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Food Science and Technology International Series
List of Contributors
History of ‘Allergy’ Labeling
Where are we now – The Book
Section 1: Food Allergy: Causes, Prevalence, and Impacts
Chapter one. Living with Food Allergy: Cause for Concern
Qualitative Studies on the Impact of Food Allergy on HRQL
Children and Teens: The Evolution of Uncertainty
The Parental Perspective: Living with Uncertainty
The Parental Perspective: Quantitative
The Child, Adolescent, and Adult Perspective: Quantitative
Improving Risk Management and HRQL: A Better Way?
Chapter two. Which Foods Cause Food Allergy and How Is Food Allergy Treated?
Foods Involved in Allergic Reactions
Symptoms and Severity of Food Allergy
Chapter three. The Epidemiology of Food Allergy
Time Trends of Food Allergy Prevalence and Health Care Utilization
Risk Factors for Food Allergy
The Natural History of Food Allergies
The Consequences of Food Allergy
Section 2: Allergen Thresholds and Risk Assessment
Chapter four. How to Determine Thresholds Clinically
Introduction and Definitions
Meal, Source Material, and the Matrix Issue
Factors Affecting the Outcome of Challenges
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Patients to Undergo Titrated Challenges
Safety Aspects of Titrated DBPCFC
Pre- and Post-Challenge Assessments of Patients
Which Symptom Defines the Individual Threshold Dose?
Challenge Protocols and Dosing
An Open Food Challenge Always Has to Follow a Negative DBPCFC
Chapter five. Thresholds or ‘How Much Is Too Much?’
What is Meant by Thresholds in the Context of Food Allergy and Allergens?
Thresholds Before EuroPrevall: What Data Were Available and How Useful Were They for Risk Assessment?
How Have Threshold Data Been Generated? Protocols and Their Evolution
Factors Affecting the Outcome of Challenge Studies and the Type of Data Generated
Tools for the Analysis of Threshold Data
Chapter six. From Hazard to Risk – Assessing the Risk
Why and When is it Necessary to Estimate the Risk from Allergenic Food?
Safety Assessment in Food Allergy Using One Data Point (NOAEL or LOAEL) and an Estimated Food Consumption
Safety Assessment in Food Allergy Based on All Available Challenge Data and an Estimated Intake Food Consumption (Benchmark Dose/Margin of Exposure Approach)
Risk Assessment in Food Allergy Based on the Distribution of Input Data (Challenge, Contamination, Consumption) (Probabilistic Approach)
Examples of Risk Assessments Using All Three Approaches
Summary of Risk Assessment Examples
Severity Considerations in Risk Assessment
Section 3: Risk Management of Gluten
Chapter seven. Celiac Disease and Risk Management of Gluten
Definition of Celiac Disease
Wheat (Food) Allergy
Diagnosis of Celiac Disease
A Public Health Problem
Time, Place, and Person
A Multifactorial Etiology
Living with Celiac Disease
Risk Assessment in Celiac Disease
How to Keep Celiac Customers Happy and Safe?
Perspectives for the Future
Section 4: Practical Food Allergen Risk Management
Chapter eight. Food Allergen Risk Management in the Factory – From Ingredients to Products
Allergen Risk Management: Principles and Systems
Employee Training and Awareness
Ingredients/Raw Materials – Suppliers, Storage, and Handling
Production – Material Flow, Factory and Equipment Design, Product Scheduling, and Rework
Production – Cleaning and Cleaning Validation
Chapter nine. Managing Food Allergens: Case Histories and How They Were Handled
Case Study 1 – Supply Chain
Case Study 2 – Supply Chain, Manufacturing – ‘All Nuts are Equal’
Case Study 3 – Labeling
Case Study 4 – Manufacturing (Large Company)
Case Study 5 – Manufacturing (Rework)
Case Study 6 – Manufacturing and Design – ‘Nut Snow’
Case Study 7 – Manufacturing (Small Company)
Case Study 8 – Allergen Awareness – ‘No Protein = No Food Allergen: True or False?’
Case Study 9 – Product Development, Training, Allergen Awareness: – ‘Food Allergens: Never Heard of Them!’
Case Study 10 – Training, Allergen Awareness, and Supplier Verification
Case Study 11 – Auditor’s Allergen Awareness and Understanding
Case Study 12 – An Ethical Dilemma
Chapter ten. Catering – How to Keep Allergic Consumers Happy and Safe
Why Do Consumers Currently Not Have the Information They Need to Make Safe Choices When Eating Out?
What Is the Current Legal Position and Are Any Changes Expected?
Best Practice Guidance Published by the UK Food Standards Agency in 2008 on the Provision of Allergen Information for Non-Pre-Packed Foods
The Responsibilities of the Food Allergic Consumer
Future Developments and Recommendations
Chapter eleven. Food Allergen Risk Management in the United States and Canada
US National Food Allergen Risk Management
US State and Local Allergen Risk Management
Canadian National Allergen Risk Management
Chapter twelve. The Importance of Food Allergy Training for Environmental Health Service Professionals
The Effectiveness of an Avoidance Diet
Legislative Basis for the Risk Management of Food Allergens
The Role of the EHO in the Risk Management of Food Allergens
Deficits in Training Resources for Catering Staff
Deficits in Food Allergy Awareness Among Catering Staff
A Food Allergy Training Program for the Island of Ireland
Chapter thirteen. Detecting and Measuring Allergens in Food
Immunochemical Methods for the Detection of Food Allergens
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Chapter fourteen. Effect of Processing on the Allergenicity of Foods
Effects of Processing Major Allergenic Foods of Plant Origin
Whole Food Effects of Food Processing
Chapter fifteen. Communication with Food Allergic Consumers: A Win-Win Experience
Start with the Basic Fact That Education and Sensitivity Training Related to Food Allergic Consumers Must Be Holistic and Inclusive
Putting the Program into Practice and Selling the Benefits Beyond Your Company
Conclusion and Summary
Chapter sixteen. May Contain – To Use or Not?
History and Origins of Precautionary Labeling
Legal and Regulatory Status of Precautionary Allergen Labeling
How to Determine the Tolerable Level of Risk
VITAL and a Threshold-Based Approach to Risk Assessment
The Future of Precautionary Statements
Chapter seventeen. Regulatory Controls for Food Allergens
How Best to Protect the Public at Risk from Adverse Reactions to the Major Food Allergens?
Why Do We Need Specific Allergen Labeling Rules?
European Legislation Regarding Food Allergen Risk Communication
‘Gluten-Free’ and Other ‘Free from’ Claims
Regulatory Lists Around the World
What is not Covered by Legislation?
Chapter eighteen. Keeping Updated
The Allergen Bureau (Australia)
The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Catering for Allergy (UK)
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
The European Food Safety Authority
Food Allergy Information (EU)
The Food Allergy Research and Resource Program (US)
Food Allergy Support (UK)
Food and Drug Administration (US)
The Food Standards Agency (UK)
The InformAll Database (UK)
Food Science and Technology International Series
Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers.
With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining appropriate "safe" thresholds of ingredients, the food industry must take increasingly proactive steps to avoid direct or cross-contamination as well as ensuring that their products are appropriately labeled and identified for those at risk.
This book covers a range of critical topics in this area, including the epidemiology of food allergy, assessing allergen thresholds and risk, specifics of gluten management and celiac disease, and much more. The practical advice on factory risk management, catering industry practices, allergen detection and measurement and regulatory controls is key for food industry professionals as well as regulators in government and other public bodies.
- Science-based insights into the potential risks of food allergens
- Focused section on determining thresholds
- Practical guidance on food allergen risk management, including case studies
Persons involved in managing the risk of food allergy in industry, government and other public bodies (control) and catering (not patients managing their own risk)
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2014
- 25th November 2013
- Academic Press
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Soborg, Denmark
Unilever, Safety & Environmental Assurance Centre, Bedford, UK
Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, UK
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA
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