Rotary Kilns - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750678773, 9780080557120

Rotary Kilns

1st Edition

Transport Phenomena and Transport Processes

Authors: Akwasi Boateng Akwasi Boateng
eBook ISBN: 9780080557120
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 23rd January 2008
Page Count: 368
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Description

Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns.

Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation
Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation
Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame
Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications

Key Features

·Covers fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation ·Offers hard-to-find guidance on fuels used for rotary kilns, including fuel options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns ·Explains principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances

Readership

Professional Mechanical Engineers working in heating and drying processes; Chemical Engineers; Materials Engineers

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon
The Rotary Kiln Evolution Types of Rotary Kilns
Wet Kilns Long Kilns
Short Dry Kilns
Coolers and Dryers
References

Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation

Subtopics anticipated will include but not limited to the following: Bed Phenomenon
Geometrical Features and their Transport Effects Transverse Bed Motion
Experimental Observations of Transverse Flow Behavior
Axial Motion
Dimensionless Residence Time
References

Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena

Fluid Flow in Pipes - General Background
Basic Equations of Multicomponent Reacting Flows Development of a Turbulent Jet
Confined Jets
Swirling Jets
Precessing Jets
The Particle-laden Jet
Dust Entrainment
Induced Draft Fan
References

Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns

Flow of Granular Materials (Granular Flows)
The Equations of Motion for Granular Flows
Particulate Flow Behavior in Rotary Kilns
Overview of the Observed Flow Behavior in a Rotary Drums
Modeling the Granular Flow in the Transverse Plain Particulate Flow Model in Rotary Kilns
Model Description
Simplifying Assumptions
Governing Equations for Momentum Conservation Integral Equation for Momentum Conservation
Solution of the Momentum Equation in the Active Layer of the Bed Velocity Profile in the Active Layer
Density and Granular Temperature Profiles
An Analytical Expression for the Thickness of the Active Layer
Numerical Solution Scheme for the Momentum Equation
Model Results and Validation
Application of the Flow Model
References

Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation

Modeling of Particle Mixing and Segregation in Rotary Kilns Bed Segregation Model The Governing Equations for Segregation Boundary Conditions Solution of the Segregation Equation Numerical Solution of the Governing Equations Validation of the Segregation Model Application of Segregation Model References

Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame

Combustion
Mole and Mass Fractions
Combustion Chemistry
Practical Stoichiometry
Adiabatic flame temperature
Types of Fuels used in Rotary Kilns
Coal Types, Ranking, and Analysis
Petroleum Coke Combustion
Scrap Tire Combustion
Pulverized Fuel (coal/coke) Firing in Kilns
Pulverized Fuel Delivery and Firing Systems
Estimation of Combustion Air Requirement
Reaction Kinetics of Carbon Particles
Fuel Oil Firing
Combustion Modeling
Flow Visualization Modeling (Acid Alkali Modeling) Mathematical Modeling including CFD
Gas-Phase Conservation Equations used in CFD Modeling
Particle-Phase Conservation Equations used in CFD Modeling
Emissions Modeling
CFD Evaluation of a Rotary Kiln Pulverized Fuel Burner
Reference

Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer

Overview of Heat Transfer Mechanisms Conduction Heat Transfer Convection Heat Transfer Conduction-Convection Problems Shell Losses Refractory Lining Materials Radiation Heat Transfer The concept of blackbody Radiation Shape Factors Radiation Exchange Between Multiple Gray Surfaces Radiative Effect of Combustion Gases Heat Transfer Coefficients for Radiation in the Freeboard of a Rotary Kiln Radiative Exchange from the Freeboard Gas to Exposed Bed and Wall Surfaces Radiative Heat Transfer among Exposed Freeboard Surfaces Reference

Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed

Heat Transfer between the Covered Wall and the Bed Modified Penetration Model for Rotary Kiln Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer Effective Thermal Conductivity of Packed Beds Effective Thermal Conductivity in Rotating Bed Mode Thermal Modeling of Rotary Kiln Processes Description of the Thermal Model One-dimensional Thermal Model for Bed and Freeboard Two-dimensional Thermal Model for the Bed The Combined Axial and Cross-sectional Model – The Quasi 3-Dimensional Model for the Bed Solution Procedure Model Results and Application Single-Particle Heat transfer Modeling for Expanded Shale Processing Reference

Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance

Chemical Thermodynamics Gibbs Free Energy and Entropy Global Heat and Material Balance Thermal Module for Chemically Reactive System Mass Balance Inputs Chemical Compositions Energy Balance Inputs

Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications

Lime Making Limestone Dissociation (Calcination) The rotary Lime Kiln The Cement Making Process The Cement Process chemistry Rotary Cement Kiln Energy Usage Mineral Ore Reduction Processes in Rotary Kilns The Rotary Kiln SL/RN Process Roasting of Titaniferous Materials The Rotary Kiln Lightweight Aggregate Making Process Raw Material Characterization Mineralogy Thermal History References

Appendices

Details

No. of pages:
368
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2008
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9780080557120

About the Author

Akwasi Boateng

Dubbed “the kiln doctor”, Dr. Boateng has an MS in thermo-fluids mechanics, and a Ph.D. in metals and materials process engineering with a focus on rotary kilns from the University of New Brunswick. He has authored and/or co-authored over 90 peer reviewed publications on energy, biofuels and biochemicals, minerals and materials process engineering in flagship journals. Dr. Boateng is now a Lead Scientist with the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA pursuing research in biofuels and bioenergy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Thermochemical Conversion Science & Engineering, Sustainable Biofuels & Co-Products Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA

Akwasi Boateng

Dubbed “the kiln doctor”, Dr. Boateng has an MS in thermo-fluids mechanics, and a Ph.D. in metals and materials process engineering with a focus on rotary kilns from the University of New Brunswick. He has authored and/or co-authored over 90 peer reviewed publications on energy, biofuels and biochemicals, minerals and materials process engineering in flagship journals. Dr. Boateng is now a Lead Scientist with the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA pursuing research in biofuels and bioenergy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Thermochemical Conversion Science & Engineering, Sustainable Biofuels & Co-Products Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA