         1181
    24.3.8.8 Spawning         1181
    24.3.8.9 Larvae morphology         1182
    24.3.8.10 Development in plankton         1182
    24.3.8.11 Migration behaviour         1184
    24.3.8.12 Risk factors         1184
    24.3.8.12.1 Abiotic factors         1184
    24.3.8.12.2 Storms         1184
    24.3.8.12.3 Predators         1185
    24.3.8.12.4 Parasites         1187
    24.3.8.12.5 Bacterial contamination         1189
    24.3.8.12.6 Epibionts         1189
    24.4 Fishing and aquaculture         1189
    24.4.1 Fishing         1189
    24.4.1.1 History         1189
    24.4.1.2 Fishing gear         1191
    24.4.1.3 Yesso scallop landings         1191
    24.4.1.3.1 Primorsky territory         1191
    24.4.1.3.2 Sakhalin-Kurile region         1192
    24.4.1.4 Yesso scallop commercial stock         1192
    24.4.1.4.1 Primorsky territory         1192
    24.4.1.4.2 Sakhalin-Kurile region         1192
    24.4.1.4.2.1 Aniva Bay         1194
    24.4.1.4.2.2 Terpenie Bay         1194
    24.4.1.4.2.3 Kuriles         1194
    24.4.1.5 Commercial Chlamys scallops         1194
    24.4.1.5.1 Primorye         1194
    24.4.1.5.2 Kurile Islands         1195
    24.4.1.5.3 In Bering Sea         1196
    24.4.1.6 Other Chlamys species         1196
    24.4.1.6.1 Chlamys farreri         1196
    24.4.1.6.2 Chlamys swifti         1196
    24.4.2 Aquaculture         1196
    24.4.2.1 History         1196
    24.4.2.2 Present situation         1197
    24.4.2.3 Marketing         1198
    24.4.2.4 The culture methods         1198
    24.4.2.4.1 Spat collection         1198
    24.4.2.4.2 Intermediate culture         1199
    24.4.2.4.3 Transport of scallop seed         1199
    24.4.2.4.4 Sowing or on-bottom culture         1200
    24.4.2.4.5 Hanging or off-bottom culture         1201
    24.4.2.4.6 Obstacles to mariculture development         1201
    24.4.2.4.7 Ecological constraints associated with cultivation         1202
    24.4.2.4.7.1 Predation         1202
    24.4.2.4.7.2 Epibionts         1202
    24.4.2.4.7.3 Biofouling of cultivation structures         1203
    24.4.2.4.8 Effect of scallop mariculture on coastal ecosystems         1204
    24.4.2.5 Future prospects         1211
    Acknowledgments         1213
    References         1213


    Chapter 25.  Scallop Aquaculture and Fisheries in Brazil
    Guilherme S. Rupp and G. Jay Parsons

    25.1 Introduction         1225
    25.2 Nodipecten nodosus – biology, aquaculture and fisheries         1227
    25.2.1 Taxonomy and distribution         1227
    25.2.2 Ecology         1228
    25.2.3 Reproduction         1231
    25.2.4 Aquaculture         1232
    25.2.4.1 Status         1232
    25.2.4.2 Culture technology         1233
    25.2.4.2.1 Wild seed collection         1233
    25.2.4.2.2 Hatchery production         1234
    25.2.4.2.3 Growout         1236
    25.2.4.2.4 Constraints         1239
    25.2.5 Fisheries and marketing         1239
    25.2.6 Future prospects         1240
    25.3 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac – biology, aquaculture and fisheries         1240
    25.3.1 Taxonomy and distribution         1240
    25.3.2 Ecology         1241
    25.3.3 Reproduction         1241
    25.3.4 Aquaculture         1242
    25.3.4.1 Status         1242
    25.3.4.2.Culture technology         1242
    25.3.4.2.1 Wild seed collection         1242
    25.3.4.2.2 Hatchery production         1242
    25.3.4.2.3 Growout         1243
    25.3.4.2.4 Constraints         1243
    25.3.5 Fisheries         1243
    25.3.6 Future prospects         1244
    Acknowledgments         1244
    References         1245

    Chapter 26.  Argentina
    Néstor F. Ciocco, Mario L. Lasta, Maite Narvarte, Claudia Bremec, Eugenia Bogazzi, Juan Valero and J.M. (Lobo) Orensanz

    26.1 Introduction         1251
    26.2 The Tehuelche scallop, Aequipecten tehuelchus         1251
    26.2.1 Biology         1251
    26.2.2 Population dynamics         1257
    26.2.3 Fisheries         1258
    26.2.3.1 The inshore dredge fishery of San Matías Gulf         1258
    26.2.3.2 The commercial diving fishery of San José Gulf         1261
    26.2.4 Aquaculture         1263
    26.2.4.1 Spat collection         1263
    26.2.4.1.1 Vertical distribution of settlement         1263
    26.2.4.1.2 Temporal variation in settlement         1263
    26.2.4.1.3 Type of collector         1263
    26.2.4.1.4 Location         1265
    26.2.4.1.5 Influence of depth, type of collector and location
    on the average size of the ‘seed’         1265
    26.2.4.2 Growth in suspended structures of spat obtained from
    collectors         1266
    26.2.4.3 Larval culture in the laboratory         1268
    26.2.4.4 Prospects and problems         1268
    26.3 The Patagonian scallop, Zygochlamys patagonica         1269
    26.3.1 Biology and ecology         1269
    26.3.2 Population dynamics and stock assessment         1273
    26.3.3 The fishery         1275
    26.3.3.1 Exploratory surveys and experimental fishing programs         1275
    26.3.3.2 Management         1276
    26.3.3.3 Development of the fishery         1277
    26.3.3.4 Observers program         1280
    26.3.3.5 Ecological effects of fishing         1281
    26.3.3.6 Marketing         1283
    Acknowledgments         1283
    References         1283

    Chapter 27.  Scallop Fishery and Aquaculture in Chile
    Elisabeth von Brand, German E. Merino, Alejandro Abarca and Wolfgang Stotz

    27.1 Introduction         1293
    27.2 Species description         1293
    27.2.1 Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck 1819) the northern scallop         1295
    27.2.2 Zygochlamys patagonica (King and Broderip 1831) the
    southern scallop         1295
    27.2.3 Chlamys vitrea (King & Broderip, 1831) the southern scallop….         1296
    27.3 Fisheries         1296
    27.3.1 Argopecten purpuratus, the northern scallop         1296
    27.3.2 Chlamys vitrea and Zygochlamys patagonica, the southern
    scallop         1298
    27.4 How scallop aquaculture started in Chile         1299
    27.5 Aquaculture production         1301
    27.5.1 Production stages         1303
    27.5.1.1 Hatchery broodstock conditioning and spawning         1303
    27.5.1.2 Larval stage         1303
    27.5.1.3 Settlement, metamorphosis and postlarval stage         1304
    27.5.1.4 Seed supply         1305
    27.5.1.5 Ongrowing stage         1305
    27.5.2 Constraints and opportunities for northern scallop hatcheries         1306
    27.5.3 Interaction between natural beds and aquaculture         1307
    27.5.4 Recovery of a natural bed of Argopecten purpuratus         1308
    27.5.5 Final overview and projections of Chilean scallop farming         1308
    Acknowledgments         1311
    References         1311

    Chapter 28.  Venezuela
    César J. Lodeiros, Luis Freites, Maximiano Nuñez, Anibal Vélez and John H. Himmelman

    28.1 Introduction         1315
    28.2 Distribution, habitat and reproduction         1315
    28.2.1 Euvola (Pecten) ziczac         1315
    28.2.2 Argopecten nucleus         1319
    28.2.3 Nodipecten (Lyropecten) nodosus         1319
    28.2.4 Amusium papyraceum and Amusium laurenti         1320
    28.3 Fisheries         1320
    28.4 Aquaculture         1322
    28.4.1 Euvola ziczac         1322
    28.4.1.1 Gonad maturation and spawning         1322
    28.4.1.2 Spat production         1322
    28.4.1.3 Grow-out         1323
    28.4.2 Nodipecten nodosus         1326
    28.4.2.1 Gonad maturation and spawning         1326
    28.4.2.2 Spat production         1326
    28.4.2.3 Grow-out         1326
    28.4.3 Argopecten nucleus         1329
    28.5 Perspectives for culture         1330
    References         1332

    Chapter 29.  Mexico
    Esteban Fernando Félix-Pico

    29.1 Fishery         1337
    29.1.1 Introduction         1337
    29.1.2 Species and distribution of scallops         1338
    29.1.3 History of the fishery         1339
    29.1.4 Status of the resource         1340
    29.1.4.1 Reproductive biology         1340
    29.1.4.1.1 Size at maturity         1340
    29.1.4.1.2 Fecundity         1341
    29.1.4.1.3 Maturity and spawning         1341
    29.1.4.2 Population biology         1344
    29.1.4.3 Abundance and density         1345
    29.2 Exploitation of the resource         1347
    29.2.1 Fishing areas         1347
    29.2.2 Fishing seasons         1348
    29.2.3 Fishing operations and results         1349
    29.2.4 The market value-landings data from 1970 to 2000         1349
    29.3 Constraints         1350
    29.3.1 Pollution         1350
    29.3.2 Biological constraints         1352
    29.3.3 Predation         1353
    29.3.4 Resource management constraints         1354
    29.4 Harvesting and transporting         1354
    29.4.1 Methods         1354
    29.4.2 Marketing         1355
    29.5 Expected future         1356
    29.6 Aquaculture         1357
    29.6.1 Introduction         1357
    29.6.2 Species         1358
    29.6.3 History         1358
    29.7 Hatchery techniques         1359
    29.7.1 Conditioning         1359
    29.7.2 Induction of spawning and fertilisation         1360
    29.7.3 Larval culture and metamorphosis         1361
    29.7.4 Genetic enhancement         1366
    29.7.4.1 Selection         1366
    29.7.4.2 Crossbreeding         1366
    29.7.4.3 Triploidy         1367
    29.7.5 Antibiotics         1368
    29.8 Natural spat         1368
    29.8.1 Methods employed         1368
    29.8.2 Spat collection         1369
    29.9 Growth         1372
    29.9.1 Suspended cultures         1372
    29.9.2 Bottom cultures         1375
    29.9.3 Factors influencing growth         1376
    29.10 Mortality         1377
    29.10.1 Suspended culture         1377
    29.10.2 Bottom culture         1378
    29.11 Constraints         1379
    29.12 Future prospects         1379
    References         1380

    Chapter 30.  Scallop Fisheries, Mariculture and Enhancement in Australia
    Mike Dredge

    30.1 Introduction         1391
    30.2 History of the fisheries         1392
    30.3 Biology of target species         1395
    30.3.1 Pecten fumatus         1395
    30.3.1.1 Distribution and life cycle         1395
    30.3.1.2 Mortality         1396
    30.3.1.3 Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics         1397
    30.3.2 Amusium balloti         1398
    30.3.2.1 Distribution and life cycle         1398
    30.3.2.2 Mortality         1398
    30.3.2.3 Monitoring, abundance and population dynamics         1399
    30.4 Fisheries and their management         1400
    30.4.1 Pecten fumatus         1400
    30.4.1.1 Regulation         1400
    30.4.1.2 Environmental management and sustainability issues         1402
    30.4.2 Amusium balloti         1403
    30.4.2.1 Regulation         1403
    30.4.2.2 Environmental management and sustainability issues         1404
    30.5 Culture of scallops in Australia         1405
    30.5.1 Pecten fumatus         1405
    30.5.1.1 Tasmania         1405
    30.5.1.1.1 Spat production         1405
    30.5.1.1.2 Culture operations         1405
    30.5.1.2 Victoria         1406
    30.5.1.3 New South Wales         1406
    30.5.1.4 South Australia         1407
    30.5.2 Amusium balloti         1407
    30.6 Summary         1407
    Acknowledgments         1408
    References         1408

    Chapter 31.  New Zealand
    Islay D. Marsden and Michael F. Bull

    31.1 Introduction         1413
    31.2 Biology         1413
    31.2.1 Morphology         1413
    31.2.2 Distribution         1413
    31.2.3 Life cycle         1414
    31.2.4 Growth rates         1415
    31.2.5 Mortality         1415

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1500
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2006
  • Published: March 6, 2006
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080480770

About the Series Volume Editors

Sandra Shumway

Dr. Sandra L. Shumway is known as THE shellfish expert. She has more than 30 years of research experience, and is active on research panels and several international advisory boards. She has been the President-elect of the National Shellfisheries Association for five years, and is Editor-in-Chief of four top journals in fisheries and shellfish. She has been on the Steering Committee and served as Program Chair of the World Aquaculture Society and Fish Culture Section of the American Fisheries. She received the APEX Award for Publication Excellence for Journal of Shellfish Research in 2008. 2009, 2010, and 2011 and won the Bronze Award (2009) and Silver Award (2010) for the Association Trends, Journal of Shellfish Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT, USA

Jay Parsons

Dr. Jay Parsons has been involved in the aquaculture sector for 30 years and has extensive experience in shellfish aquaculture research and management. Since 2003, Dr. Parsons has been with the Aquaculture Science Branch of Fisheries and Oceans Canada where he is Branch Director responsible for national aquaculture R&D programs and aquaculture research coordination. From 1995-2003 he was a researcher and faculty members at Memorial University (St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada) where he taught graduate courses in shellfish aquaculture and directed several national and international projects, graduate students and publications on culture, feeding and reproduction in scallops, oysters, mussels, sea urchins and shrimp. He is also a past president of the World Aquaculture Society (WAS) and has served on the WAS Board since 2001. He was also President of the National Shellfisheries Association (NSA) and twice President of the Aquaculture Association of Canada (AAC). And he still maintains an active involvement in these professional societies through the promotion and dissemination of aquaculture science nationally and internationally.

Affiliations and Expertise

Aquaculture Science Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada

About the Editors

Sandra Shumway

Dr. Sandra L. Shumway is known as THE shellfish expert. She has more than 30 years of research experience, and is active on research panels and several international advisory boards. She has been the President-elect of the National Shellfisheries Association for five years, and is Editor-in-Chief of four top journals in fisheries and shellfish. She has been on the Steering Committee and served as Program Chair of the World Aquaculture Society and Fish Culture Section of the American Fisheries. She received the APEX Award for Publication Excellence for Journal of Shellfish Research in 2008. 2009, 2010, and 2011 and won the Bronze Award (2009) and Silver Award (2010) for the Association Trends, Journal of Shellfish Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT, USA

G. Jay Parsons

Dr. Jay Parsons has been involved in the aquaculture sector for 30 years and has extensive experience in shellfish aquaculture research and management. Since 2003, Dr. Parsons has been with the Aquaculture Science Branch of Fisheries and Oceans Canada where he is Branch Director responsible for national aquaculture R&D programs and aquaculture research coordination. From 1995-2003 he was a researcher and faculty members at Memorial University (St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada) where he taught graduate courses in shellfish aquaculture and directed several national and international projects, graduate students and publications on culture, feeding and reproduction in scallops, oysters, mussels, sea urchins and shrimp. He is also a past president of the World Aquaculture Society (WAS) and has served on the WAS Board since 2001. He was also President of the National Shellfisheries Association (NSA) and twice President of the Aquaculture Association of Canada (AAC). And he still maintains an active involvement in these professional societies through the promotion and dissemination of aquaculture science nationally and internationally.

Affiliations and Expertise

Aquaculture Science Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada