Research Methodology and Biostatistics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9788131244425, 9788131246481

Research Methodology and Biostatistics

1st Edition

A Comprehensive Guide for Health Care Professionals

Authors: Sharma Suresh
eBook ISBN: 9788131246481
Paperback ISBN: 9788131244425
Imprint: Elsevier India
Published Date: 14th December 2016
Page Count: 352
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Description

Essentials of Research Methodology and Biostatistics—A Comprehensive Guide for Health Care Professionals is a precisely written textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate medical, dental, nursing, physiotherapy, clinical psychology and other allied health care profession students. The book is an excellent attempt towards introducing the students and faculty members to the various research methodologies adopted in the field of health sciences to record health-related data.

Key Features

Easy to follow: An applied, user-friendly textbook with self-explanatory simple language and presentation for the students.

An example-oriented book: Plenty of examples to equip the students to prepare for exams as well as independently conduct their research activities.

Illustrative presentation: Diagrammatic and tabular presentation of content to facilitate quick review and recall of important concepts.

Systematic and logical organization: Content organized in systematic and logical manner to facilitate better understanding.

Qualitative and quantitative research methods, analysis: Adequate coverage of quantitative as well as qualitative research process, methodology and analysis.

Authentic content: Content reviewed, authenticated by a panel of renowned faculty members/experts.

Unique content: Several unique topics such as sample size calculation, uses of different parametric and nonparametric statistical tests, methods, qualitative research process, and analysis included, with practical examples from Indian scenario, which are rarely found in other research methodology books.

Enormous knowledge in a nutshell: In-depth coverage of all aspects of research methodology and biostatistics in a concise manner.

Review questions: About 150 end-of-chapter MCQs, a useful resource for the readers to review their preparation for the university exams and also to prepare for qualifying entrance exams for postgraduate and doctoral courses.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction to Medical Research, 1

  • Meaning of research and medical research, 2
  • Research terminologies, 3
  • Need and purposes of research in health sciences, 5
  • Importance and significance of research in health sciences, 5
  • Historical evolution of clinical research in India, 6
  • Characteristics of a good research, 7
  • Types of research, 8
  • Research process, 11

Chapter 2. Research Problem and Hypothesis, 21

  • Research problem, 22
  • Meaning of research problem, 22
  • Identification of a research problem, 22
  • Sources of a research problem, 23
  • Criteria for a good research problem, 24
  • Formulating a problem statement, 26
  • Variables, 28
  • Operations definitions, 30
  • Writing research objectives, 32
  • Hypothesis, 34
  • Meaning of hypothesis, 36
  • Importance of hypotheses in research, 36
  • Characteristics of a good hypothesis, 37
  • Sources of hypotheses, 38
  • Types of hypotheses, 38
  • Formulating hypotheses, 39
  • Delimitations, 41

Chapter 3. Literature Review, 46

  • Meaning of literature review, 47
  • Importance of a literature review, 47
  • Purposes of a literature review, 48
  • Types of literature reviews, 48
  • Sources of a literature, 50
  • Steps of a literature review, 54
  • Points to be considered for a literature review, 59

Chapter 4. Research Designs, 62

  • Meaning of research design, 63
  • Selection of a research design, 63
  • Validity of a research design, 64
  • Types of research designs, 66
  • Quantitative research designs, 66
  • Qualitative research designs, 90
  • Mixed methods/triangulation, 103

Chapter 5. Randomized Controlled Trials, 108

  • Meaning of randomized controlled trials, 109
  • History of randomized controlled trials, 109
  • Characteristics of randomized controlled trials, 109
  • Randomization in randomized controlled trials, 110
  • Types of randomized controlled trials, 110
  • Use of placebo in randomized controlled trials, 112
  • Difficulties in conducting randomized controlled trials, 113
  • Advantages of randomized controlled trials, 113
  • Disadvantages of randomized controlled trials, 113

Chapter 6. Sampling and Sample Size Determination, 116

  • Terminologies used in sampling, 117
  • Purpose of sampling, 118
  • Characteristics of a good sample, 118
  • Sampling process, 118
  • Factors influencing a sampling process, 119
  • Types of sampling techniques, 120
  • Probability sampling, 122
  • Nonprobability sampling, 127
  • Sample size estimation, 133
  • Probability and sampling errors, 143
  • Problems of sampling, 145

Chapter 7. Measurements and Methods of Data

  • Collection, 148
  • Scales of measurements, 149
  • Concept of data collection, 150
  • Questionnaire, 153
  • Interview as method of data collection, 157
  • Composite scales/attitude scales, 161
  • Likert scale, 162
  • Semantic diff erential scale, 163
  • Visual analog scale, 164
  • Observation as method of data collection, 165
  • Rating scale, 168
  • Checklist, 170
  • Biophysiological methods, 172
  • Projective technique, 174
  • Q-sorts, 176
  • Vignettes, 177
  • Validity of research tool, 179
  • Reliability of research tools, 180
  • Pilot study, 183

Chapter 8. Analysis of Data, 187

  • Definitions of data analysis, 188
  • Analysis of quantitative data, 188
  • Parametric tests, 194
  • Nonparametric tests, 196
  • Software analysis of quantitative data, 198
  • Analysis of qualitative data, 200

Chapter 9. Descriptive Statistics, 214

  • Meaning of statistics and biostatistics, 215
  • Uses of application of statistics, 215
  • Terms related to biostatistics, 215
  • Classification of statistics, 216
  • Frequency distribution, 216
  • Measures of central tendency, 223
  • Measures of dispersion, 227

Chapter 10. Measures of Relationship and Inferential Statistics, 231

  • Normal probability curve, 232
  • Correlation coefficient, 233
  • Scatter diagram method, 235
  • Product moment correlation, 237
  • Regression analysis, 239
  • Inferential statistics, 242
  • Parametric tests, 244
  • t-Test, 244
  • Z-test, 246
  • ANOVA, 247
  • Nonparametric tests, 250
  • Chi-square test, 250
  • Sign test, 251
  • Wilcoxon signed rank test, 252
  • Mann–Whitney test, 253

Chapter 11. Writing Proposals, Reports and Publications, 258

  • Criteria for communicating research, 259
  • Methods of communicating research, 259
  • Writing a research report, 261
  • Format of a thesis or dissertation, 263
  • Writing references/bibliography, 265
  • Writing scientific articles, 274
  • Critical review of research work, 275
  • Developing and presenting a research proposal, 279
  • Uses of computer in medical research, 284

Chapter 12. Ethical Issues in Biomedical Research in India, 289

  • Principles of ethics in biomedical research, 290
  • Ethics and regulation in biomedical research – international guidelines, 291
  • Ethics and regulation in biomedical research – national guidelines, 297
  • Patient information document and informed consent, 299
  • Compensation for participation in research, 302
  • Conflict of interest in research, 302
  • General and specific principles for clinical evaluation of drugs/clinical trials guidelines in India, 303
  • Institute ethical committee, 307

Appendices, 311

Index, 331

Details

No. of pages:
352
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier India 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier India
eBook ISBN:
9788131246481
Paperback ISBN:
9788131244425

About the Author

Sharma Suresh