RF and mm-Wave Power Generation in Silicon

RF and mm-Wave Power Generation in Silicon

1st Edition - December 4, 2015

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  • Editors: Hua Wang, Kaushik Sengupta
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124095229
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124080522

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RF and mm-Wave Power Generation in Silicon presents the challenges and solutions of designing power amplifiers at RF and mm-Wave frequencies in a silicon-based process technology. It covers practical power amplifier design methodologies, energy- and spectrum-efficient power amplifier design examples in the RF frequency for cellular and wireless connectivity applications, and power amplifier and power generation designs for enabling new communication and sensing applications in the mm-Wave and THz frequencies. With this book you will learn: Power amplifier design fundamentals and methodologies Latest advances in silicon-based RF power amplifier architectures and designs and their integration in wireless communication systems State-of-the-art mm-Wave/THz power amplifier and power generation circuits and systems in silicon

Key Features

  • Extensive coverage from fundamentals to advanced design topics, focusing on various layers of abstraction: from device modeling and circuit design strategy to advanced digital and mixed-signal architectures for highly efficient and linear power amplifiers
  • New architectures for power amplifiers in the cellar and wireless connectivity covering detailed design methodologies and state-of-the-art performances
  • Detailed design techniques, trade-off analysis and design examples for efficiency enhancement at power back-off and linear amplification for spectrally-efficient non-constant envelope modulations
  • Extensive coverage of mm-Wave power-generation techniques from the early days of the 60 GHz research to current state-of the-art reconfigurable, digital mm-Wave PA architectures
  • Detailed analysis of power generation challenges in the higher mm-Wave and THz frequencies and novel technical solutions for a wide range for potential applications, including ultrafast wireless communication to sensing, imaging and spectroscopy
  • Contributions from the world-class experts from both academia and industry


Design engineers of Analog and IC Circuits

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Introduction

    • 1.1 What Are the Key PA Performance Metrics?
    • 1.2 Unique Advantages of Silicon-Based PAs
    • 1.3 Silicon-Based mm-Wave and THz Signal Generation—A New Frontier
    • References

    Part I: Power amplifier design methodologies

    Chapter 2. Power amplifier fundamentals

    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Power Generation and Power Matching
    • 2.2 Classical Linear Power Amplifiers: Classes A, AB, B, and C
    • 2.3 Linear Power Amplifier
    • 2.4 Switching Power Amplifier
    • 2.5 Class E Amplifier
    • Reference
    • Further Reading

    Part II: RF Power Amplifier Design Examples

    Chapter 3. CMOS power amplifier design for wireless connectivity applications: A highly linear WLAN power amplifier in advanced SoC CMOS

    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Design Considerations of Class-AB PA for WLAN
    • 3.3 Circuit Architecture and Layout Structure
    • 3.4 Shielded Concentric Transformers
    • 3.5 Circuit Implementations
    • 3.6 Measured Results of Experimental Design in Low-Resistivity Wafer
    • 3.7 Improved Design and Measurement Results in Regular Wafer
    • 3.8 PA Integration for SoC
    • 3.9 Performance Summaries and Comparison of State of the Art
    • 3.10 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 4. CMOS power amplifier design for cellular applications: An EDGE/GSM dual-mode quad-band PA in 0.18 µm CMOS

    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Standards for Cellular RF Systems
    • 4.3 Adaptive Biasing
    • 4.4 Linearization for Nonlinear Cgd
    • 4.5 Dual-Mode PA
    • 4.6 Measurements of PA
    • 4.7 Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 5. Energy-efficiency enhancement and linear amplifications: A transformer-based Doherty approach

    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Optimization of SCT Transformer-Based Doherty Power Amplifiers
    • 5.3 Implementation of SCT Transformer-Based Doherty Power Amplifier for WLAN Applications
    • 5.4 Measurement Results
    • 5.5 Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 6. Linear power amplification with high back-off efficiency: An out-phasing approach

    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 System Impact from Impairments of Outphasing Design
    • 6.3 Outphasing Topologies
    • 6.4 Linearity Analysis of Outphasing System Using Class-D and Class-F PA
    • 6.5 Back-Off Efficiency Enhancement in Outphasing
    • 6.6 Implementation Examples and Considerations
    • 6.7 Conclusion
    • References

    Chapter 7. Energy efficiency enhancement and linear amplifications: An envelope-tracking (ET) approach

    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Pseudo-Differential SiGe PA Design
    • 7.3 Envelope-Shaping Analysis for the ET-PA System
    • 7.4 Integrated CMOS EM IC Design
    • 7.5 ET-PA Measurement Results with the EM IC
    • 7.6 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 8. A digital RF power amplification technique based on the switched-capacitor circuit

    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Polar and Digital Power Amplifiers
    • 8.3 Theory of Operation
    • 8.4 SCPA Prototype Implementation and Experimental Results
    • 8.5 Extended SCPA Architectures
    • 8.6 Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 9. A transformer-based reconfigurable digital polar Doherty power amplifier fully integrated in bulk CMOS

    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Digital Polar Doherty PA Architecture
    • 9.3 Passive Network Designs in the Fully Integrated Doherty PA
    • 9.4 Experimental Results
    • 9.5 Conclusions
    • References

    Part III: mm-Wave and Terahertz Power Generation Design Examples

    Chapter 10. 60 GHz all silicon radio IC: How it all started

    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Power Amplifier Design
    • 10.3 Power Amplifier Integration into a Single-Chip Radio Transceiver
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 11. mm-Wave power-combining architectures: Current combining

    • Abstract
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Two-Way Current-Combining PA
    • 11.3 Measurement Results
    • 11.4 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Chapter 12. mm-Wave power-combining architectures: Hybrid combining

    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Why mm-Wave, and Why Silicon
    • 12.2 Power-combining techniques
    • 12.3 Design of CMOS Transformer-Based Power-Combining PA
    • 12.4 Experimental Results
    • 12.5 Summary
    • Acknowledgment
    • References

    Chapter 13. mm-Wave CMOS design above 60 GHz

    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 NMOS Device performance at mm-Wave Frequencies
    • 13.3 Impedance Matching
    • 13.4 mm-Wave Integrated Circuits
    • References

    Chapter 14. Self-healing techniques for robust mm-Wave power amplification

    • Abstract
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Power Amplification with Reconfigurability
    • 14.3 mm-Wave power amplification with self-healing capability
    • 14.4 Measurement results
    • 14.5 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgment
    • References

    Chapter 15. mm-Wave class-E PA design in CMOS

    • Abstract
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Design Background: Theory of Operation and Starting Design Equations
    • 15.3 Circuit Implementation in 32-nm SOI CMOS
    • 15.4 Measurement and Results
    • Acknowledgment
    • References

    Chapter 16. High-speed, efficient, mm-Wave power-mixer-based digital transmitters

    • Abstract
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 System architecture
    • 16.3 Design and implementation
    • 16.4 Chip implementation and measurement results
    • 16.5 Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 17. THz power generation beyond transistor fmax

    • Abstract
    • 17.1 Multiple-push oscillators
    • 17.2 Sub-terahertz CMOS Push-Push Oscillator
    • 17.3 Quadruple-Push Oscillator in CMOS
    • 17.4 Summary
    • References

    Chapter 18. THz signal generation, radiation, and beam-forming in silicon: A circuit and electromagnetics co-design approach

    • Abstract
    • 18.1 Motivations for THz
    • 18.2 Current THz technology
    • 18.3 Power generation above fmax
    • 18.4 Inverse Design Approach: Design Evolution of Distributed Active Radiator (DAR)
    • 18.5 Design and optimization of DAR
    • 18.6 Distributed Active Radiator Beam-Scanning Architecture at 0.28 THz
    • 18.7 Transmitter circuit blocks
    • 18.8 Measurement results
    • 18.9 Conclusions
    • References

    Chapter 19. Silicon-based THz signal generation with multiphase subharmonic injection-locking oscillators

    • Abstract
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 Multiphase IL technique
    • 19.3 A Scalable and Cascadable Active Frequency Multiplier Architecture for THz Signal Generation
    • 19.4 Design of Silicon-Based 500-GHz Signal Generation System
    • 19.5 Measurement Results
    • 19.6 Conclusion
    • References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: December 4, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124095229
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124080522

About the Editors

Hua Wang

Hua Wang Hua Wang (M’05‒SM’15) received his B.S. degree from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2003, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in 2007 and 2009, respectively.

He was with Guidant Corporation during the summer of 2004, working on accelerometer-based posture monitoring systems for implantable biomedical devices. In 2010, he joined Intel Corporation, where he worked on the next generation energy-efficient mm-wave communication link and broadband CMOS Front-End-Module for Wi-Fi systems. In 2011, he joined Skyworks Solutions. His work at Skyworks included the development of SAW-less integrated filter solutions for low-cost cellular-standard Front-End-Module. In 2012, he joined the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology as an assistant professor. He currently holds the Demetrius T. Paris Junior Professorship of the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is generally interested in innovating mixed-signal, RF, and mm-Wave integrated circuits and systems for communication, radar, and bioelectronics applications.

Dr. Wang received National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award in 2015, Roger P. Webb ECE Outstanding Junior Faculty Member Award in 2015, and Lockheed Martin Dean’s Excellence in Teaching Award in 2015. He was the award recipient of the 46th IEEE DAC/ISSCC Student Design Contest Winner in 2009 based on his work of “An Ultrasensitive CMOS Magnetic Biosensor Array for Point-Of-Care (POC) Microarray Application.” He was also a co-recipient of the IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC) Best Student Paper Award (1st Place) as the students’ Ph.D. advisor in 2014.

Dr. Wang is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters (MWCL). He is currently a Technical Program Committee (TPC) Member for IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC), IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC), IEEE Biopolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), and IEEE/CAS-EMB Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS). He serves as the Chair of the Atlanta’s IEEE CAS/SSCS joint chapter, which won the IEEE SSCS Outstanding Chapter Award in 2014.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA

Kaushik Sengupta

Kaushik Sengupta Kaushik Sengupta (M’12) received the B.Tech. and M.Tech. degrees in electronics and electrical communication engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, India, both in 2007, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA, in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In February 2013, he joined the faculty of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. During his undergraduate studies, in the summers of 2005 and 2006, he performed research at the University of Southern California and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he was involved with nonlinear integrated systems for high-purity signal generation and low-power RF identification (RFID) tags, respectively. His research interests are in the areas of high-frequency integrated circuits (ICs), electromagnetics, optics for various applications in sensing, imaging, and high-speed communication.

Dr. Sengupta was the recipient of the IBM Ph.D. fellowship (2011–2012), the IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society Predoctoral Achievement Award (2012), the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Graduate Fellowship (2012), and the Analog Devices Outstanding Student Designer Award (2011). He was the recipient of the Charles Wilts Prize in 2013 from Electrical Engineering, Caltech for outstanding independent research in electrical engineering leading to a PhD. He was also the recipient of the Prime Minister Gold Medal Award of IIT (2007), the Caltech Institute Fellowship, the Most Innovative Student Project Award of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (2007), and the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Undergraduate Fellowship (2006). He serves on the Technical Program Committee of the European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC). He was selected in “Princeton Engineering Commendation List for Outstanding Teaching” in 2014. He was the co-recipient of the IEEE RFIC Symposium Best Student Paper Award in 2012 and 2015 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (IEEE MTT-S) Microwave Prize.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA

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