Safety Culture

Safety Culture

An Innovative Leadership Approach

1st Edition - August 7, 2013

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  • Authors: James Roughton, Nathan Crutchfield
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123972170
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780123964960

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Current safety and risk management guidelines necessitate that organizations develop and formally manage their understanding and knowledge of the standards and protocols of risk management. The impact of communication and human performance on the identification and control of hazards and associated risk must be addressed in a structured manner. This core reference provides a complete guide to creating a comprehensive and effective safety culture. Safety Culture is a reference for safety and risk professionals and a training text for corporate-based learners and students at university level. The book will keep safety and risk management professionals up-to-date and will provide the tools needed to develop consistent and effective organizational safety protocols.

Key Features

  • How to develop a foundation to improve the perception of safety, analyze the organizational culture and its impact on the safety management system, and review the importance of developing a influential network
  • Provides a format for establishing goals and objectives, discusses the impact of leadership on the safety management system and the roles and responsibilities needed as well as methods to gain employee participation
  • Tools to enhance the safety management system, the education and training of employees, how to assess the current safety management system, and the process of curation is introduced


Safety and Loss Prevention Specialists; Industrial Hygienists. Chemical Engineers, Process Engineers, Mechanical Engineers.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    Developing Mission and Intent – Building on the Basics


    Part 1 – Laying the Foundation

    Part 2, Safety Management Systems Defined

    Part 3, How to Handle the Perception of Risk

    Part 4, Tools to Enhance Your Safety Management System

    About the Authors




    Why Understanding Safety Management Systems and Safety Culture Matters

    Part 1: Laying the Foundation

    Chapter 1. The Perception of Safety


    Defining Safety

    The Perception of Safety

    Changing the Perception

    How Are You Perceived?

    Personal Branding

    What Is Your Mental Model?

    Safety—A Multi-Disciplinary Profession

    Safety at a Crossroads

    Safety Is an Espoused Value

    Do You Speak the Same Language?

    From Startup to Status Quo


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 2. Analyzing the Organizational Culture


    What Is Organizational Culture?

    Three Levels of Culture Defined

    Safety Culture Defined

    Assessing the Current Safety Culture

    Habits as Part of the Culture

    Possible Characteristics of a Culture

    National and Occupational Cultures

    Safety Culture as a Mission-Essential Business Priority

    Can You Change a Culture?

    Nine Warning Flag Factors That Defeat Control


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 3. Analyzing and Using Your Network


    The Importance of Networking

    Analyzing the Organizational Chart to Assess Your Network

    Defining the Organizational Network

    Reality Check Indicator

    Defining the Basics of Networking Theory

    The Safety Information Packet

    Changing Reality versus Perception

    Social Networking Analysis

    Social Network Mapping

    Defining the Roles Identified by the Network Map


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 4. Setting the Direction for the Safety Culture


    Charting Your Course—The Planning Process

    Vision/Mission, a Major Trait of Leadership

    Organizational Scope Drift

    Personal Scope Drift

    The Safety Policy Statement

    Communicating Your Safety Policy Statement

    Communicate by Action

    Aligning the Organization

    Defining Goals and Objectives

    Defining Goals That Improve the Safety Management System

    Defining Objectives

    Writing Your Objectives

    Communicating Your Goals and Objectives

    Reviewing Your Objectives

    Resistance to Goals and Objectives

    The Plan

    The Critical Part of Planning

    Communicate Your Plan


    Chapter Review Questions


    Part 2: Safety Management Systems Defined

    Chapter 5. Overview of Basic Safety Management Systems


    The Common Link between Safety Management Systems

    Management Leadership

    Employee Involvement

    Defining Roles and Responsibilities

    Hazard and Risk Assessment Identification and Analysis

    Hazard Prevention and Control

    Information and Training

    Training Programs

    Evaluation of Program Effectiveness


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 6. Selecting Your Process


    What Do All Safety Management Systems Have in Common?

    The PDCA Cycle

    Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control

    Benefits of Using a Standardized Safety Management System

    Pros and Cons of a Standardized Safety Management System

    Government- and Voluntary-Related Safety Management Systems

    Program Evaluation Profile

    Examples of Advanced Safety Management Systems


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 7. Leadership and the Effective Safety Culture


    Leadership Defined

    Leadership Impact on the Safety Management System

    Leadership and Organization Structure

    Leadership Expectations

    Establishing Organizational Priorities

    Management by Walking Around

    You Are Directly Responsible for Establishing Purpose

    Open Door Policy

    Defining Roles, Responsibility, Delegation, Authority, and Accountability

    Review Your Organization to Determine Safety-Related Tasks for Each Role

    The Value of Developing and Implementing Written Job Descriptions

    Writing the Basic Job Description

    Defining Clear Goals and Assigning Responsibilities

    Get in Agreement on Objectives

    Writing Your Objectives for Each Job Position

    Nonsupervisory Employees

    Review Assigned Activities Regularly

    Elements of Delegation

    Relationship between Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability

    Assigning Authority

    Defining Accountability

    Assigning Specific Responsibilities

    The Leadership Team




    Establish Consequences for Performance


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 8. Getting Your Employees Involved in the Safety Management System


    Reasons Employees Are Not Involved in the Safety Process

    Why Should All Employees Be Involved?

    Listen to Your Employees

    Getting Employees Involved in the Safety Process

    Guidelines for Employee Involvement

    “Just Ask” Your Employees to Get Involved

    Simple Beginnings Can Generate Major Impact

    Safety Committees

    Establishing the Team Charter

    Choosing Your Safety Committee Members

    The Central Safety Committee

    Permanent Subcommittees

    Publicity Committee

    Inspections and Walk-Throughs

    Loss-Producing Incident Reports

    Job Hazard Analysis

    Rules and Procedures

    Education and Training

    Follow-up Team

    Ad-hoc Committees


    Chapter Review Questions


    Part 3: How to Handle the Perception of Risk

    Chapter 9. Risk Perception—Defining How to Identify Personal Responsibility


    Why Do We Take Unnecessary Risk?

    Shifting the Thought Process to Risk

    Building the Foundation for Risk Perception

    Hazard Recognition Tools

    Risk Assessment Tool Defined

    Changing Perceptions

    Meeting and Getting to Sustainability

    Implementing the Risk Assessment Tool

    Hazard and Risk Defined

    Why Are Risk Analysis and Risk Reduction Important?

    Personal Risk Tolerance—How Do We Decide What Is a Risk?

    The Risk Assessment Tool Process—The Risk Guidance Card

    Risk Scoring


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 10. Risk Management Principles


    What Is Risk?

    Confusion over Definitions of Risk

    Obstacles to Risk Management

    Risk Assessment

    Acceptable Risk

    Management of Risk

    Example of Risk Acceptance

    Consider a Risk Spectrum


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 11. Developing an Activity-Based Safety System


    Activity-Based Safety System

    Advantage of Using ABSS

    How ABSS Works

    Safety Meetings

    Daily Preshift Review

    Multishift Operation

    Weekly Meetings

    Monthly Meetings

    One-on-One Discussions with Employees

    Safety Walk-through Tour

    Machine/Equipment-Specific Checklist

    Follow-up Team

    ABSS Roles and Responsibilities Defined


    Middle Management

    Upper Management

    Senior Management

    Site Safety Professionals

    Measuring the Success of ABSS

    Basic Tips for Using ABSS


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 12. Developing the Job Hazard Analysis


    Beginning the Job Hazard Analysis Process

    Why Is a JHA Important?

    Benefits of Developing JHAs

    Drawbacks of the JHA

    Why Is It Important to Get Employees Involved in the Process?

    Selecting a Team

    Building the Case for a JHA Process

    Selecting the Jobs for Analysis


    Chapter Review Questions


    Part 4: Tools to Enhance Your Safety Management System

    Chapter 13. Education and Training—Assessing Safety Training Needs


    Education and Safety Performance

    Conducting Education and Training Needs Assessment

    Understand the Direction of Training

    The Concepts of Education and Safety Training

    Course Development Process

    Developing Learning Activities

    Performance Deficiency

    Establishing Learning Objectives

    Guidelines for Writing Learning Objectives

    Target Audience

    Conducting Site-Specific Education and Training



    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 14. Assessing Your Safety Management System


    Planning for Your Safety Management System Assessment

    Avoiding a “Blame the System” Mentality

    Types of Safety Management Assessments

    Selecting the Assessment Team

    Preassessment Activities

    Opening Meeting

    Safety Management Safety System Assessment Activities

    Initial Location Tour

    Document Reviews

    Leadership and Employee Interviews

    Communication and Feedback

    Review of Site Conditions

    Presenting Results of the Safety Management System Assessment

    Developing the Action Plan

    Communicating the Assessment and the Action Plans

    Example Assessment and Action Plan


    Chapter Review Questions


    Chapter 15. Becoming a Curator for the Safety Management System


    The Importance of Becoming an Information Curator

    Function of a Safety Management System

    Researching and Curating Information

    New Concepts for Organizing Information

    Managing Safety Management System Data

    Step 1—Evaluate Your Data Needs

    Step 2—Establish a Plan

    Technology and the Safety Management System


    Chapter Review Questions


    Final Words: Organizing and Sharing

    An Approach to Organizing Information



    Appendix A Safety-Related Job Descriptions

    Example 1

    Example 2

    Example 3: Adapted from an Internet-Posted Safety Manager Job Description



    Appendix B Assessing the Perception about How You Are Perceived in the Organization

    Appendix C Safety Culture Traits and Indicators

    Appendix D 25 Ways to Know Your Safety Culture Is Awesome

    Appendix E NASA Culture as an Organizational Flaw

    Appendix F Sample Safety Policy (Managing Worker Safety and Health, n.d.)

    Appendix G Numerical and Descriptive Goals

    Numerical Goals

    Descriptive Goals

    Appendix H Comparison of Safety Management System Process Elements

    Appendix I Sample Safety Responsibilities Worksheet (Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

    Appendix J Sample Responsibilities for the Leadership Team (Managing Worker Safety and Health, Appendix 5.2, Sample Assignment of Safety And Health Responsibilities, Public Domain, Adapted for Use, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

    Appendix K Sample Responsibilities for Plant/Site Superintendents/Managers (Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

    Appendix L Sample Responsibilities for Supervision (“Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use”, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

    Appendix M Sample Responsibilities for Employees (“Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use”, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

    Appendix N Example of a Safety Committee Team Charter (“Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use”, n.d.; Roughton & Crutchfield, 2008)

    Appendix O Sample Activities and Results Measurements

    The Leadership Team

    Employee Involvement

    Hazard Recognition and Control

    Education and Training

    Appendix P

    Appendix Q Sample Manager/Supervisor Daily/Weekly/Monthly Safety Activity Report

    Appendix R Characteristics of Good Training Programs





    Appendix S Instructions for Using the Safety Management System Assessment Worksheet

    Attributes or Subelements in Each Category


    Rating Instructions

    Rating Cues


    Safety Management System Assessment Worksheet

    Appendix T Attributes of a Safety Management System (“58 Attributes of Excellence of a Safety, Health and Ergonomic Program”, n.d.; “Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program”, n.d.)

    Other Program Review Elements

    Appendix U

    Safety Management Perception Questionnaire


    Appendix V Example Safety Management System Assessment and Action Plan

    Measurement and Analysis

    Core Hazard and Risk Control Activities

    Tools for Use in Safety Management System

    Appendix W Google Search—Narrowing the Search Terms

    Explicit Phrase

    Exclude Words

    Site Specific Search

    Similar Words and Synonyms

    Specific Document Types

    This OR That

    Word Definitions




Product details

  • No. of pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2013
  • Published: August 7, 2013
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123972170
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780123964960

About the Authors

James Roughton

James Roughton CSP, CRSP, R-CHMM, CET, Certified Six Sigma Black Belt, is an experienced Safety Professional with in-depth knowledge of the use of Social Media to help improve productivity. He is an accomplished speaker, author, and writer who develops and manages his websites providing a resource network for small businesses,

Affiliations and Expertise

Safety professional and active member, Project Safe, Georgia Safety Advisory Board, Georgia Department of Labor, USA

Nathan Crutchfield

Nathan Crutchfield
Nathan Crutchfield CPCU, ARM, ARP, has provided expertise to a broad array of clients that include public entities, associations, and general industry. He was awarded the National Safety Council’s “Distinguished Service to Safety Award” in 2001 and served on the National Safety Council Board of Directors in 1993 to 1995; and was a Vice President, with major risk management and insurance brokerage for over 20 years. He co-authored Job Hazard Analysis, A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond.

Affiliations and Expertise

Formerly National Safety Council Board of Director

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