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Risk Assessment and Management of Repetitive Movements and Exertions of Upper Limbs - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080440804, 9780080540603

Risk Assessment and Management of Repetitive Movements and Exertions of Upper Limbs, Volume 2

1st Edition

Job Analysis, Ocra Risk Indicies, Prevention Strategies and Design Principles

Author: Daniela Colombini
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080440804
eBook ISBN: 9780080540603
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 23rd April 2002
Page Count: 210
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Table of Contents

Risk Assessment and Management of Repetitive Movements and Exertions of Upper Limbs



Chapter 1: An Introduction to Ergonomics and the Aim Of This Hand Book

Definition and aims of ergonomics

Fields of application within the european technical regulation

A changing profession: from time and methods analysts to experts in work organization (N. Murikoff)

The tasks of the Time and Methods analyst

Involvement and responsibility: the new frontiers of industrial work

Contents and scope of the handbook

Chapter 2: Musculoskeletal Diseases Due to Biomechanical Overload



WMSD prevalence data over an italian reference sample

Pathogenesis of WMSDs tissue alterations

Chapter 3: Establishing the Presence of Risk and the Subsequent Means of Intervention

OCRA Risk Index


Chapter 4: The General Model of Exposure Analysis: Relevant Definitions and Their Interaction With Job Analysis Using the Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) System

The general model for exposure analysis and related definitions

The MTM system and its interaction with an analysis of biomechanical overload risks (M. Fanti, N. Murikoff)

Chapter 5: Work Organization Analysis: Task Analysis, Cycle Time and Rest Periods

Chapter 6: Analysis of Repetitiveness and Frequency of Action

General indications

Calculation of action frequency

Methods of analysis of action frequency for working cycles of long duration

Chapter 7: Analysis and Quantification of Force Using the Borg Scale

Preliminary data

Application of the Borg scale and estimation of physical effort

Chapter 8: Analysis and Evaluation of Working Postures

Chapter 9: Definition and Quantification of Additional Risk Factors

Chapter 10: Analysis and Evaluation of Recovery Periods


Evaluation of recovery periods in tasks including dynamic actions

Some practical comments

An evaluation of recovery periods referring to maintenance actions (or static actions)

Chapter 11: Proposed Concise Index for the Assessment of Exposure to Repetitive Movements of the Upper Limbs (OCRA Index)

Risk assessment indexes in the literature

The reference framework for the calculation model

Criteria and procedures for determining the variables involved calculating the exposure index

A practical example of how to calculate the OCRA index

First validations of the OCRA Risk Index and predictive models

Association between OCRA, WMSDS occurence and predictive models

OCRA Values, exposure areas and consequent actions

Chapter 12: A Check-List Model for the Quick Evaluation of Risk Exposure (OCRA Index)

The recovery periods factor (Form 1)

Action frequency (Form 2)

The use of force (Form 2)

The presence of awkward postures (Form 3)

Additional factors

Calculating the check-list risk index for the work-place

Calculation of the risk index expressed by the check-list according to operators exposure levels

Chapter 13: European Technical Standards in Ergonomics


Recommended force limits for machine operations (pr en 1005 – 3)

Evaluation of working postures with reference to the use of a machine (pr EN – 1005-4)

Anthropometric data (EN 547-3)

Anthropometric requirements for designing work-places at machinery (pr EN ISO 14738)

Principles for ergonomic design: interaction between machine design and related working tasks

Chapter 14: Guidelines For Designing Jobs Featuring Repetitive Tasks


Structural measures

Organizational measures

Step A: analysis of “useless” technical actions

Step B: analysis of upper limb use when performing technical actions

Step C: analysis of “identical” technical actions

Step D: analysis of “auxiliary” actions

Step E: when jobs need to be split

Training programmes

a) Training for factory workers.

b) Training for production engineers and supervisors.

c) Training for management.


Example of how to use the OCRA Index to redesign a workstation

Chapter 15: A Longitudinal Study of Workers With Wmsds After Returning To A Redesigned Workstation: Criteria For the Return of Workers to the Workforce


The redesign of tasks

Timetable for returning WMSD-affected workers to the workforce

Health care monitoring: cases and methods of diseases classification

Preliminary results of the health care monitoring programme

Results of longitudinal study of WMSD subjects at redesigned and non-redesigned workstations


Essential References

Addendum: Forms and Checklists


In industrialised countries, musculo-skeletrical disorders of the upper limbs represent one of the commonest work-related diseases. All working activities habitually requiring repetitive upper limb movements and exertions represent a potential risk for these disorders under certain conditions. This practical manual provides a clear and detailed solution to the problem of assessing and consequently managing these risks in conformity with European Union legislation covering the safety and protection of workers' health. The book contains many tables, diagrams and schedules, enhancing its practical value. The methods it proposes for analyzing and designing or redesigning jobs and tasks do not require sophisticated equipment and are largely based on situations encountered in large manufacturing factories. Since risk analysis also concerns how jobs and tasks are organized, many concepts and terms are defined that prevention experts can share with those responsible for planning and organizing manufacturing activities on the shop floor.


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2002
23rd April 2002
Elsevier Science
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

Daniela Colombini