Research on the Nature of Mineral-Forming Solutions

Research on the Nature of Mineral-Forming Solutions

With Special Reference to Data from Fluid Inclusions

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: N. P. Yermakov
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483164977

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Description

Research on the Nature of Mineral-Forming Solutions is the first book on the subject of fluid inclusions. This book contains observational data and studies of mineral-forming solutions done in the Soviet Union. The description and natural classification of inclusion in minerals according to their composition and state are discussed. Gaseous, liquefied, and solidified inclusions that are found in minerals and their significance are considered important in determining the presence and availability of the mineral. For example, any earlier or contemporaneous minerals that are found only in their host crystals can be determined by analyzing the presence of solid inclusions. The origin and genetic classifications of liquid and gaseous inclusions, being both abundant in hypogene ore deposits, are explained. Other less common methods in the study of inclusions, besides homogenization of inclusions by heating under the microscope, are forwarded. The authors believe that exact measurements of the homogenization temperature are possible and therefore can serve as a precise indicator in understanding the process of formation of individual crystals and hydrothermal deposits. Other studies of the All-Union Research Institute of Piezo-optical Mineral Raw Materials are also discussed. This collection of monographs will prove invaluable to mineralogists, geologists, and research-chemists studying minerals and ore deposits.

Table of Contents


  • Editor's Preface

    Chapter 1. Description and Natural Classification of Inclusions in Minerals

    Classification of Inclusions According to Their Composition and State

    Solid Inclusions in Minerals and Their Genetic Significance

    Solidified Inclusions in Minerals

    Crystallized Inclusions

    Inclusions of Volcanic Glass (Amorphous Inclusions)

    Gaseous Inclusions

    Liquid Inclusions

    Chapter 2. Origin and Genetic Classification of Liquid and Gaseous Inclusions in Minerals

    Primary Inclusions

    Pseudo-secondary Inclusions

    Secondary Inclusions

    Chapter 3. Theory and Practice of Homogenization of Liquid Inclusions by Heat

    Basic Principle of the Method

    The Problem of Hermetic Sealing of Inclusions

    Variations in Volume of Vacuoles Containing Inclusions

    Decrease in Volume Caused by Contraction of Crystal on Cooling

    Contraction of Volume of Inclusions Caused by Deposition of Cognate Substance on Their Walls

    Composition and Concentration of Substances in Liquid Inclusions and Methods of Their Study

    The Analytical Method

    The Physico-chemical Method

    The Mineralogical Method

    Principal Results of Studies of Composition of Inclusions

    Effect of Concentration of Included Solutions on Homogenization Temperature

    Effects of Pressure on Estimation of Temperatures and Possibilities of Taking such Effects into Account

    Determination of the Nature of Inclusions and the Means of Their Recognition

    Experimental Methods and Techniques. History of the Development of Research Techniques

    Construction of the Microthermochamber, Its Installation, and Integration with Other Instruments

    The author's Method and Experimental Procedure

    Sources of Error in Thermometric Analysis

    Chapter 4. Supplementary Methods of Study of Inclusions

    The Calculation Method

    The "Visual Method" (Method of Empirical Curves)

    Significance and Principles of the Method

    Empirical Curves for Quartz and Calcite

    Empirical Equations for Calculation of Probable Homogenization Temperatures of Inclusions in Quartz and Calcite

    Methods of Determining Phase Ratios in Heterogeneous Inclusions of Solutions

    Decrepitation Method

    The Acoustic Method

    The Optical Method

    Defects and Limitations of the Methods of Thermometric Studies of Inclusions

    Chapter 5. Results by Ordinary Procedures Employed in the Homogenization Method for the Determination of the Temperatures

    Chapter 6. Methods of Thermometric Investigation of Minerals and of Mineral Deposits and Results of Their Applications

    General Principles of the Methods

    Results of Thermometric Analysis of Individual Crystals

    Application of Methods in Determining Successive Lowering of Temperatures of Crystal Growth

    Temperature of Formation of a Quartz Crystal from Bristenstock and Significance of Pseudo-secondary Inclusions

    Studies of Temperatures of Formation of a Quartz Druse from Aldan and Identification of Secondary Inclusions

    Crystallization of Minerals from Solutions in which there are Interruptions in the Normal Gradual Lowering of the Temperature

    Abrupt Changes in the Temperature of Crystal-forming Solutions

    Thermometric Analysis of the Formation of Complex Crystals and Ssynchronization of Their Growth Zones

    Examples of Studies in Paragenesis of Minerals by Inclusions of Mother Liquor

    On the Temperatures of Formation of Quartz Pseudomorphs after "Paper-spar"

    On Unity of the Hydrothermal Metamorphism of Rocks and of the Formation of Minerals in "Alpine" Fissure Veins

    On Homogenization Temperatures of Inclusions in Twin Crystals and Temperatures of Formation of Datolite and Apophyllite

    Utilization of Inclusions in Certain Tectonic Conclusions

    Thermometric Studies of Some Mineral Deposits

    On Temperatures of Formation of Calcites in Central Asia and Crimea

    On Temperatures of Formation of some Fluorite Deposits in Central Asia and in Transbaykalia

    On Temperatures and Other Problems of the Formation of Quartz in Aldan

    On the Temperatures of Formation of Certain Lead-zinc Deposits

    Chapter 7. Methods and Results of Research on State of Aggregation of Mineral-forming Solutions

    Essence and Significance of the Methods

    The Course of Homogenization of Inclusions in Topaz

    The Course of Homogenization of Inclusions in Quartz

    The Course of Homogenization of Inclusions in Beryl and Tourmaline

    The Course of Homogenization of Mixed Inclusions of Aqueous Solution and Carbon Dioxide

    Variations in the Course of Homogenization of Inclusions in Different Growth Zones of Crystals

    Theoretical Consideration of Types and Species of Homogenization of Inclusions in Minerals

    In Reference to the Possibility of Differentiating between Products of Pneumatolysis and Products of Hydrothermal and Cold Solutions in Mineral Deposits

    Chapter 8. Schematic Pattern of Principal Stages and Sub-stages in Hypogene Formation of Minerals

    Chapter 9. Scientific Practical Importance and Perspectives of Investigations of Inclusions in Minerals

    Bibliography to Part 1


Product details

  • No. of pages: 750
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483164977

About the Author

N. P. Yermakov

About the Editor

Edwin Roedder

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