Retina - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780323025980


4th Edition

3-Volume Set

Authors: Charles Wilkinson David Hinton Stephen Ryan Charles Wilkinson
Editor in Chief: Andrew Schachat
Hardcover ISBN: 9780323025980
Imprint: Mosby
Published Date: 21st September 2005
Page Count: 2920

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Praised by JAMA as "The most complete description of the development, structure, function, pathophysiology, and treatment of the retina and its diseases to be found anywhere," this monumental three-volume work puts all of today's scientific and clinical knowledge of the retina at readers' fingertips. The New Edition has been comprehensively updated and reorganized to reflect all of the very latest scientific and genetic discoveries, diagnostic imaging methods, drug therapies, treatment recommendations, and surgical techniques. The result is an indispensable reference and diagnostic tool for generalists and specialists alike.

Key Features

  • Delivers the editorial expertise of four highly respected authorities, as well as contributions from internationally recognized leaders in visual science, ophthalmology, and vitreoretinal studies.
  • Presents more than 3,400 superb illustrations (2,200 in full color) that capture all forms of retinal disease from every perspective.

Table of Contents


Part 1 Basic Science, Inherited Retinal Disease and Tumors

Section 1 Anatomy and Physiology

1. The development of the retina - Thomas Reh and Ala Moshiri
2. Stem Cells - Martin Friedlander
3. The choroid: structural considerations - David R. Guyer, Andrew P. Schachat and W. Richard Green
4. Functional anatomy of the mammalian retina - Stephen C. Massey
5. Retinal and choroidal blood flow in health and disease - Alon Harris, David Bingaman, Thomas Ciulla and Bruce Martin
6. Electrogenesis of the electroretinogram - Laura J. Frishman
7. Cell biology of the retinal pigment epithelium - Gabriele Thumann, Stephan Hoffman and David R. Hinton
8. Structure and function of rod photoreceptors - Jeannie Chen, Scott Geller and John Flannery
9. The physiology and morphology of the vertebrate retina - Robert F. Miller

Section 2 Visual Psychophysics

10. Color vision and night vision - Joel Pokorny and Vivianne C. Smith
11. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity - Gary S. Rubin
12. Visual fields in retinal disease - Steven E. Feldon

Section 3 Ocular Immunology

13. Retinal autoimmunity - Wee-Kiak Lim and Robert B. Nussenblatt

Section 4 Evaluation

14. Diagnostic ophthalmic ultrasound - Ronald L. Green and Sandra Frazier Byrne
15. Clinical Electrophysiology - Thomas E. Ogden

Section 5 Genetics

16. Molecular Genetics of Retinal Disease - Jeremiah Brown, Andrew R. Webster, Val C. Sheffield and Edwin M. Stone

Section 6 Retinal Degenerations and Dystrophies

17. Retinitis pigmentosa and allied disorders - Richard G. Weleber and Kevin Gregory-Evans
18. Hereditary choroidal disease - Diana V. Do, Kang Zhang, Daniel C. Garabaldi, Ronald E. Carr and Janet S. Sunness
19. Abnormalities of cone and rod function - Janet Sunness
20. Hereditary vitreoretinal degenerations - Albert O. Edwards and Joseph E. Robertson, Jr.

Section 7 Principles of Vitreoretinal Therapy

21. Retinal Laser Therapy: Biophysical Basis and Applications - Daniel Palanker, Mark S. Blumenkranz and John J. Weiter

Part 2 Tumors of the Retina, Choroid, and Vitreous

Section 1 Tumors of the Retina

22. Retinoblastoma - A. Linn Murphree, Michael A. Samuel and J. William Harbour
23. Cavernous hemangioma - Anita Agarwal, Thomas Aaberg and Paul Sternberg
24. Capillary hemangioma of the retina and von Hippel-Lindau disease - Brad J. Hinz and Andrew P. Schachat
25. Tuberous sclerosis and the eye - Alan F. Cruess and Sanjay Sharma
26. Other phakomatoses - Jerry Shields and Carol Shields
27. Retinal metastases - Christopher Pelzek and Andrew Schachat
28. Remote effects of cancer on the retina - Ranjit S. Dhaliwal and Andrew P. Schachat
29. Melanocytoma of the optic disc - Jerry A. Shields and Leonard Joffe

Section 2 Tumors of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

30. Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium - Helmut Buettner
31. Combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium - Dean Elliott and Andrew P. Schachat

Section 3 Choroidal Melanoma and Related Issues

32. Choroidal nevi - Justin L. Gottlieb, José Alain Sahel and Daniel M. Albert
33. Epidemiology of uveal melanoma - Johanna M. Seddon and Tara A. Young
34. Choroidal melanoma: prognosis - Johanna M. Seddon and Tara A. Young
35. Pathology of choroidal melanoma - Shannath L. Merbs and W. Richard Green
36. Overview of management of posterior uveal melanoma - Jerry A. Shields
37. Enucleation for choroidal melanomas - Frederick Davidorf, Jeffrey McAdoo, Robert Chambers and Lewis Chorich
38. Brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma - Dennis M. Robertson, John D. Earle and Robert W. Kline
39. Charged-particle irradiation of uveal melanoma - Evangelos S. Gragoudas and Anne Marie Lane
40. Surgical resection of choroidal melanomas - Bertil E. Damato and Wallace S. Foulds
41. Vitreous, retinal, and choroidal biopsy - Anat Loewenstein, W. Richard Green, Diana V. Do and Julia A. Haller
42. Laser treatment of choroidal melanoma - Norbert Bornfeld and Gerasimos Anastassiou
43. Systematic evaluation and management of patients with choroidal melanoma - James Willson
44. Collaborative ocular melanoma study - Barbara S. Hawkins and Andrew P. Schachat

Section 4 Other Tumors of the Choroid

45. Choroidal metastasis - Moody D. Wharam and Andrew P. Schachat
46. Choroidal osteoma - Carol Shields, Gary Brown, Sanjay Sharma, and Jerry Shields
47. Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma - George Sanborn
48. Miscellaneous uveal tumors - David J. Wilson
49. Leukemias and lymphomas - Ranjit Dhaliwal and Andrew Schachat
50. Non-Hodgkin’s (“reticulum cell”) lymphoma - Hilel Lewis, Andrew Schachat and Arun Singh


Section 1 Normal Retinal Anatomy and Function

51. Fluorescein angiography: basic principles and interpretation -Robert Johnson, Richard McDonald, Everett Ai, J. Michael Jumper, and Arthur Fu
52. Quantitative fluorescein angiography - Srinivas Sadda and Alex Walsh
53. Diagnostic indocyanine green videogiography - Christina M. Klais, Michael D. Ober, Antonio P. Ciardella, Lawrence A. Yannuzzi and Jason S. Slakter

Section 2 Pathologic Responses

54. Pathogenesis of serous detachment of the retina and pigment epithelium - Alan C. Bird
55. Steroids in Macular Disease - Carl H. Park and Glenn J. Jaffe
56. Choroidal neovascularization - Stephen J. Ryan, David R. Hinton and Toshinori Murata

Section 3 Treatment Principles

57. Management of intraocular inflammation - Narsing A. Rao

Section 4 Macular Disease

58. Epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration - Johanna M. Seddon and Clara A. Chen
59. Age changes in Bruch’s membrane and related structures - Robyn Guymer and Alan C. Bird
60. Neovascular (exudative) age-related macular degeneration -Neil M. Bressler, Susan B. Bressler and Stuart L. Fine
61. Choroidal neovascular membrane in degenerative myopia - Gisele Soubrane and Gabriele J. Coscas
62. Central serous chorioretinopathy - Christina M. Klais, Michael D. Ober, Antonio P. Ciardella and Lawrence A. Yanuzzi
63. Macular dystrophies - August F. Deutman, Carel B. Hoyng and Janneke J.C. van Lith-Verhoeven
64. Pharmacotherapyof Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Mark S. Blummenkranz and Darius M. Moshfeghi

Section 5 Retinal Vascular Diseases

65. Etiologic mechanisms in diabetic retinopathy - Robert N. Frank
66. Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy - Emily Y. Chew and Frederick L. Ferris III
67. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy - Matthew Davis and Barbara Blodi
68. Retinal artery obstruction - Sanjay Sharma and Gary C. Brown
69. Central retinal vein occlusion - Prithvi Mruthyunjaya and Sharon Fekrat
70. Branch retinal vein occlusion - Stephen Phillips, Sharon Fekrat and Daniel Finkelstein
71. Pregnancy and retinal disease - Justin C. Brown and Janet S. Sunness
72. Preeclampsia-eclampsia syndrome - Richard R. Ober
73. Hypertension - Robert P. Murphy, Linda A. Lam and Emily Y. Chew
74. Rheumatic diseases - Jennifer E. Thorne and Douglas A. Jabs
75. Parafoveal telangiectasis - Emily Y. Chew
76. Coats’ disease - Diana V. Do and Julia A. Haller
77. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and related vasculopathies - James P. Bolling
78. Hemoglobinopathies - Geoffrey G. Emerson, Joseph B. Harlan Jr, Sharon Fekrat, Gerard A. Lutty and Morton F. Goldberg
79. Retinopathy of prematurity - Earl A. Palmer, Dale L. Phelps, Rand Spencer and Gerard A. Lutty
80. Acquired retinal macroaneurysms - Emily Y. Chew and Robert P. Murphy
81. Eales’ disease - Mohammed K. Barazi and Robert P. Murphy
82. Radiation retinopathy - Albert M. Maguire and Andrew P. Schachat
83. Ocular ischemic syndrome - Sanjay Sharma and Gary C. Brown
84. The Epidemiology of Diabetic Retinopathy - Ron Klein and Barbara Klein
85. Clinical Applications of Diagnostic Indocyanine Green Angiography - Nicole E. Gross and Lawrence A. Yannuzzi
86. Optical coherence tomography and retinal thickness assessment for diagnosis and management - Andrew A. Moshfeghi, Elias C. Mavrofrides and Carmen A. Puliafito
87. Retina-related clinical trials: a resource bibliography - Barbara S. Hawkins and Diana V. Do

Section 6 Inflammatory Disease

88. Ocular toxoplasmosis - Douglas A. Jabs and Quan Dong Nguyen
89. Ocular toxocariasis - CP Wilkinson
90. Cytomegalovirus infections of the retina - Jean D. Vaudaux and Gary N. Holland
91. Retinal disease in HIV-infected patients - Brian R. Kosobuki and William R. Freeman
92. Acute retinal necrosis syndrome - Jay S. Pepose and Russell N. Van Gelder
93. Endogenous fungal infections of the retina and choroid - Gary N. Holland
94. Pars planitis - Pravin U. Dugel, Derek Y. Kunimoto and Ronald E. Smith
95. Retinal syphilis and tuberculosis - David L. Knox
96. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis - Janet L. Davis, J. Donald M. Gass, Karl R. Olsen
97. Scleral Inflammatory Disease - Albert T. Vitale and Maite Sainz de la Maza
98. Ocular histoplasmosis - Barbara Hawkins, Judith Alexander, Sharon D. Solomon and Andrew Schachat
99. Birdshot retinochoroidopathy - Stephen J. Ryan and Narsing A. Rao
100. Multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, diffuse subretinal fibrosis and punctate inner choroidopathy - James Folk and Jonathan Walker
101. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome - Lee M. Jampol and Linda Tsai
102. Sarcoidosis - Douglas A. Jabs and Quan Dong Nguyen
103. Acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy - Alan C. Bird
104. Serpiginous choroiditis - J. Michael Jumper, H. Richard McDonald, Robert N. Johnson, Everett Ai and Arthur D. Fu
105. Sympathetic ophthalmia - Narsing A. Rao
106. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease - P. Kumar Rao and Narsing A. Rao

Section 7 Other Diseases

107. Drug toxicity of the posterior segment - Robert A. Mittra and William F. Mieler
108. Retinal Injuries From Light: Mechanisms, Hazards And Prevention - Martin A. Mainster and Patricia L. Turner
109. Traumatic chorioretinopathies - James S. Kelley

Section 8 Optic Nerve

110. Optic disc pits and associated serous macular detachment - Alfredo A. Sadun
111. Immunosuppressive therapy for posterior segment disease - Douglas A. Jabs and Esen Karamursel Akpek


Section 1 What Normally Keeps the Retina Attached?
112. Mechanisms of normal retinal adhesion - Michael F. Marmor
113. Fluid physiology of the subretinal space - Jonathan E. Pederson
114. Vitreoretinal interface - W. Richard Green and Jerry Sebag

Section 2 Retinal Reattachments: Surgical Principles and Techniques

115. Cellular effects of detachment and reattachment on the neural retina and the retinal pigment epithelium - Steven K. Fisher and Geoffrey P. Lewis
116. Pathogenic mechanisms of retinal detachment - Kean T. Oh, Mary Elizabeth Hartnett and Maurice B. Landers III
117. The effects and action of scleral buckles in the treatment of retinal detachment - John T. Thompson
118. Techniques of scleral buckling - George A. Williams and Thomas M. Aaberg, Jr
119. Pneumatic Retinopexy - Daniel A. Brinton and Eugene S. Lit
120. Primary vitrectomy in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment - Heinrich Heimann and Bernd Kirchhof
121. Optimal procedures for retinal detachments - G. William Aylward
122. Prevention of retinal detachment - C. P. Wilkinson
123. Nonrhegmatagenous retinal detachment - Rajiv Anand and William S. Tasman
124. Nonrhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: Retinal Detachment and Retinoschisis without a Macular Hole in Highly Myopic Eyes - Masahito Ohji and Yasuo Tano
125. Principles and techniques of vitreoretinal surgery - Steve Charles
126. Management of the pupil - Jay M. Stewart and Eugene de Juan, Jr

Section 3 Special Adjuncts to Treatment

127. Intraocular gases - Stanley Chang
128. Perfluorocarbon liquids in vitreous surgery - Robert Kwun and Stanley Chang
129. Silicone oils: physicochemical properties - Jean-Marie Parel, Peter Milne, Sandrine Gautier, Valerie Jallet and Franck Villain
130. Silicone oil in vitreoretinal surgery - Ron P. Gallemore and Brooks W. McCuen II
131. The Pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy - Peter A. Campochiaro
132. The mechanism of action of drugs for the treatment of vitreoretinal scarring - Mark S. Blumenkranz and Michael K. Hartzer
133. Vitrectomy for infectious endophthalmitis - Travis A. Meredith
134. Diagnostic and therapeutic vitrectomy for uveitis - Russell N. Van Gelder and Henry J. Kaplan

Section 4 Complicated Forms of Retinal Detachment

135. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy - John T. Thompson
136. Retinotomies and retinectomies - Gary Abrams, Enrique Garcia-Valenzuela and Sumit Nanda
137. Giant retinal tears with proliferative vitreoretinopathy - Stanley Chang and José Manuel Lopez
138. Posterior Penetrating Trauma - Stephen J. Ryan and Young Hee Yoon
139. Posterior segment manifestations of closed-globe contusion injury - Pravin U. Dugel, Peter H. Win and Richard R. Ober
140. Trauma: principles and techniques of treatment - Franco M. Recchia, Thomas Aaberg Jr and Paul Sternberg Jr
141. Intraocular neovascularization - Tara A. Young and Joan W. Miller
142. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy: principles and techniques of surgical treatment - Dean Eliott, Michael S. Lee and Gary W. Abrams
143. Control of perioperative bleeding in vitreoretinal surgery - David R. Chow and Serge de Bustros
144. Retinopathy of prematurity - Michael Trese
145. Surgical aspects of vitreoretinal disease in children - Peter Wiedemann
146. Management of combined inflammatory and rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (AIDS and ARN) - Allan E. Kreiger and Christine R. Gonzales
147. Macular epiretinal membranes - H. Richard McDonald, Robert N. Johnson, Everett Ai, J. Michael Jumper and Arthur D. Fu
148. Macular hole - Raymond N. Sjaarda and John T. Thompson
149. Surgical removal of subretinal choroidal neovascular membranes - Daniel P. Joseph, A. Jeffrey Whitehead and Matthew A. Thomas

Section 5 Vitreous Surgery: Additional Considerations

150. Surgical management of submacular hemorrhage - Henry C. Lee and Nancy M. Holekamp
151. Limited macular translocation - Gildo Y. Fujii and Eugene de Juan Jr.
152. Macular translocation with 360° peripheral retinectomy - Mark T. Cahill and Cynthia A. Toth
153. Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Photoreceptor Transplantation Frontiers - Vamsi Gullapalli, Mohamad Khodair, Hao Wang, Ilene Sugino, Marco Zarbin and Steven Madreperla
154. Artificial vision - Mark S. Humayun, Rohit R. Lakhanpal and James D. Weiland
155. Surgery for diffuse macular edema due to multiple causes, including proliferative vitreoretinopathy - Zdenek Gregor and Lyndon da Cruz


No. of pages:
© Mosby 2005
21st September 2005
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Authors

Charles Wilkinson

Affiliations and Expertise

Chairman, Department of Ophthalmology, Greater Baltimore Medical Center; Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

David Hinton

Affiliations and Expertise

Gavin S. Herbert Professor of Retinal Research; Professor of Pathology and Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Stephen Ryan

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA

Charles Wilkinson

Affiliations and Expertise

Chairman, Department of Ophthalmology, Greater Baltimore Medical Center; Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

About the Editor in Chief

Andrew Schachat

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice Chairman, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA


"As with prior editions, the quality of the writing is excellent. In addition to thorough discussions of normal retinal structure and function, the text provides a comprehensive description of all facets of retinal diseases and their treatment. The photography is of equally high quality. Diagnosis and treatment of retinal disease are critically dependent on color retinal images, which is reflected in the increased use of color photographs in the fourth edition, greatly adding to the value of this text." -- JAMA, October 25, 2006 -- Vol 296, No. 16, Pg. 2031

"An exciting new option is the "e-dition" version, which includes online access to the text. Having access to this superb text from any location is of great value to the ophthalmologist and retinologist. Other online features include 16 videos of retinal surgical procedures, continuing updates to the material, access to a drug information database, and links to pertinent Web sites. Content may be downloaded to a handheld device. These online features are a major advancement and make for a living textbook." -- JAMA, October 25, 2006 -- Vol 296, No. 16, Pg. 2031

"The fourth edition of Retina is well worth the price for any retinologist or ophthalmologist." -- JAMA, October 25, 2006 -- Vol 296, No. 16, Pg. 2031