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Risk Assessment and Management of Repetitive Movements and Exertions of Upper Limbs
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Ergonomics and the Aim Of This Hand Book
Definition and aims of ergonomics
Fields of application within the european technical regulation
A changing profession: from time and methods analysts to experts in work organization (N. Murikoff)
The tasks of the Time and Methods analyst
Involvement and responsibility: the new frontiers of industrial work
Contents and scope of the handbook
Chapter 2: Musculoskeletal Diseases Due to Biomechanical Overload
WMSD prevalence data over an italian reference sample
Pathogenesis of WMSDs tissue alterations
Chapter 3: Establishing the Presence of Risk and the Subsequent Means of Intervention
OCRA Risk Index
Chapter 4: The General Model of Exposure Analysis: Relevant Definitions and Their Interaction With Job Analysis Using the Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) System
The general model for exposure analysis and related definitions
The MTM system and its interaction with an analysis of biomechanical overload risks (M. Fanti, N. Murikoff)
Chapter 5: Work Organization Analysis: Task Analysis, Cycle Time and Rest Periods
Chapter 6: Analysis of Repetitiveness and Frequency of Action
Calculation of action frequency
Methods of analysis of action frequency for working cycles of long duration
Chapter 7: Analysis and Quantification of Force Using the Borg Scale
Application of the Borg scale and estimation of physical effort
Chapter 8: Analysis and Evaluation of Working Postures
Chapter 9: Definition and Quantification of Additional Risk Factors
Chapter 10: Analysis and Evaluation of Recovery Periods
Evaluation of recovery periods in tasks including dynamic actions
Some practical comments
An evaluation of recovery periods referring to maintenance actions (or static actions)
Chapter 11: Proposed Concise Index for the Assessment of Exposure to Repetitive Movements of the Upper Limbs (OCRA Index)
Risk assessment indexes in the literature
The reference framework for the calculation model
Criteria and procedures for determining the variables involved calculating the exposure index
A practical example of how to calculate the OCRA index
First validations of the OCRA Risk Index and predictive models
Association between OCRA, WMSDS occurence and predictive models
OCRA Values, exposure areas and consequent actions
Chapter 12: A Check-List Model for the Quick Evaluation of Risk Exposure (OCRA Index)
The recovery periods factor (Form 1)
Action frequency (Form 2)
The use of force (Form 2)
The presence of awkward postures (Form 3)
Calculating the check-list risk index for the work-place
Calculation of the risk index expressed by the check-list according to operators exposure levels
Chapter 13: European Technical Standards in Ergonomics
Recommended force limits for machine operations (pr en 1005 – 3)
Evaluation of working postures with reference to the use of a machine (pr EN – 1005-4)
Anthropometric data (EN 547-3)
Anthropometric requirements for designing work-places at machinery (pr EN ISO 14738)
Principles for ergonomic design: interaction between machine design and related working tasks
Chapter 14: Guidelines For Designing Jobs Featuring Repetitive Tasks
Step A: analysis of “useless” technical actions
Step B: analysis of upper limb use when performing technical actions
Step C: analysis of “identical” technical actions
Step D: analysis of “auxiliary” actions
Step E: when jobs need to be split
a) Training for factory workers.
b) Training for production engineers and supervisors.
c) Training for management.
Example of how to use the OCRA Index to redesign a workstation
Chapter 15: A Longitudinal Study of Workers With Wmsds After Returning To A Redesigned Workstation: Criteria For the Return of Workers to the Workforce
The redesign of tasks
Timetable for returning WMSD-affected workers to the workforce
Health care monitoring: cases and methods of diseases classification
Preliminary results of the health care monitoring programme
Results of longitudinal study of WMSD subjects at redesigned and non-redesigned workstations
Addendum: Forms and Checklists
In industrialised countries, musculo-skeletrical disorders of the upper limbs represent one of the commonest work-related diseases. All working activities habitually requiring repetitive upper limb movements and exertions represent a potential risk for these disorders under certain conditions. This practical manual provides a clear and detailed solution to the problem of assessing and consequently managing these risks in conformity with European Union legislation covering the safety and protection of workers' health. The book contains many tables, diagrams and schedules, enhancing its practical value. The methods it proposes for analyzing and designing or redesigning jobs and tasks do not require sophisticated equipment and are largely based on situations encountered in large manufacturing factories. Since risk analysis also concerns how jobs and tasks are organized, many concepts and terms are defined that prevention experts can share with those responsible for planning and organizing manufacturing activities on the shop floor.
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 2002
- 23rd April 2002
- Elsevier Science
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
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