Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis

EPO Applied Technology Series

1st Edition - January 1, 1984

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  • Author: P. Hoornaert
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483190723

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Reverse Osmosis covers the developments, specifically the Japanese activities in the field of reverse osmosis. This book is composed of five parts encompassing 15 chapters that consider the membranes constituting the important component of each reverse osmosis plant. The first parts treat the different kinds of reverse osmosis modules, including array of the semipermeable membranes. The next part deals with process and plant design. Another part focuses on the reverse osmosis applications, including the production of potable water and industrial water, advanced wastewater treatment, and mass separations in the industry. The last part looks into the accessories and auxiliary operations in reverse osmosis. This book will prove useful to practicing and design engineers and researchers.

Table of Contents

  •  Introduction

    1. Definitions; Limitations

    2. Purpose; Extent; Presentation

    Part I : Membranes

    Membranes : Introduction

    § 1. Membrane Form; Technical Fabrication

    A. Hollow Fiber Membranes

    B. Technical Fabrication of Unsupported Flat and Tubular Membranes

    C. Technical Fabrication of Supported Tubular and Flat Membranes; Supports Therefor

    § 2. Membrane Manufacturing Methods and Membrane Materials

    A. Manufacturing Methods

    B. Membranes Fabricated from Specific Materials

    § 3. Membrane After-Treatment

    A. Treating and/or Coating with Polymeric Substances

    B. Drying

    C. Treatment for Storing; Preservation; Sterilization

    D. Regenerating or Restoring Membrane Performances

    E. Converting Hydrophilic Membranes (to Membranes for Separating Organic Liquids)

    F. Repairing; Bonding

    G. Mechanical After-Treatment

    H. Marking

    General Conclusions Concerning Part I (Membranes)

    Part II : Reverse Osmosis Devices

    Reverse Osmosis Devices

    § 1. Hollow Fiber Modules; Fabrication Thereof

    A. Fabrication of Hollow Fiber Modules

    B. Repairing and/or Detecting Leaks

    C. Hollow Fiber Modules

    § 2. Tubular Modules

    A. Membranes on the Inner Surface of a Support Tube

    B. Membranes on the Outer Surface of a Support Tube

    C. Membranes on Inner and Outer Surface of a Support Tube (Coaxial Membranes)

    D. Porous Body with Membrane Coated Passages

    E. Flexible Membrane Tubes (on Inner or Outer Surface of Tubular Support

    F. Small Diameter, Self-Supporting Membrane Tubes

    Conclusions Concerning Tubular Membrane Modules (II.2.)

    § 3. Flat Membrane Modules

    A. Modules Comprising a Stack of Flat, Supported Membranes (e.g. Plate-and-Frame Module)

    B. Comprising a Single Supported Membrane

    C. Special Supports; Clamping Arrangements

    Conclusions Concerning the Flat Membrane Modules (II.3.)

    § 4. Spiral-Wound Modules

    Conclusions Concerning the Spiral-Wound Module (II.4.)

    § 5. Other Membrane Modules such as the Pleat-Type Module

    Conclusions Concerning the Pleated Membrane Module (II.5.)

    § 6. Rotary and Reciprocated Modules

    A. Rotary-Type Modules

    B. Reciprocated Modules

    Conclusions Concerning the Rotary and Reciprocated Modules (II.6.)

    General Conclusions Concerning Part II (Reverse Osmosis Devices)

    Part III : Reverse Osmosis Process and Plant Design

    Reverse Osmosis Process and Plant Design

    § 1. Pretreatment

    A. Removing Fouling Substances

    B. Rendering Fouling Substances Harmless

    C. Prevention of Biological Fouling

    D. Prevention of Chemical Attack on the Membrane

    E. Prevention of Membrane Compacting

    F. Coating the Membrane with a Protective Layer

    § 2. Plant Design; Flow Sheets

    A. Establishing Flow at the Permeate Side of the Membrane

    B. Concentrate Recycling

    C. Permeate Recycling

    D. Multiple Reverse Osmosis Units

    E. Pressure Control

    F. Permeate Quality Control

    G. Combination of Reverse Osmosis and Electrodialysis

    § 3. Energy Considerations

    A. Energy Recovery in Reverse Osmosis Plants

    B. Use of Low Cost or Special Energy

    General Conclusions Concerning Part III

    Part IV : Reverse Osmosis Applications

    Reverse Osmosis Applications

    § 1. Production of Potable and Industrial Water

    A. Desalination of Sea Water, Brackish Water and Ground Water by Reverse Osmosis

    B. Small Reverse Osmosis Units for Household Use

    C. Sterilization and Deionization of Water for Medical Purposes

    D. Production of "Ultra-Pure" Water; Production of Boiler Feed Water

    E. Production of Water for Food Processing

    § 2. Advanced Waste Water Treatment by Reverse Osmosis

    A. General Processes for Waste Water Treatment

    B. Treatment of Effluents from Metal Processing Operations

    C. Treatment of Effluents from the Pulp and Paper Industry

    D. Treatment of Effluents from the Textile Industry

    E. Treatment of Effluents from the Food Processing Industry

    F. Treatment of Effluents from Industries such as Electric Power Generation and Coal Gasification; Zero Liquid Discharge Systems

    G. Treatment of Sewage (Municipal and Domestic Waste Water)

    H. Treatment of Other Effluents; Removal of Special Contaminants

    § 3. Mass Separations in the Industry

    A. General Processes

    B. Separations in the Food Industry

    C. Recovery of Uranium

    D. Other Separations

    General Conclusions Concerning Part IV (Applications)

    Part V : Accessories and Auxiliary Operations

    Accessories and Auxiliary Operations

    § 1. Membrane Cleaning

    A. Cleaning with Solid, Movable Bodies (e.g. Foam Balls)

    B. Membrane Washing

    C. Other Cleaning and/or Contamination Prevention Methods

    § 2. Other Auxiliary Operations; Accessories

    A. Loading, Mounting and Replacement of Membrane Modules

    B. Membrane Replacement

    C. Sterilization of the Membrane Module

    D. Methods for Keeping the Permeate Side of Tubular Membrane Clean

    E. Replacing or Discharging Feed Liquid after Shut-Down

    F. Preventing Mechanical Membrane Damage

    G. Membrane Test Apparatus

    H. Membrane Module Testing

    I. Membrane Module Earthing

    J. Heating and Cooling

    K. Construction of the Pressure Vessel

    General Conclusions Concerning Part V

    Final Conclusions

    General References

    List of Cited Patent Documents

    List of Patentees


Product details

  • No. of pages: 226
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1984
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483190723

About the Author

P. Hoornaert

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