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Responses of Plants to Air Pollution - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125094504, 9780323152266

Responses of Plants to Air Pollution

1st Edition

Editor: J.B. Mudd
eBook ISBN: 9780323152266
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1975
Page Count: 398
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Responses of Plants to Air Pollution examines the effects of air pollutants, individually and synergistically, on both higher and lower plants. The subject matter overlaps into a wide range of disciplines including agronomy, plant anatomy, biochemistry, cryptogamic botany, ecology, entomology, forestry, horticulture, landscape architecture, meteorology, microscopy, plant pathology, plant physiology, and soil science.
The opening chapter presents an overview of sources of air pollution, costs of air pollution, and mechanisms of pollution injury to plants. Separate chapters on sulfur dioxide, ozone, fluorides, peroxyacyl nitrates, oxides of nitrogen, and particulates follow. Subsequent chapters are devoted to plant responses to combinations of pollutants; to effects of pollutants on plant ultrastructure, on forests, and on lichens and bryophytes; to interactions of pollutants with canopies of vegetation; to interactions of pollutants and plant diseases; and to interactions of pollutants with agricultural practices.
This book will be useful to scientists in many disciplines as well as those who share the concern that clean air can no longer be expected to be the normal environment for plants or animals. The book will also be a valuable a reference work or text for upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, researchers, and growers of plants.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Preface 1 Introduction

I. Sources of Pollution

II. Cost of Air Pollution

III. Mechanisms of Pollution Injury to Plants


2 Sulfur Dioxide

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Considerations

III. Susceptibility

IV. Physiological Effects

V. Biochemical Effects

VI. Conclusions


3 Ozone

I. Introduction

II. Entry of Ozone into the Injury Region

III. Primary Site of Injury

IV. Spreading of Injury or Secondary Reactions

V. Conclusions


4 Fluorides

I. Introduction

II. Absorption, Accumulation, Translocation, and Injury-Effects of Fluoride

III. Effects of Fluoride on Various Metabolites, Injury (Subcellular), and Recovery

IV. Effects of Fluoride on Respiration and Related Biochemical Reactions

V. Effects of Fluoride on Apparent Photosynthesis, Hill Reaction, and Pigments

VI. Effects of Fluoride on Growth, Aging, and Associated Biochemical Metabolites

VII. Fluoride and Fluoroorganic Compounds

VIII. Effects of Fluoride on Enzymes in Vitro


5 Peroxyacyl Nitrates

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Properties

III. Symptoms

IV. Physiological Observations

V. Biochemical Effects

VI. Chemical Basis for Toxicity


6 Oxides of Nitrogen

I. Formation of Nitrogen Oxides

II. Factors Affecting Injury

III. Mechanism Causing Plant Injury

IV. Effects on Higher Plants

V. Combined Effects on NO2 and SO2

VI. Evaluation of Air Quality Standards for Vegetation Effects


7 Particulates

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Specific Particulate Matter on Vegetation

III. Conclusions


8 Plant Responses to Pollutant Combinations

I. Introduction

II. Plant Responses to Pollutant Combinations

III. Implications of Pollutant Combinations


9 Effects of Air Pollutants on Plant Ultrastructure

I. Introduction

II. Ozone and Peroxyacetyl Nitrate

III. Nitrogen Dioxide

IV. Fluoride

V. Sulfur Dioxide

VI. Ethylene

VII. Conclusions


10 Effects of Air Pollutants on Forests

I. Introduction

II. Forest Ecosystems and Forest Types in the United States

III. Incidents of Sulfur Dioxide Injury

IV. Incidents of Fluoride Injury

V. Incidents of Ozone and Oxidant Injury

VI. Techniques for Analysis of Air Pollutant Effects on Forest Ecosystems

VII. Anticipation of New Air Pollutant Injury to Forest Ecosystems in the United States

VIII. Forests as Sources of Air Pollutants


11 Effects of Air Pollutants on Lichens and Bryophytes

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Investigation and Some Results

III. Conclusions


12 Interactions of Air Pollutants with Canopies of Vegetation

I. Introduction

II. Cycling of Materials through the Earth-Atmosphere System

III. Plant Biosystems: Complexity and General Interactions

IV. Air Pollutant Exchange with Plant Canopies


13 Interaction of Air Pollutants and Plant Disease

I. Introduction

II. Impact of Pollutants on Pathogens

III. Impact on the Disease

IV. Modes of Action

V. Conclusions


14 Interactions of Air Pollution and Agricultural Practices

I. Introduction

II. Cultural Practices

III. Pesticides

IV. Burning

V. Fertilizers and Feedlots

VI. Photochemical Oxidants from Forest Volatiles

VII. Other Air Pollutants from Agriculture


Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1975
28th January 1975
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

J.B. Mudd

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