Scaling Up of Microbial Electrochemical Systems

Scaling Up of Microbial Electrochemical Systems

From Reality to Scalability

1st Edition - January 28, 2022

Write a review

  • Editors: Dipak Jadhav, Soumya Pandit, S. Gajalakshmi, Maulin Shah
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323907651
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323907668

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Scaling Up of Microbial Electrochemical Systems: From Reality to Scalability is the first book of its kind to focus on scaling up of microbial electrochemical systems (MES) and the unique challenges faced when moving towards practical applications using this technology. This book emphasizes an understanding of the current limitations of MES technology and suggests a way forward towards onsite applications of MES for practical use. It includes the basics of MES as well as success stories and case studies of MES in the direction of practical applications. This book will give a new direction to energy researchers, scientists and policymakers working on field applications of microbial electrochemical systems—microbial fuel cells, microbial electrolysis cells, microbial electrosynthesis cells, and more.

Key Features

  • Promotes the advancement of microbial electrochemical systems, from lab scale to field applications
  • Illustrates the challenges of scaling up using successive case studies
  • Provides the basics of MES technology to help deepen understanding of the subject
  • Addresses lifecycle analysis of MES technology to allow comparison with other conventional methods


Bioelectrochemists, engineers, electrochemists, and chemists working on microbial electrochemical systems (MES), microbial fuel cells, environmental biotechnology, bioelectrochemical systems, bioenergy research and biological wastewater treatment; industries and academicians working on scaling up of bioelectrochemical systems, bioreactor designs and biological wastewater treatment. Bioenergy courses and elective courses offered for undergraduate and post graduate students; policymakers and NGOs

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Chapter 1: Microbial electrochemical systems
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1.1: Introduction
  • 1.2: Classification of METs
  • 1.3: Conclusion
  • Chapter 2: A review on scaling-up of microbial fuel cell: Challenges and opportunities
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: Introduction
  • 2.2: MFC theory
  • 2.3: Research gap of MFC
  • 2.4: Operational and electrochemical limitations of MFC analysis
  • 2.5: Technology development solution
  • 2.6: Techno–economic viability
  • 2.7: Pilot scale to industrial scale of MFC
  • 2.8: Application of microbial fuel cell to the social relevance
  • 2.9: Recent developments
  • 2.10: Future improvements
  • 2.11: Conclusion
  • Chapter 3: Electroactive biofilm and electron transfer in microbial electrochemical systems
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 3.1: Introduction
  • 3.2: Electroactive microorganisms (EAMs)
  • 3.3: Formation of electroactive biofilms (EABFs)
  • 3.4: Electron transfer mechanism
  • 3.5: Effect of design, operational, and biological parameters on electroactivity of EABFs
  • 3.6: Genetic engineering: An approach to enhance exoelectrogenesis
  • 3.7: Applications of EABFs
  • 3.8: Conclusions and future prospects
  • Chapter 4: Role of electroactive biofilms in governing the performance of microbial electrochemical system
  • Abstract
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Role of electroactive biofilms in MES
  • 4.3: Strategies for development of EAB
  • 4.4: Microbes in EAB
  • 4.5: Electron transfer in EAB
  • 4.6: Methods to study EAB
  • 4.7: Dynamic of EAB application
  • 4.8: Conclusion and future prospects
  • Chapter 5: Electroactive biofilm and electron transfer in the microbial electrochemical system
  • Abstract
  • 5.1: Introduction
  • 5.2: Electroactive microorganism and biofilm formation
  • 5.3: Factors affecting electroactive biofilm formation
  • 5.4: Electron transfer mechanism in MES
  • 5.5: Tools and techniques to study electroactive biofilms and microbial community analysis
  • 5.6: Conclusion and future prospects
  • Chapter 6: Electroactive biofilm and electron transfer in MES
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Electroactive biofilms (EABs)
  • 6.3: Anodic electroactive biofilm
  • 6.4: Cathodic electroactive biofilm
  • 6.5: Mechanism of electron within anodic EAB
  • 6.6: Mechanisms of electron transfer in cathodic EABs
  • 6.7: Tools and techniques used to study EABs
  • 6.8: Applications of EABs
  • 6.9: Conclusion
  • Chapter 7: Bioelectroremediation of wastes using bioelectrochemical system
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Introduction
  • 7.2: Drawbacks of conventional bioremediation
  • 7.3: Phytoremediation
  • 7.4: BES for ground water remediation
  • 7.5: Practical obstacles in GW remediation suggests BES application
  • 7.6: In situ bioelectroremediation: Ideal step
  • 7.7: Bioelectroremediation: Future perspectives
  • 7.8: Conclusion
  • Chapter 8: Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) as proton exchange membrane (PEM) in single chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs)
  • Abstract
  • 8.1: Introduction
  • 8.2: Proton exchange membranes (PEM)
  • 8.3: Present study
  • 8.4: Designing and fabrication of single-chambered MFCs
  • 8.5: Natural fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite as PEM in MFCs
  • 8.6: Substrates used in MFCs
  • 8.7: Inocula used in MFCs
  • 8.8: Experimental design
  • 8.9: Results in terms of electricity generation
  • 8.10: Results in terms of COD removal
  • 8.11: Results of the comparison of different proton exchange membrane (PEM) used in MFC with commercially available PEM-based MFC
  • 8.12: Results in terms of electricity generation
  • 8.13: Results in terms of COD removal
  • 8.14: Conclusions
  • Chapter 9: Effects of biofouling on polymer electrolyte membranes in scaling-up of microbial electrochemical systems
  • Abstract
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Causes of biofouling in polymer electrolyte membrane
  • 9.3: Mechanism of polymer electrolyte membrane biofouling
  • 9.4: Effects of biofouling on MES performance
  • 9.5: Methods to analyze membrane biofouling
  • 9.6: Challenges confronted in scaling-up of MES
  • 9.7: Preventive measures of membrane biofouling
  • 9.8: Conclusion
  • Chapter 10: Advancement in electrode materials and membrane separators for scaling up of MES
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: Designing of reactor to scale-up
  • 10.3: Electrode modification in scaling-up of MES
  • 10.4: Membrane separators in MES
  • Chapter 11: Scale-up of bioelectrochemical systems: Stacking strategies and the road ahead
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Scale-up: Issues and strategies
  • 11.3: Stacking of BESs
  • 11.4: Voltage reversal and prevention
  • 11.5: Pilot-scale BESs for hydrogen/methane production
  • 11.6: Scaled-up BESs for bioremediation
  • 11.7: Conclusions and future perspective
  • Chapter 12: Application of microbial electrochemical system for industrial wastewater treatment
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction
  • 12.2: Energy recovery in wastewater treatment systems
  • 12.3: Industrial wastewater generation and the ecotoxicological impacts of the pollutants
  • 12.4: Industrial wastewater treatment in microbial electrochemical systems
  • 12.5: Recent advancements in scaling up microbial electrochemical systems
  • 12.6: Economic and life cycle assessment
  • 12.7: Conclusion
  • Chapter 13: Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology key players for improving efficacy of microbial fuel cell technology
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 13.1: Introduction
  • 13.2: Classification or types and design of MFC for electricity generation
  • 13.3: Molecular mechanisms of electron transfer by diverse microbial regimes or electrogens for MFC technology
  • 13.4: Existing physical- and chemical-based approaches for improving the MFC performance
  • 13.5: Existing pitfalls or drawbacks of existing MFC technology
  • 13.6: Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology impacts on improving MFC performance
  • 13.7: Conclusion and future outlook
  • Chapter 14: Microbial electrochemical platform: A sustainable workhorse for improving wastewater treatment and desalination
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 14.1: Introduction
  • 14.2: Classification and general discussion about microbial electrochemical platform toward wastewater treatment and desalination
  • 14.3: Potential role of existing native microbial regime in wastewater treatment and desalination
  • 14.4: Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology impacts on improving strains or M/Os to improve the performance of MES/MFC toward wastewater treatment and desalination
  • 14.5: Future outlook
  • Chapter 15: Scaling-up of microbial electrochemical systems to convert energy from waste into power and biofuel
  • Abstract
  • 15.1: Introduction
  • 15.2: Scale-up of MET from laboratory level to pilot level
  • 15.3: Stacking of microbial electrochemical systems: A major perspective for scaling-up
  • 15.4: Continuous mode of operation of microbial electrochemical systems during scale-up
  • 15.5: Challenges for field-level application of MET
  • 15.6: Solutions to overcome limitation of MET
  • 15.7: Future perspective
  • Chapter 16: Microbial fuel cell: Commercial aspect in terms of stacking and electrochemical perspective for scaling up
  • Abstract
  • 16.1: Introduction
  • 16.2: Role of different materials in development of MFC
  • 16.3: Strategies for development of MFC stacking
  • 16.4: Modes of operation
  • 16.5: MFC design for scale-up
  • 16.6: Conclusion and future prospects
  • Chapter 17: Scaling up and applications of microbial fuel cells
  • Abstract
  • 17.1: Introduction
  • 17.2: Engineering design parameters for MFC scale-up
  • 17.3: Process parameters for MFC scale-up
  • 17.4: Criteria for scale-up
  • 17.5: Market segmentation and SWOT analysis
  • 17.6: Outlook
  • Chapter 18: Electrode modification and its application in microbial electrolysis cell
  • Abstract
  • 18.1: Introduction
  • 18.2: Electrode modification
  • 18.3: MEC operation using modified electrodes
  • 18.4: Limiting factors affecting the electrode function
  • 18.5: Conclusions
  • Chapter 19: Strategies in the direction of scaling-up aspects of microbial electrolysis cells
  • Abstract
  • 19.1: Introduction
  • 19.2: Thermodynamic basics and theoretical advantages
  • 19.3: Advantages of MECs over water electrolysis
  • 19.4: MECs for methanation and microbial electrosynthesis
  • 19.5: Engineering challenges that must be tackled
  • 19.6: Interference of methanogens in H2 MECs
  • 19.7: Strategies in the direction of scaling-up aspects of microbial electrolysis cells
  • 19.8: Conclusions
  • Chapter 20: Multi-stage constructed wetland microbial fuel cells: A new perspective for potential high-strength wastewater treatment under continuous operation
  • Abstract
  • 20.1: Introduction
  • 20.2: Fundamentals of electron transfer mechanism and design of CW-MFCs
  • 20.3: Potential high-strength wastewater treatment
  • 20.4: Multi-stage systems
  • 20.5: Advantages of multi-stage systems
  • 20.6: Challenges in operation and future directions
  • Chapter 21: Microbial fuel cells—Challenges for commercialization and how they can be addressed
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 21.1: Introduction
  • 21.2: Operating conditions and anodic constraints
  • 21.3: Catholyte and cathodic conditions
  • 21.4: Electrode materials
  • 21.5: Proton exchange membrane
  • 21.6: Oxygen reduction reaction catalysts
  • 21.7: Design parameters and configurations
  • 21.8: Scaling up and commercialization of MFC—Current status and challenges
  • 21.9: Bottlenecks and future direction
  • 21.10: Summary
  • Chapter 22: Utilization of human waste and animal urine for energy and resource recovery in microbial electrochemical system
  • Abstract
  • 22.1: Introduction
  • 22.2: Complexity of treatment of animal waste in a conventional wastewater treatment system and recovery options
  • 22.3: Microbial electrochemical system (MES) for animal wastewater treatment
  • 22.4: Animal waste treatment in MES
  • 22.5: Mechanism and application of human waste and urine treatment in MES
  • 22.6: Challenges and future perspectives for utilizing animal waste in MES
  • 22.7: Conclusion
  • Chapter 23: Application of artificial intelligence methods for the optimization and control of bioelectrochemical systems
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 23.1: Introduction
  • 23.2: Background
  • 23.3: AI-based methods for studying BES
  • 23.4: Conclusion and future outlook
  • Chapter 24: Toward sustainable feasibility of microbial electrochemical systems to reality
  • Abstract
  • 24.1: Microbial electrochemical systems
  • 24.2: Challenges
  • 24.3: Energy efficiency
  • 24.4: Economic assessment
  • 24.5: Life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • 24.6: Sustainable priorities
  • 24.7: Conclusion and future outlook
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: January 28, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323907651
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323907668

About the Editors

Dipak Jadhav

Dr. Dipak Ashok Jadhav received his PhD from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. Currently, he is an Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Aurangabad, India. He has received several prestigious awards and fellowships including Young Technological Innovation Award (GYTI), Young Engineers Award, Promising Engineers Award, Swachthon Award from Ministry, DAAD fellowship, Silver medal for post graduate studies at IIT Kharagpur, and more. His research area is microbial fuel cells, bioelectrochemical systems, sanitation, bioenergy research, water management, and waste to energy recovery. He has over 17 papers in various peer-reviewed SCI journals including Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Bioresource Technology, Energy, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, and more, and he’s authored 11 book chapters. He also serves as editorial board member/reviewer for many International Journals and is a member of several scientific societies in the field of microbial fuel cells, microbial electrochemical systems and bioenergy research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Aurangabad, India

Soumya Pandit

Dr. Soumya Pandit is a senior assistant professor at Sharda University, Greater Noida, Delhi NCR, India. He pursued his doctoral studies from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur and completed his postdoctoral research work (PBC fellow) at the Department of Desalination and Water Treatment, The Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research (ZIWR), Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. He is a recipient of North West University, South Arica Post-doctoral fellowship. He has authored 21 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and has authored 22 book chapters and published 3 Indian patents. He holds a BTech in Biotechnology and MTech. His current research focuses on microbial electrochemical systems for bioenergy harvesting, biohythane, bacterial biofilm and biofouling study, etc. He serves as a reviewer for Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology, editorial board member in SCIREA Journal of Biology, and the Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers (JKSEE).

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Life Sciences, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India

S. Gajalakshmi

Dr. S. Gajalakshmi is an Assistant Professor and Head (i/c) at Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Puducherry, India, with more than 15 years of experience in teaching and research. She is a Gold Medallist in BSc and MSc and has an MPhil and PhD in Environmental Science and Engineering from Pondicherry University. She was awarded ‘Best Teacher Award’, Pondicherry University for the years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018. Her research interests are solid waste management, nutrient dynamics of soil, domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, energy, and microbial fuel cells. She has published over 50 publications in peer reviewed prestigious journals, has authored one book and contributed more than 10 chapters in other books. She is granted one patent on a unique wastewater treatment process and one patent published on novel process for ligninous waste treatment.

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, India

Maulin Shah

Maulin Shah is an active researcher and scientific writer for over 20 years. He received a B.Sc. degree in 1999 in Microbiology from Gujarat University in Godhra, Gujarat, India. He also earned his Ph.D. degree in 2005 in Environmental Microbiology from Sardar Patel University in Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India. His research interests include biological wastewater treatment, environmental microbiology, biodegradation, bioremediation, & phytoremediation of environmental pollutants from industrial wastewaters. He has published more than 250 research papers in national and international journals of repute on various aspects of microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants. He is the editor of 55 books of international repute.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, Environmental Microbiology Lab, Gujarat, India

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

Latest reviews

(Total rating for all reviews)

  • Ashwini C. Fri Sep 03 2021

    Excellent book for microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical system researchers

    This is an excellent contribution in the field of microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical system. Looking forward for final copy of published book...