Rotary Kilns

Rotary Kilns

Transport Phenomena and Transport Processes

1st Edition - January 23, 2008

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  • Authors: Akwasi Boateng, Akwasi Boateng
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080557120

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Description

Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns.Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & PhenomenonChapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic PhenomenaChapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary KilnsChapter 5: Mixing & Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat TransferChapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln BedChapter 9: Mass & Energy BalanceChapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications

Key Features

·Covers fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation
·Offers hard-to-find guidance on fuels used for rotary kilns, including fuel options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns
·Explains principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances

Readership

•Professional Mechanical Engineers working in heating and drying processes; Chemical Engineers; Materials Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon
    *The Rotary Kiln Evolution
    *Types of Rotary Kilns
    *Wet Kilns
    *Long Kilns
    Short Dry Kilns
    Coolers and Dryers
    References

    Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation

    Subtopics anticipated will include but not limited to the following:
    Bed Phenomenon
    Geometrical Features and their Transport Effects
    Transverse Bed Motion
    Experimental Observations of Transverse Flow Behavior
    Axial Motion
    Dimensionless Residence Time
    References

    Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena

    Fluid Flow in Pipes - General Background
    Basic Equations of Multicomponent Reacting Flows
    Development of a Turbulent Jet
    Confined Jets
    Swirling Jets
    Precessing Jets
    The Particle-laden Jet
    Dust Entrainment
    Induced Draft Fan
    References


    Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns

    Flow of Granular Materials (Granular Flows)
    The Equations of Motion for Granular Flows
    Particulate Flow Behavior in Rotary Kilns
    Overview of the Observed Flow Behavior in a Rotary Drums
    Modeling the Granular Flow in the Transverse Plain
    Particulate Flow Model in Rotary Kilns
    Model Description
    Simplifying Assumptions
    Governing Equations for Momentum Conservation
    Integral Equation for Momentum Conservation
    Solution of the Momentum Equation in the Active Layer of the Bed
    Velocity Profile in the Active Layer
    Density and Granular Temperature Profiles
    An Analytical Expression for the Thickness of the Active Layer
    Numerical Solution Scheme for the Momentum Equation
    Model Results and Validation
    Application of the Flow Model
    References

    Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation

    Modeling of Particle Mixing and Segregation in Rotary Kilns
    Bed Segregation Model
    The Governing Equations for Segregation
    Boundary Conditions
    Solution of the Segregation Equation
    Numerical Solution of the Governing Equations
    Validation of the Segregation Model
    Application of Segregation Model
    References

    Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame

    Combustion
    Mole and Mass Fractions
    Combustion Chemistry
    Practical Stoichiometry
    Adiabatic flame temperature
    Types of Fuels used in Rotary Kilns
    Coal Types, Ranking, and Analysis
    Petroleum Coke Combustion
    Scrap Tire Combustion
    Pulverized Fuel (coal/coke) Firing in Kilns
    Pulverized Fuel Delivery and Firing Systems
    Estimation of Combustion Air Requirement
    Reaction Kinetics of Carbon Particles
    Fuel Oil Firing
    Combustion Modeling
    Flow Visualization Modeling (Acid Alkali Modeling)
    Mathematical Modeling including CFD
    Gas-Phase Conservation Equations used in CFD Modeling
    Particle-Phase Conservation Equations used in CFD Modeling
    Emissions Modeling
    CFD Evaluation of a Rotary Kiln Pulverized Fuel Burner
    Reference

    Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer

    Overview of Heat Transfer Mechanisms
    Conduction Heat Transfer
    Convection Heat Transfer
    Conduction-Convection Problems
    Shell Losses
    Refractory Lining Materials
    Radiation Heat Transfer
    The concept of blackbody
    Radiation Shape Factors
    Radiation Exchange Between Multiple Gray Surfaces
    Radiative Effect of Combustion Gases
    Heat Transfer Coefficients for Radiation in the Freeboard of a Rotary Kiln
    Radiative Exchange from the Freeboard Gas to
    Exposed Bed and Wall Surfaces
    Radiative Heat Transfer among Exposed Freeboard Surfaces
    Reference

    Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed

    Heat Transfer between the Covered Wall and the Bed
    Modified Penetration Model for Rotary Kiln Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer
    Effective Thermal Conductivity of Packed Beds
    Effective Thermal Conductivity in Rotating Bed Mode
    Thermal Modeling of Rotary Kiln Processes
    Description of the Thermal Model
    One-dimensional Thermal Model for Bed and Freeboard
    Two-dimensional Thermal Model for the Bed
    The Combined Axial and Cross-sectional Model –
    The Quasi 3-Dimensional Model for the Bed
    Solution Procedure
    Model Results and Application
    Single-Particle Heat transfer Modeling for Expanded Shale Processing
    Reference

    Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance

    Chemical Thermodynamics
    Gibbs Free Energy and Entropy
    Global Heat and Material Balance
    Thermal Module for Chemically Reactive System
    Mass Balance Inputs
    Chemical Compositions
    Energy Balance Inputs

    Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications

    Lime Making
    Limestone Dissociation (Calcination)
    The rotary Lime Kiln
    The Cement Making Process
    The Cement Process chemistry
    Rotary Cement Kiln Energy Usage
    Mineral Ore Reduction Processes in Rotary Kilns
    The Rotary Kiln SL/RN Process
    Roasting of Titaniferous Materials
    The Rotary Kiln Lightweight Aggregate Making Process
    Raw Material Characterization
    Mineralogy
    Thermal History
    References

    Appendices

Product details

  • No. of pages: 368
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2008
  • Published: January 23, 2008
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080557120

About the Authors

Akwasi Boateng

Dubbed “the kiln doctor”, Dr. Boateng has an MS in thermo-fluids mechanics, and a Ph.D. in metals and materials process engineering with a focus on rotary kilns from the University of New Brunswick. He has authored and/or co-authored over 90 peer reviewed publications on energy, biofuels and biochemicals, minerals and materials process engineering in flagship journals. Dr. Boateng is now a Lead Scientist with the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA pursuing research in biofuels and bioenergy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Thermochemical Conversion Science and Engineering, Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, USA

Akwasi Boateng

Dubbed “the kiln doctor”, Dr. Boateng has an MS in thermo-fluids mechanics, and a Ph.D. in metals and materials process engineering with a focus on rotary kilns from the University of New Brunswick. He has authored and/or co-authored over 90 peer reviewed publications on energy, biofuels and biochemicals, minerals and materials process engineering in flagship journals. Dr. Boateng is now a Lead Scientist with the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA pursuing research in biofuels and bioenergy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Thermochemical Conversion Science and Engineering, Sustainable Biofuels and Co-Products Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, USA

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