Electrochemical Power Sources: Fundamentals, Systems, and Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444637772

Electrochemical Power Sources: Fundamentals, Systems, and Applications

1st Edition

Li-Battery Safety

Editors: Jürgen Garche Klaus Brandt
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444637772
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 20th September 2018
Page Count: 670
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Description

Safety of Lithium Batteries describes how best to assure safety during all phases of the life of Lithium ion batteries (production, transport, use, and disposal). About 5 billion Li-ion cells are produced each year, predominantly for use in consumer electronics. This book describes how the high-energy density and outstanding performance of Li-ion batteries will result in a large increase in the production of Li-ion cells for electric drive train vehicle (xEV) and battery energy storage (BES or EES) purposes. The high-energy density of Li battery systems comes with special hazards related to the materials employed in these systems.

The manufacturers of cells and batteries have strongly reduced the hazard probability by a number of measures. However, absolute safety of the Li system is not given as multiple incidents in consumer electronics have shown.

Key Features

  • Presents the relationship between chemical and structure material properties and cell safety
  • Relates cell and battery design to safety as well as system operation parameters to safety
  • Outlines the influences of abuses on safety and the relationship to battery testing
  • Explores the limitations for transport and storage of cells and batteries
  • Includes recycling, disposal and second use of lithium ion batteries

Readership

Electrochemists, chemists, and chemical engineers, material scientists, electrical and mechanical engineers involved in all phases of the life of a battery (research, development, production, transport, use, and disposal). It could also be useful to electrical, mechanical and safety engineers, transportation dispatchers, architects as well as car manufacturers, fleet operators, park house operators, tunnel operators, car wash operators, car service stations

Table of Contents

Contents

List of Contributors ............................................................................................................................ xxi

Preface ............................................................................................................................................... xxv

CHAPTER 1 General Battery Safety Considerations ................................................1

Klaus Brandt and Ju¨rgen Garche

1.1 General Safety Aspects .............................................................................................. 1

1.1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 1

1.1.2 Safety Integrity Level ...................................................................................... 4

1.2 General Battery Safety Aspects ................................................................................. 8

1.2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 8

1.2.2 Nature of Battery Safety Risks........................................................................ 9

1.2.3 Triggers of Battery Safety Incidents ............................................................. 10

1.2.4 Probabilty and Controlability of Safety Event Triggers ............................... 12

1.2.5 Assessing and Reducing the Severity of Safety Events................................ 14

1.2.6 Holistic Concept of Safety............................................................................. 15

1.2.7 Dealing With Safety Events .......................................................................... 17

1.2.8 Reuse and Recycling...................................................................................... 17

1.2.9 Transportation and Storage............................................................................ 18

Abbreviations............................................................................................................ 18

References................................................................................................................. 18

CHAPTER 2 General Overview of Non-Lithium Battery Systems

and their Safety Issues ....................................................................... 21

Uwe Koehler

2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 21

2.2 Battery Hazards and Incidents ................................................................................. 22

2.2.1 Battery Assemblies: Implications to Safety .................................................. 22

2.2.2 Classification of Hazards ............................................................................... 23

2.2.3 Battery Safety - Categories............................................................................ 24

2.2.4 Safety under Incidents and Abusive Treatment ............................................ 24

2.3 Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries.................................................................................. 24

2.3.1 Cell Types and Internal Structure.................................................................. 24

2.3.2 Active Materials: Health Aspects .................................................................. 26

2.3.3 Operational Safety of Aqueous Battery Systems .......................................... 27

2.4 High-Temperature (HT) Batteries............................................................................ 36

2.4.1 Materials and Design of HT Cells (NaS, NaNiCl) ....................................... 37

2.4.2 General System Aspects of HT Batteries...................................................... 38

v

2.4.3 Safety of Sodium_Sulfur Batteries............................................................... 39

2.4.4 Safety of Sodium_Nickel Chloride Batteries ............................................... 40

2.5 Redox Flow Battery Systems................................................................................... 42

2.5.1 Materials and Design of Redox Flow Battery Systems ................................ 42

2.5.2 General Aspects of Redox Flow Battery Systems ........................................ 43

2.5.3 Safety of Redox Flow Battery Systems......................................................... 43

Abbreviations............................................................................................................ 45

References................................................................................................................. 45

CHAPTER 3 Overview of Rechargeable Lithium Battery Systems......................... 47

Peter Kurzweil and Klaus Brandt

3.1 Basic Cell Chemistry ............................................................................................... 48

3.1.1 Lithium-Metal Systems.................................................................................. 48

3.1.2 Lithium-Ion Batteries..................................................................................... 49

3.2 Positive Electrode Materials .................................................................................... 50

3.2.1 Transition Metal Oxides ................................................................................ 51

3.2.2 Lithium Metal Phosphates and Polyoxyanion Structures ............................. 58

3.2.3 Transition Metal Sulfides............................................................................... 59

3.3 Negative Electrode Materials................................................................................... 60

3.3.1 Graphite and Amorphous Carbon.................................................................. 60

3.3.2 Lithium Titanate (LTO) ................................................................................. 64

3.3.3 Lithium Alloys ............................................................................................... 65

3.3.4 Tin Composite Electrode (TCO) ................................................................... 65

3.3.5 Lithium Metal Nitrides .................................................................................. 66

3.3.6 Transition Metal Vanadates ........................................................................... 66

3.3.7 Nanocomposites ............................................................................................. 66

3.4 Electrolytes ............................................................................................................... 67

3.4.1 Liquid Electrolytes......................................................................................... 69

3.4.2 Solid Electrolytes ........................................................................................... 74

3.4.3 The Solid-Electrolyte Interface (SEI)............................................................ 75

3.5 Separators ................................................................................................................. 76

3.6 Outlook: Research Activities and Challenges ......................................................... 78

3.6.1 5 V Positive Electrode Materials................................................................... 79

3.6.2 Lithium_Sulfur Battery................................................................................. 80

Abbreviations............................................................................................................ 81

References................................................................................................................. 82

Further Reading ........................................................................................................ 82

CHAPTER 4 Safety Aspects of Lithium Primary Batteries ..................................... 83

Michael Pozin and Steven Wicelinski

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 84

4.2 Lithium Primary Cells’ Classification ..................................................................... 85

vi Contents

4.3 Composition of Popular Industrial and Military Lithium Primary Cells................ 88

4.4 Composition of Popular Commercial Lithium Primary Cells ................................ 88

4.5 Reactions Related to Thermal Runaway ................................................................. 88

4.5.1 Reactions of Lithium With Electrolyte ......................................................... 89

4.5.2 Reactions Involving Cathode Materials ........................................................ 92

4.5.3 Other Cathode Reactions Involving Current Collectors ............................... 92

4.5.4 Reaction of Active Cathode Material With Electrolyte

and Other Materials ....................................................................................... 93

4.5.5 Other Parasitic Reactions for Consideration ................................................. 94

4.6 Thermal Balance Considerations ............................................................................. 94

4.6.1 Electrochemical Reaction Contribution to Heat Balance ............................. 94

4.6.2 Electrochemical Polarization ......................................................................... 95

4.6.3 Mass Transport Polarization .......................................................................... 96

4.6.4 Heat Dissipation............................................................................................. 97

4.6.5 Heat of Parasitic Reactions............................................................................ 98

4.6.6 Thermal Modeling ......................................................................................... 99

4.7 Design and Process Considerations ......................................................................... 99

4.7.1 Electrolyte .................................................................................................... 99

4.7.2 Electrodes ................................................................................................... 100

4.7.3 PTC (Positive Thermal Coefficient).......................................................... 100

4.7.4 Cell Vent .................................................................................................... 101

4.7.5 Separator..................................................................................................... 102

4.7.6 Polymeric Components .............................................................................. 103

4.7.7 Metal Components ..................................................................................... 103

4.7.8 Interfacial Surface Area, Void Volume, and Anode

to Cathode Capacity Ratio......................................................................... 105

4.7.9 Electrode Assembly Design....................................................................... 106

4.7.10 Final Cell Design and Cell Conditioning .................................................. 107

4.8 Coin Cells ............................................................................................................... 107

4.9 Safety Tests and Requirements.............................................................................. 108

4.10 Summary................................................................................................................. 108

Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 109

Abbreviations and Symbols.................................................................................... 109

References............................................................................................................... 110

CHAPTER 5 Safety of Secondary-Lithium Batteries: An Introduction................. 113

Erik J. Spek

5.1 Hazards of Fossil Fuels and Batteries ................................................................... 113

5.2 Relative Safety Performance Through Standards.................................................. 114

5.3 Final Product Safety............................................................................................... 116

5.4 Automotive Traction Batteries Safety ................................................................... 116

Contents vii

5.5 Safety Testing......................................................................................................... 117

5.6 Battery Certification and Testing........................................................................... 121

5.7 Stationary Energy Storage ..................................................................................... 122

5.8 Consumer Battery Applications’ Safety ................................................................ 124

Abbreviations.......................................................................................................... 125

Relevant Standards ................................................................................................. 126

Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 126

CHAPTER 6 General Overview of Li-Secondary Battery Safety Issues ............... 127

Klaus Brandt and Ju¨rgen Garche

6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 127

6.2 Definition of Risks ................................................................................................. 129

6.2.1 Risks Originating From Batteries ................................................................ 129

6.2.2 Triggers of Risks.......................................................................................... 130

6.3 Sources of Risks Along the Value Chain .............................................................. 131

6.3.1 Manufacturers............................................................................................... 131

6.3.2 Users............................................................................................................. 135

6.3.3 Other Stakeholders....................................................................................... 136

Abbreviations.......................................................................................................... 140

References............................................................................................................... 141

CHAPTER 7 Lithium-Secondary Cell: Sources of Risks and Their Effects ......... 143

7A Sources of Risk ...................................................................................................... 145

Christopher Lyness

7A.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 145

7A.2 Conditions and Mechanisms That Cause Hazardous Energy

Release.......................................................................................................... 147

7A.3 Failure Pathway............................................................................................ 149

7A.3.1 Over-Temperature .........................................................................150

7A.3.2 Overcharge ....................................................................................152

7A.3.3 Overvoltage ...................................................................................155

7A.3.4 Undervoltage and Overdischarge (or Undercharge).....................155

7A.3.5 Overcurrent....................................................................................156

7A.3.6 In Situ Short Circuit......................................................................158

7A.3.7 Mechanical Failure........................................................................160

7A.3.8 Penetration.....................................................................................160

7A.3.9 Crush .............................................................................................162

7A.3.10 Manufacturing Induced Failures ...................................................163

7A.3.11 Multicell Failures ..........................................................................163

7A.4 Summary ...................................................................................................... 165

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 166

References .................................................................................................... 166

viii Contents

7B Risk Potentials by Materials .................................................................................. 167

Meike Fleischhammer

7B.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 167

7B.2 Safety Hazard of Cell Materials .................................................................. 167

7B.2.1 Cathode (Intercalation) Materials ...................................................167

7B.2.2 Anode...............................................................................................174

7B.2.3 Electrolyte........................................................................................181

7B.2.4 Inactive Components.......................................................................184

7B.3 Prospects to the Safety Hazard of Conversion Materials............................ 186

7B.4 Risk Potential at the Cell Level................................................................... 187

7B.5 Summary....................................................................................................... 189

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 189

References .................................................................................................... 190

7C Analysis of Gases Emitted in Safety Events ......................................................... 196

Michael Abert

7C.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 196

7C.2 Risk Potential at the Cell Level................................................................... 197

7C.3 Analytical Techniques for Qualitative and Quantitative

Determination of Gases Related to LIBs..................................................... 198

7C.4 Emitted Chemical Compounds .................................................................... 203

7C.5 Benefit of Time Resolved Analysis of Emitted Chemical

Compounds................................................................................................... 205

7C.6 Impact of the Kind of Abuse Test on Gas Emission Spectrum.................. 208

7C.7 Transfer of Laboratory Results to Automotive Application ....................... 209

7C.8 Full Scale Fire Test in Automotive Application of LIBs............................ 212

7C.9 Summary....................................................................................................... 213

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 214

References .................................................................................................... 214

Further Reading ........................................................................................... 215

7D Risks Due to Grown-in Internal Shorts ................................................................. 216

Brian Barnett, Christopher H. McCoy, David Ofer and Suresh Sriramulu

7D.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 216

7D.2 Grown-In Internal Shorts ............................................................................. 217

7D.2.1 Grown-In Internal Shorts: Field Failures .......................................217

7D.2.2 Impact/Penetration: Hard Internal Short Circuits...........................220

7D.2.3 Significance of the Magnitude of the Internal Short

Resistance........................................................................................222

7D.2.4 Contrasting Grown-In Internal Shorts to Mechanical Triggers .....223

7D.3 Cascading of Thermal Runaway in Battery Packs...................................... 224

7D.4 Framework for Grouping and Understanding Triggers and Risks.............. 224

7D.5 Conventional Approaches to Battery Monitoring for Safety ...................... 226

Contents ix

7D.6 Internal Short Circuit Detection Technologies............................................ 227

7D.6.1 Universal Detection Technology ....................................................228

7D.6.2 Real-Time Detection Technology...................................................230

7D.6.3 Examples of Implementations of Short Detection .........................231

7D.7 Measures to Avoid Thermal Runaway ........................................................ 234

7D.8 Summary ...................................................................................................... 237

References .................................................................................................... 238

7E Effect of Electrical Energy and Aging on Cell Safety.......................................... 239

Martin Gilljam, Helge Weydahl, Sissel Forseth, Preben J.S. Vie

and Torleif Lian

7E.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 239

7E.2 Effect of Cell Electrical Energy on Safety .................................................. 240

7E.2.1 Effect of Cell Size on Safety ..........................................................240

7E.2.2 Effect of Energy Density on Safety ................................................241

7E.2.3 Effect of SoC on Safety ..................................................................242

7E.3 Effect of Cell Aging on Safety .................................................................... 245

7E.3.1 Aging Factors ..................................................................................245

7E.3.2 Aging Mechanisms ..........................................................................246

7E.3.3 Thermal Stability of Aged Cells .....................................................256

7E.4 Summary....................................................................................................... 263

Abbrevations ................................................................................................ 263

References .................................................................................................... 264

Further Reading ........................................................................................... 266

CHAPTER 8 Managing Safety Risk by Manufacturers......................................... 267

8A Managing Safety Risk by Cell Manufacturers ...................................................... 269

Bor Yann Liaw, FuQing Wang and YiMin Wei

8A.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 269

8A.2 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) ................................................ 271

8A.3 Basic Considerations of Cell Safety ............................................................ 272

8A.3.1 Thermodynamics .............................................................................272

8A.3.2 Kinetics............................................................................................281

8A.3.3 Cell Design Metrics ........................................................................291

8A.4 Cell Packaging, Battery Management, and Abuse Prevention ................... 291

8A.4.1 Cell Fabrication, Quality Control, and Packaging .........................291

8A.4.2 Safety Devices.................................................................................292

8A.4.3 Battery Management .......................................................................293

8A.5 Quality Control, Storage, Maintenance, and Repair ................................... 296

8A.6 Failure Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis............................................... 296

8A.6.1 Ultrahigh Precision Charger (UHPC).............................................298

x Contents

8A.7 Conclusions .................................................................................................. 300

Acknowledgments........................................................................................ 300

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 300

References .................................................................................................... 301

8B Managing of Risk by Battery Manufacturers ........................................................ 303

Klaus Brandt, J ¨ org Schultheiß and Markus Schweizer-Berberich

8B.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 303

8B.2 Functional Safety.......................................................................................... 303

8B.2.1 Applicable Standards.......................................................................303

8B.2.2 Hazard Analysis of the Cell ............................................................306

8B.2.3 Technical Safety Concept at Cell Level .........................................308

8B.3 Safe Battery Pack Architecture.................................................................... 310

8B.3.1 System Overview ............................................................................310

8B.3.2 The Cell of Choice ..........................................................................313

8B.3.3 Module Concept ..............................................................................314

8B.4 Battery Management System ....................................................................... 316

8B.4.1 BMS Architecture............................................................................316

8B.4.2 Measurements..................................................................................316

8B.4.3 State Functions ................................................................................318

8B.4.4 Cell Maintenance.............................................................................319

8B.4.5 ASIL Decomposition.......................................................................319

8B.4.6 Mitigation of the Effect of Cell Failures ........................................320

8B.5 Thermal Management .................................................................................. 320

8B.6 Electromechanical Design............................................................................ 322

8B.6.1 General Electromechanical Layout.................................................322

8B.6.2 Insulation Coordination...................................................................323

8B.6.3 Coordination Between Contactors and Fuses: Battery

Junction Box....................................................................................323

8B.6.4 Contactors for HV Battery Systems ...............................................326

8B.6.5 Recent Approaches for the Electromechanics of a Battery

System .............................................................................................328

8B.7 Mechanical Design ....................................................................................... 330

8B.8 Summary....................................................................................................... 331

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 331

References .................................................................................................... 332

8C Managing of Risk by Car Manufacturers .............................................................. 336

Sonia Dandl, Thomas W¨ ohrle and Peter Lamp

8C.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 336

Contents xi

8C.2 Overview of Safety-Related Regulations, Standards and Norms

Regarding xEVs ........................................................................................... 338

8C.2.1 Comparison of Abuse Tests Specified in UN

ECE R 100-2, GB/T 31467.3-2015, and UN 38.3 .........................339

8C.2.2 ISO 26262........................................................................................341

8C.2.3 UN ECE R 100-2 ............................................................................341

8C.2.4 Crash Test Regulations ...................................................................342

8C.3 Ways to Manage Risks by xEV Design ...................................................... 344

8C.4 Allocation of Rescue Documents in Case of an Accident .......................... 346

8C.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................... 347

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 347

References .................................................................................................... 347

8D Managing of Risk by Manufacturers of Consumer Equipment ............................ 349

J.A. Jeevarajan

8D.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 349

8D.2 What is the Risk? ......................................................................................... 350

8D.3 Manufacturing Safety................................................................................... 351

8D.4 Design Safety ............................................................................................... 353

8D.5 The "Smart Circuit Board" .......................................................................... 356

8D.6 Recent Catastrophic Events ......................................................................... 358

8D.7 Consumer Cell and Battery Shipments........................................................ 361

8D.8 Summary and Recommendations ................................................................ 362

Acknowledgments........................................................................................ 362

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 362

References .................................................................................................... 363

8E Managing of Risk by Manufacturers of BESS...................................................... 365

Hilmi Buqa and Karl-Heinz Pettinger

8E.1 Introduction................................................................................................... 365

8E.1.1 Selection of the Cell Chemistry ......................................................366

8E.2 Electrical Risk Management ........................................................................ 368

8E.3 Thermal Risk Management .......................................................................... 371

8E.4 Minimizing Integration Risks and Applications .......................................... 373

8E.4.1 Battery Control System...................................................................373

8E.4.2 Installations in Buildings.................................................................373

8E.4.3 Marine Applications ........................................................................374

8E.5 Conclusions................................................................................................... 377

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 377

References .................................................................................................... 377

xii Contents

CHAPTER 9 Managing of Risks by Users and Stakeholders............................... 379

Klaus Brandt and Ju¨rgen Garche

9.1 General Safety Remarks for Users and Stakeholders............................................ 379

9.2 Users and Stakeholders of Portable Devices ......................................................... 380

9.3 Users and Stakeholders of XEVs........................................................................... 381

9.4 Users and Stakeholders of BESSs ......................................................................... 382

9.4.1 BESS—Home Installations.......................................................................... 382

9.4.2 BESS—Industrial Installations .................................................................... 384

9.5 Conclusions and Outlook ....................................................................................... 385

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 385

Abbreviations.......................................................................................................... 385

CHAPTER 10 Safety Tests for Li-Secondary Batteries .......................................... 387

10A Battery Safety Testing............................................................................................ 388

Detlef Hoffmann

10A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 388

10A.2 Test Objectives........................................................................................... 390

10A.3 Test Levels ................................................................................................. 391

10A.4 Device Under Test ..................................................................................... 393

10A.4.1 Battery System ............................................................................394

10A.4.2 Cell ..............................................................................................399

10A.4.3 Module.........................................................................................404

10A.5 Simulation of External Influences ............................................................. 407

10A.5.1 External Electrical Influences.....................................................407

10A.5.2 Mechanical Tests.........................................................................409

10A.5.3 Thermal .......................................................................................410

10A.5.4 Low Pressure Test.......................................................................411

10A.5.5 Accidents .....................................................................................411

10A.6 Observation of Hazard Levels, Events, and Test Criteria......................... 412

10A.7 Experimental Simulation of Internal States Which Impact

to Safety ..................................................................................................... 419

10A.7.1 Simulation of Internal Short Circuits (ICS) ...............................419

10A.8 Safety Requirements and Tests in Standards and Regulations ................. 422

10A.9 Outlook....................................................................................................... 425

Acknowledgment ......................................................................................... 426

Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 426

References .................................................................................................... 427

Further Reading ........................................................................................... 427

10B Modeling Safety Tests/Events ............................................................................... 428

Martin Petit, Guy Marlair, Sara Abada and Cao-Yang Wang

10B.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 428

Contents xiii

10B.2 Battery Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling ............................................. 428

10B.2.1 Nominal Conditions Electrothermal Modeling...........................430

10B.2.2 Thermal Runaway Modeling.......................................................438

10B.3 Safety Tests Modeling................................................................................ 443

10B.3.1 Triggering Events ........................................................................443

10B.3.2 Battery Parameters Determination ..............................................445

10B.4 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 450

Nomenclature ............................................................................................. 451

Roman Letters ........................................................................................451

Greek Letters ..........................................................................................451

Subscripts and Superscripts....................................................................452

Abbreviations ............................................................................................. 452

References .................................................................................................. 452

CHAPTER 11 Li-Secondary Battery: Special Risks................................................ 455

11A A Specific Risks During Transport and Storage ................................................... 456

George A. Kerchner and Ju¨rgen Garche

11A.1 Transport .................................................................................................... 456

11A.1.1 Introduction .................................................................................456

11A.1.2 Dangerous Goods ........................................................................458

11A.1.3 UN Lithium Battery Testing Requirements ...............................460

11A.1.4 Safe Shipping of Lithium Batteries ............................................461

11A.1.5 Approvals for Special Shipping of Lithium Batteries................467

11A.1.6 Lithium Batteries Permitted for Passengers in Aircraft .............468

11A.2 Storage (Written Only by J. Garche)......................................................... 469

Abbreviations.............................................................................................. 470

References .................................................................................................. 471

11B Specific Risks of Lithium Batteries at End of Life............................................... 472

Jean-Pol Wiaux

11B.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 472

11B.1.1 The Nature of Incidents ..............................................................474

11B.1.2 The Approach ..............................................................................476

11B.1.3 Battery Aging ..............................................................................477

11B.2 Legislative and Regulatory Framework..................................................... 477

11B.2.1 The EU Waste Framework Directive and the Daughter

Directives on Waste ....................................................................478

11B.2.2 The Waste Framework Directive ................................................478

11B.2.3 The End of Life Vehicle Directive .............................................479

11B.2.4 The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive .......479

11B.2.5 The Batteries Directive ...............................................................479

11B.2.6 The Basel Convention .................................................................480

xiv Contents

11B.2.7 The International Transport Regulation......................................481

11B.2.8 Note to the Reader: Hazardous Waste and Dangerous Goods...481

11B.3 Transport of Lithium Batteries for Disposal or Recycling ....................... 481

11B.3.1 Special Provisions SP377 and SP636 (B) (ADR)

for Lithium Batteries Transported for Disposal

or Recycling ................................................................................482

11B.3.2 Special Provision SP376 for the Transport of Damaged

and Defective Lithium Batteries .................................................484

11B.4 Communication Tools as Preventive Measures......................................... 486

11B.4.1 The Prevention and Response to Incidents.................................486

11B.4.2 Results of Tests ...........................................................................487

11B.4.3 Recalled Batteries........................................................................487

11B.4.4 Recommendations for the Safe Storage of Waste Lithium

Batteries .......................................................................................488

11B.4.5 Fire Fighting First Responders....................................................488

11B.4.6 Waste Batteries Collection Organization....................................488

11B.4.7 The Traffic Light Approach........................................................489

11B.5 Electrical Hazard Control: Technical Solutions ........................................ 490

11B.5.1 Electrical Hazard .........................................................................491

11B.5.2 Deactivation.................................................................................492

11B.5.3 Un Transport Regulation.............................................................493

11B.5.4 Use of Cushioning Material in Packaging and Storage .............493

11B.5.5 Wet Deactivation Via "Immersion"............................................494

11B.5.6 The Redox Shuttle Approach......................................................495

11B.5.7 Deactivation Through a Controlled Load...................................495

11B.5.8 Other Means to Deactivate a Battery..........................................495

11B.6 Reuse and Second Use ............................................................................... 496

11B.6.1 Definitions ...................................................................................498

11B.6.2 The Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) ...........................499

11B.6.3 EPR and Directives on New Products ........................................499

11B.6.4 EPR and Waste Directives ..........................................................500

11B.7 Conclusions ................................................................................................ 501

Acknowledgments ...................................................................................... 502

Abbreviations.............................................................................................. 503

References .................................................................................................. 503

CHAPTER 12 Li-Secondary Battery: Damage Control ............................................ 507

12A Handling of Safety Incidents ................................................................................. 510

Jens T ¨ ubke and Karsten Pinkwart

12A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 510

12A.2 General Risk From Lithium-Ion Batteries................................................. 511

Contents xv

12A.3 Handling of Safety Incidents ..................................................................... 511

12A.3.1 Incidents With Portable Applications.........................................511

12A.3.2 Incidents in Stationary Storage Devices.....................................513

12A.3.3 Incidents With Electric Vehicles ................................................515

12A.4 Summary .................................................................................................... 522

Abbreviations and Symbols ....................................................................... 522

References .................................................................................................. 522

12B Procedures for Incident Investigations .................................................................. 524

Christopher E. Hendricks and Daphne A. Fuentevilla

12B.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 524

12B.2 Failure Investigation Scope........................................................................ 527

12B.2.1 External to Battery ......................................................................528

12B.2.2 Internal to Battery .......................................................................529

12B.2.3 Cell...............................................................................................529

12B.2.4 Additional Considerations...........................................................529

12B.3 Clean-Up/Evidence Collection................................................................... 530

12B.3.1 Contact Stakeholders and Establish Roles..................................530

12B.3.2 Documenting the Scene...............................................................531

12B.3.3 Preserving Related Documents ...................................................531

12B.3.4 Forensics Data Package...............................................................532

12B.4 Postevent Forensics .................................................................................... 533

12B.4.1 Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques ......................................533

12B.4.2 Destructive Evaluation Techniques ............................................533

12B.5 Data Analysis and Investigation Conclusion............................................. 534

12B.6 The Future of Battery Incident Investigation ............................................ 534

12B.7 Summary..................................................................................................... 535

Abbreviations and Symbols ....................................................................... 535

References .................................................................................................. 535

Further Reading .......................................................................................... 536

12C Ignition and Extinction of Battery Fires................................................................ 537

Harry Doering, J ¨ urgen Garche and Verena Liebau

12C.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 537

12C.2 Combustible Materials and Their Reaction Products................................ 538

12C.2.1 Electrolyte....................................................................................539

12C.2.2 Cathode Materials .......................................................................541

12C.2.3 Anode Material............................................................................543

12C.3 Processes Leading to Fire .......................................................................... 544

12C.3.1 Cell Temperature.........................................................................544

12C.3.2 Critical Temperatures..................................................................546

12C.3.3 Autoignition Point (Kindling Point) ...........................................547

xvi Contents

12C.3.4 Flammability Limits and Oxygen Content .................................547

12C.3.5 Time Frame to Fire .....................................................................548

12C.4 Characterization of Fire ............................................................................. 548

12C.4.1 Heat Release ................................................................................549

12C.4.2 Time Frame of Fire .....................................................................550

12C.4.3 Mass Loss ....................................................................................552

12C.4.4 Gas/Aerosol Release....................................................................552

12C.4.5 Kinetically Energized Material Release .....................................553

12C.4.6 Classifying Fire Hazards .............................................................553

12C.5 Special Fires ............................................................................................... 554

12C.5.1 Fire by Thermal Runaway ..........................................................554

12C.5.2 Fire by Electrolyte Leakage........................................................554

12C.5.3 Low Oxygen Fire ........................................................................554

12C.5.4 Fire in Closed Rooms..................................................................554

12C.5.5 Fire With Chimney Effects .........................................................555

12C.5.6 Reignited Fire ..............................................................................555

12C.5.7 Fire Under Water.........................................................................555

12C.5.8 Li Metal Battery Fire ..................................................................555

12C.5.9 Fire Class of Combustible Materials ..........................................555

12C.6 Fire Extinguishing Agents.......................................................................... 556

12C.6.1 Water-Based Fire Extinguishing Agents ....................................558

12C.6.2 Fire Extinguishing Powders ........................................................559

12C.6.3 CO2, Inert Gases..........................................................................560

12C.6.4 Special Extinguishing Agents .....................................................561

12C.7 Failure Propagation .................................................................................... 563

12C.8 Strategies for Firefighters........................................................................... 564

12C.8.1 Protection Clothing .....................................................................564

12C.8.2 Fire Identification ........................................................................565

12C.8.3 Electrical Risk .............................................................................565

12C.8.4 Fire in Open Air ..........................................................................566

12C.8.5 Fire Reignition and Water Consumption....................................566

12C.8.6 Firefighting Water Contamination ..............................................567

12C.8.7 Airplane Fire................................................................................567

Abbreviations.............................................................................................. 568

References .................................................................................................. 568

12D Overview About Accidents: Selected Lessons Learned

From Prior Safety-Related Failures of Li-Ion Batteries........................................ 571

Xuning Feng, Minggao Ouyang and Languang Lu

12D.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 571

12D.2 An Overview on the Worldwide Accidents Caused

by Li-Ion Battery........................................................................................ 571

Contents xvii

12D.3 Selected Lessons Learned From Prior Safety Related Failures

of Li-Ion Batteries...................................................................................... 576

12D.3.1 The Li-Ion Battery Failure in Portable Electronic Devices .......576

12D.3.2 The Li-Ion Battery Failure in Electric Vehicles ........................585

12D.3.3 The Li-Ion Battery Failure in Aircraft........................................592

12D.4 Summary on the Failure of Li-Ion Batteries ............................................. 598

Acknowledgment........................................................................................ 600

Abbreviations.............................................................................................. 600

References .................................................................................................. 601

12E Legal Aspects on High-Voltage Batteries ............................................................. 603

J ¨ urgen Wilhelmy, Lars Hollmotz and Johanna Vogt

12E.1 Introduction................................................................................................. 603

12E.2 Legal Basis for Product Liability............................................................... 604

12E.2.1 Legal Basis ..................................................................................604

12E.2.2 Contract Law ...............................................................................606

12E.2.3 Tort Law ......................................................................................608

12E.2.4 Public Law: Product Safety Act (PSG)....................................... 609

12E.2.5 Criminal Law...............................................................................609

12E.3 The Legal Significance of Technical Standards ........................................ 610

12E.3.1 Difference Between Standard and Technical Legislation ..........610

12E.3.2 Term Definition "State of the Art" According to Legal

Requirements and Standards .......................................................610

12E.4 Types of Fault in the Life Cycle of High-Voltage Batteries..................... 611

12E.4.1 Developmental Errors..................................................................611

12E.4.2 Construction Errors......................................................................612

12E.4.3 Manufacturing Errors ..................................................................612

12E.4.4 Instruction Errors.........................................................................612

12E.4.5 Product Monitoring Errors ..........................................................613

12E.5 Legal Aspects Regarding ISO 26262......................................................... 613

12E.5.1 ISO 26262 in High-Voltage Battery Systems.............................613

12E.5.2 Differentiating Between Functional Safety and Other

Areas of Safety ............................................................................616

12E.6 Global Laws and Standards in E-Mobility ................................................ 617

12E.7 Safety Procedures for High-Voltage Batteries........................................... 621

12E.7.1 Technical Compliance .................................................................621

12E.7.2 The Role of the Safety Manager.................................................622

12E.7.3 Requirements of Quality Management .......................................623

12E.7.4 Production Management and Law ..............................................623

12E.7.5 Development Process of a Safe High-Voltage Battery ..............624

12E.8 Summary..................................................................................................... 627

xviii Contents

12E.9 Outlook ....................................................................................................... 627

Abbreviations.............................................................................................. 628

References .................................................................................................. 629

Further Reading.......................................................................................... 629

Index .................................................................................................................................................. 631


 

Details

No. of pages:
670
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2019
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444637772

About the Editor

Jürgen Garche

Jürgen Garche

Prof. Dr. Jürgen Garche has more than 40 years of experience in battery and fuel cell research & development. In his academic career the focus was on material research. Thereafter, he worked on and directed cell and system development of conventional (LAB, NiCd, NiMH) and advanced (Li-Ion, NaNiCl2, Redox-Flow) batteries. His experience includes also fuel cells (mainly low temperature FCs) and supercaps. He established the battery & FC division of the ZSW in Ulm (Germany), an industry related R&D institute with about 100 scientists and technicians. His interest in battery safety goes back to the work with the very large battery safety testing center of the ZSW. In 2004 he founded the FC&Battery consulting office FCBAT; furthermore he is a senior professor at Ulm University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fuel Cell and Battery Consulting, Ulm, Germany

Klaus Brandt

Dr. Klaus Brandt has over 35 years of experience in research, development and manufacturing of lithium and lithium ion batteries. He co-founded Moli Energy in Canada which produced the first rechargeable battery with a lithium metal anode. In the field of lithium ion batteries, he worked in various management positions for battery companies like Varta and Duracell. His last industrial position was with Clariant which produced cathode and anode active materials for lithium ion batteries.

Affiliations and Expertise

Previous affiliations with Moli Energy, Varta, Duracell, and Clariant

Ratings and Reviews