Risk Analysis and Control for Industrial Processes - Gas, Oil and Chemicals

Risk Analysis and Control for Industrial Processes - Gas, Oil and Chemicals

A System Perspective for Assessing and Avoiding Low-Probability, High-Consequence Events

1st Edition - June 14, 2015

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  • Author: Hans Pasman
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000571
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128009123

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Risk Analysis and Control for Industrial Processes - Gas, Oil and Chemicals provides an analysis of current approaches for preventing disasters, and gives readers an overview on which methods to adopt.   The book covers safety regulations, history and trends, industrial disasters, safety problems, safety tools, and capital and operational costs versus the benefits of safety, all supporting project decision processes.    Tools covered include present day array of risk assessment, tools including HAZOP, LOPA and ORA, but also new approaches such as System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), Blended HAZID, applications of Bayesian data analytics, Bayesian networks, and others. The text is supported by valuable examples to help the reader achieve a greater understanding on how to perform safety analysis, identify potential issues, and predict the likelihood they may appear.

Key Features

  • Presents new methods on how to identify hazards of low probability/high consequence events
  • Contains information on how to develop and install safeguards against such events, with guidance on how to quantify risk and its uncertainty, and how to make economic and societal decisions about risk
  • Demonstrates key concepts through the use of examples and relevant case studies


Safety professionals and consultants, risk analysts, process safety academics, engineering professionals

Table of Contents

    • Foreword
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1. Industrial Processing Systems, Their Products and Hazards
      • Introductory remarks
      • 1.1. General global outlook
      • 1.2. Ammonium nitrate
      • 1.3. Ammonia
      • 1.4. Petrochemicals
      • 1.5. Gasoline
      • 1.6. Natural gas
      • 1.7. Liquefied petroleum gas
      • 1.8. Hydrogen
      • 1.9. Dust explosions
      • 1.10. Runaway reactions
      • 1.11. Hazardous material spills in transportation accidents
      • 1.12. Conclusion
    • Chapter 2. Regulation to Safeguard against High-Consequence Industrial Events
      • Summary
      • 2.1. Some historical landmarks of main themes of regulation in the United States and European Union
      • 2.2. Stationary source siting (US) or land use planning (EU)
      • 2.3. Protection of workers and the public in the United States
      • 2.4. European Union Directives and transposition in national law
      • 2.5. Offshore and gas safety
      • 2.6. Transport of hazardous materials
      • 2.7. GHS, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals
      • 2.8. Future directions
      • 2.9. Conclusion
    • Chapter 3. Loss Prevention History and Developed Methods and Tools
      • Summary
      • 3.1. Brief history/evolution of loss prevention and process safety
      • 3.2. Organization, leadership, management, safety management system, culture
      • 3.3. Hazards, danger, safety, and risk
      • 3.4. Accident investigation tools
      • 3.5. Knowledge and tools: hazardous substance properties, system safety, process technology
      • 3.6. Risk analysis tools, risk assessment
      • 3.7. Evaluation of the state of risk analysis methodology
      • 3.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 4. Trends in Society and Characteristics of Recent Industrial Disasters
      • Summary
      • 4.1. Business, industry, and energy trends
      • 4.2. Societal trends
      • 4.3. Two example accidents analyzed
      • 4.4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 5. Sociotechnical Systems, System Safety, Resilience Engineering, and Deeper Accident Analysis
      • Summary
      • 5.1. Sociotechnical systems and safety
      • 5.2. System approach to risk control
      • 5.3. Resilience engineering of sociotechnical systems
      • 5.4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 6. Human Factors, Safety Culture, Management Influences, Pressures, and More
      • Summary
      • 6.1. Human factors and occupational safety and health
      • 6.2. Occupational risk modeling
      • 6.3. Methods to assess human error, or rather human reliability
      • 6.4. Human mechanisms for decision making and the ETTO principle
      • 6.5. Safety culture, safety climate, safety attitude
      • 6.6. Organizational hierarchy, management dilemmas and rules
      • 6.7. Process safety performance indicators
      • 6.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 7. New and Improved Process and Plant Risk and Resilience Analysis Tools
      • Summary
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. System-theoretic process analysis
      • 7.3. Blended Hazid: HAZOP and FMEA in a system approach
      • 7.4. Innovation and extension of classical risk assessment methods
      • 7.5. Bayesian statistics and BNs
      • 7.6. Uncertainty, fuzzy sets
      • 7.7. Some applications of BN
      • 7.8. Merging technical and human factor: agent-based modeling and Petri nets
      • 7.9. Resilience engineering
      • 7.10. Conclusions
    • Chapter 8. Extended Process Control, Operator Situation Awareness, Alarm Management
      • Summary
      • 8.1. Problem analysis
      • 8.2. Developments in control theory
      • 8.3. Fault detection and diagnosis and fault-tolerant control
      • 8.4. Trends in SCADA system infrastructure
      • 8.5. Human factors in control, control room design, alarm management
      • 8.6. Start-up, shut-down, and turn-around
      • 8.7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Costs of Accidents, Costs of Safety, Risk-Based Economic Decision Making: Risk Management
      • Summary
      • 9.1. Costs of accidents
      • 9.2. Costs of safety
      • 9.3. Risk-based decision making
      • 9.4. Safety risk management in context
      • 9.5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 10. Goal-oriented versus Prescriptive Regulation
      • Summary
      • 10.1. Background and literature sources
      • 10.2. Discussion
      • 10.3. Conclusion
    • Chapter 11. The Important Role of Knowledge and Learning
      • Summary
      • 11.1. The need for structured knowledge
      • 11.2. Knowledge sources and research
      • 11.3. Knowledge management
      • 11.4. Safety education and training
      • 11.5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. Risk, Risk Perception, Risk Communication, Risk Acceptance: Risk Governance
      • Summary
      • 12.1. Introduction, risk as concept, and rare events
      • 12.2. Risk perception and risk communication
      • 12.3. Public decision making, stakeholder participation
      • 12.4. Risk management, risk acceptance criteria, ALARP
      • 12.5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 13. Conclusions: The Way Ahead
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 458
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2015
  • Published: June 14, 2015
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000571
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128009123

About the Author

Hans Pasman

TEES Research Professor, Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, Texas, USA., Emeritus Professor, Chemical Risk Management of the Delft University of Technology, and associated member of the Dutch Council for Life Environment and Infrastructure in the Netherlands.

Professor Pasman graduated in Chemical Technology at Delft University of Technology in 1961, and finished a Doctor’s thesis in 1964 while working for Shell. He joined the Dutch Organisation for Applied Research, TNO, in 1965, initiating and performing research in reactive materials, gas, dust and energetic material explosions, investigation of industrial accidents and risk analysis, while also managing organizational units.

He has been a member of the Working Party on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries since 1972, and chairman from 1986-2004. In this latter capacity he was instrumental in founding the European Process Safety Centre in 1992. He has also been chairman of the International Group on Unstable Substances (IGUS) for 10 years, of the European Study Group on Risk Analysis (1980-1985), and of a NATO Group on Explosives (1982-1992). At the Delft University of Technology he led a multinational project on gas explosion fundamentals at elevated pressures and temperatures (2003-2008). In 2007 he co-organized a NATO advanced research workshop on Resilience of Cities to Terrorists and other Threats. From 2004-2012 he was a Member of the Dutch national Advisory Council on Hazardous Substances.

Affiliations and Expertise

TEES Research Professor, Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, Texas, USA

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