Research Advances in Rabies - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123870407, 9780123870414

Research Advances in Rabies, Volume 79

1st Edition

Serial Volume Editors: Alan Jackson
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123870407
eBook ISBN: 9780123870414
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th May 2011
Page Count: 486
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Table of Contents

Preface

Rabies Virus Transcription and Replication

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Aspects of Viral Transcription and Replication

III. Structural Aspect of RABV Transcription and Replication; Proteins Involved in Transcription and Replication

IV. Cellular Aspect of Rabies Transcription and Replication: IBs Formed in Infected Cells Are the Sites of Viral RNA Synthesis

V. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

Rabies Virus Assembly and Budding

I. Introduction

II. Rabies Virus M Protein

III. The Central Role of M and Supporting Role of G in RABV Budding

IV. Features of M Protein Important for Budding

V. Viral L-Domain/Host Interactions

VI. Ubiquitination and RABV Budding

VII. Summary

Acknowledgments

Evasive Strategies in Rabies Virus Infection

I. Introduction

II. Evasion from host immune responses

III. Preservation of neuron and neuronal network integrity

IV. Conclusions on RABV Evasive Strategies

Rabies Virus Clearance from the Central Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Rabies Virus

III. Animal Reservoirs of the Rabies Virus and the Threat of Human Rabies

IV. Human Rabies

V. The Current Rabies Postexposure Treatment Paradigm

VI. Obstacles in Clearing Wild-type Rabies Virus from the CNS

VII. Prospects for Human Rabies Immunotherapy Through Virus Clearance From the CNS

Acknowledgments

Role of Chemokines in Rabies Pathogenesis and Protection

I. Introduction

II. Chemokines

III. The Role of Chemokines in the CNS When Infected by Viruses

IV. Induction of Chemokine Expression in RABV Infections

V. Overexpression of Chemokines Can Benefit the Host If the Expression Is Transient While It Harms the Host If the Expression Is Persistent During RABV Infections

VI. Chemokines Expression Correlates with the Activation of Dendritic Cells and Enhancement of Adaptive Immunity

VII. Recombinant RABV Expressing Chemokines/Cytokines Can Be Used Effectively to Prevent the Development of Rabies

VIII. Summary

Acknowledgments

Interferon in Rabies Virus Infection

I. Introduction

II. Rabies and Interferon

III. Conclusions and Future Outlook

Acknowledgments

The Role of Toll-Like Receptors in the Induction of Immune Responses During Rabies Virus Infection

I. Toll-Like Receptors

II. Rabies in MyD88-Deficient Mice

III. The Host Response to Rabies Infection Involves TLR7

IV. The Contribution of TLR7 Signaling to the Control of Rabies Virus Spread to the CNS and Clearance from CNS Tissues

V. TLR7 and the Diverse Pathogenicities of Rabies Virus Variants

VI. Conclusions and Relevance to Therapeutic Immunization

Acknowledgments

Role of Oxidative Stress in Rabies Virus Infection

I. Introduction

II. Degeneration of Neuronal Processes in Experimental Rabies

III. Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons for Studying Neuronal Process Degeneration

IV. Oxidative Stress

V. Oxidative Stress in Rabies Virus Infection

VI. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Rabies Virus as a Research Tool and Viral Vaccine Vector

I. Rabies Virus as a Research Tool

II. The Need for Novel Vaccines for RABV

III. Modified Replication-Competent RABV as Rabies Vaccines for Wildlife

IV. RABV-Based Vectors as Vaccines Against Other Infectious Diseases

V. Safety: Generating Safer RABV Vaccines and Vectors for Use in Humans

VI. Replication-Deficient or Single-Cycle RABV

VII. Potential Novel Human Rabies Vaccines Based on Replication-Deficient RABV

VIII. Replication-Deficient/Single-Cycle RABV as Vaccine Vector

IX. Killed RABV–RABV Proteins as Carriers of Foreign Antigens

Rabies Virus as a Transneuronal Tracer of Neuronal Connections

I. Introduction

II. Differences in Properties of Alpha-Herpesviruses and Rabies Virus as Transneuronal Tracers

III. Rabies Virus

IV. Perspectives

Acknowledgments

Molecular Phylogenetics of the Lyssaviruses—Insights from a Coalescent Approach

I. Introduction

II. Lyssavirus Phylogeny

III. Lyssavirus Phylogeography

IV. Lyssavirus Adaptation

V. Concluding Remarks

Bats and Lyssaviruses

I. Introduction

II. Bat Lyssaviruses: Eurasia and Australasia

III. Bat Lyssaviruses: Africa

IV. Bat Rabies and the Americas

V. Discussion

Acknowledgments

Postexposure Prophylaxis for Rabies in Resource-Limited/Poor Countries

I. Introduction

II. Local Wound Care

III. Evaluation of Risk of Rabies Exposure

IV. Postexposure Prophylaxis of Previously Unvaccinated Patients

V. Postexposure Prophylaxis in Previously Vaccinated Patients

VI. Postexposure Prophylaxis Failures

Neuroimaging in Rabies

I. Introduction

II. Neuroimaging Techniques

III. Neuroimaging in Rabies

IV. Newer Neuroimaging Techniques in Rabies

V. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Rabies Virus Infection and MicroRNAs

I. Introduction

II. MicroRNAs

III. miRNAs and Viruses

IV. Inhibition of Rabies Viral Replication by siRNA/amiRNA

V. Conclusions

Design of Future Rabies Biologics and Antiviral Drugs

I. Introduction

II. Vaccines

III. Antibodies

IV. Antiviral Drugs

V. Conclusions

Therapy of Human Rabies

I. Introduction

II. Prevention of Rabies

III. Therapy of Rabies

IV. New Approaches

V. Conclusions

Mathematical Models for Rabies

I. Introduction

II. The Development of the Mathematical Approach to Rabies Dynamics

III. Modeling Approaches Using Reaction Diffusion Methods

IV. Methods for Incorporating Landscape Heterogeneities

V. Stochastic Models

VI. Incorporating Stochasticity and Spatial Heterogeneity

VII. Optimal Control

VIII. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Evolution of Wildlife Rabies Control Tactics

I. Introduction

II. Historical and Contemporary Wildlife Rabies Control Tactics

III. Advances in Rabies Vaccine-Bait Delivery Systems for Wildlife

IV. Advances in Wildlife Rabies Vaccines

V. Advances in the Assessment of Wildlife Vaccination Systems

VI. Advances in Contingency and Management Planning for Wildlife Rabies Control

VII. Advances in Technologies for Studying the Ecology of the Rabies Virus and Wildlife Rabies Vector Species

VIII. Summary

Understanding Effects of Barriers on the Spread and Control of Rabies

I. The Concept and Mechanisms of Barriers

II. Assessing Barrier Effects

III. Assessing Interaction of Vaccination Barriers and Habitat Patterns

IV. Discussion

Acknowledgments

Rabies Research in Resource—Poor Countries


Description

Preface

Rabies Virus Transcription and Replication

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Aspects of Viral Transcription and Replication

III. Structural Aspect of RABV Transcription and Replication; Proteins Involved in Transcription and Replication

IV. Cellular Aspect of Rabies Transcription and Replication: IBs Formed in Infected Cells Are the Sites of Viral RNA Synthesis

V. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

Rabies Virus Assembly and Budding

I. Introduction

II. Rabies Virus M Protein

III. The Central Role of M and Supporting Role of G in RABV Budding

IV. Features of M Protein Important for Budding

V. Viral L-Domain/Host Interactions

VI. Ubiquitination and RABV Budding

VII. Summary

Acknowledgments

Evasive Strategies in Rabies Virus Infection

I. Introduction

II. Evasion from host immune responses

III. Preservation of neuron and neuronal network integrity

IV. Conclusions on RABV Evasive Strategies

Rabies Virus Clearance from the Central Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Rabies Virus

III. Animal Reservoirs of the Rabies Virus and the Threat of Human Rabies

IV. Human Rabies

V. The Current Rabies Postexposure Treatment Paradigm

VI. Obstacles in Clearing Wild-type Rabies Virus from the CNS

VII. Prospects for Human Rabies Immunotherapy Through Virus Clearance From the CNS

Acknowledgments

Role of Chemokines in Rabies Pathogenesis and Protection

I. Introduction

II. Chemokines

III. The Role of Chemokines in the CNS When Infected by Viruses

IV. Induction of Chemokine Expression in RABV Infections

V. Overexpression of Chemokines Can Benefit the Host If the Expression Is Transient While It Harms the Host If the Expression Is Persistent During RABV Infections

VI. Chemokines Expression Correlates with the Activation of Dendritic Cells and Enhancement of Adaptive Immunity

VII. Recombinant RABV Expressing Chemokines/Cytokines Can Be Used Effectively to Prevent the Development of Rabies

VIII. Summary

Acknowledgments

Interferon in Rabies Virus Infection

I. Introduction

II. Rabies and Interferon

III. Conclusions and Future Outlook

Acknowledgments

The Role of Toll-Like Receptors in the Induction of Immune Responses During Rabies Virus Infection

I. Toll-Like Receptors

II. Rabies in MyD88-Deficient Mice

III. The Host Response to Rabies Infection Involves TLR7

IV. The Contribution of TLR7 Signaling to the Control of Rabies Virus Spread to the CNS and Clearance from CNS Tissues

V. TLR7 and the Diverse Pathogenicities of Rabies Virus Variants

VI. Conclusions and Relevance to Therapeutic Immunization

Acknowledgments

Role of Oxidative Stress in Rabies Virus Infection

I. Introduction

II. Degeneration of Neuronal Processes in Experimental Rabies

III. Cultured Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons for Studying Neuronal Process Degeneration

IV. Oxidative Stress

V. Oxidative Stress in Rabies Virus Infection

VI. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Rabies Virus as a Research Tool and Viral Vaccine Vector

I. Rabies Virus as a Research Tool

II. The Need for Novel Vaccines for RABV

III. Modified Replication-Competent RABV as Rabies Vaccines for Wildlife

IV. RABV-Based Vectors as Vaccines Against Other Infectious Diseases

V. Safety: Generating Safer RABV Vaccines and Vectors for Use in Humans

VI. Replication-Deficient or Single-Cycle RABV

VII. Potential Novel Human Rabies Vaccines Based on Replication-Deficient RABV

VIII. Replication-Deficient/Single-Cycle RABV as Vaccine Vector

IX. Killed RABV–RABV Proteins as Carriers of Foreign Antigens

Rabies Virus as a Transneuronal Tracer of Neuronal Connections

I. Introduction

II. Differences in Properties of Alpha-Herpesviruses and Rabies Virus as Transneuronal Tracers

III. Rabies Virus

IV. Perspectives

Acknowledgments

Molecular Phylogenetics of the Lyssaviruses—Insights from a Coalescent Approach

I. Introduction

II. Lyssavirus Phylogeny

III. Lyssavirus Phylogeography

IV. Lyssavirus Adaptation

V. Concluding Remarks

Bats and Lyssaviruses

I. Introduction

II. Bat Lyssaviruses: Eurasia and Australasia

III. Bat Lyssaviruses: Africa

IV. Bat Rabies and the Americas

V. Discussion

Acknowledgments

Postexposure Prophylaxis for Rabies in Resource-Limited/Poor Countries

I. Introduction

II. Local Wound Care

III. Evaluation of Risk of Rabies Exposure

IV. Postexposure Prophylaxis of Previously Unvaccinated Patients

V. Postexposure Prophylaxis in Previously Vaccinated Patients

VI. Postexposure Prophylaxis Failures

Neuroimaging in Rabies

I. Introduction

II. Neuroimaging Techniques

III. Neuroimaging in Rabies

IV. Newer Neuroimaging Techniques in Rabies

V. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Rabies Virus Infection and MicroRNAs

I. Introduction

II. MicroRNAs

III. miRNAs and Viruses

IV. Inhibition of Rabies Viral Replication by siRNA/amiRNA

V. Conclusions

Design of Future Rabies Biologics and Antiviral Drugs

I. Introduction

II. Vaccines

III. Antibodies

IV. Antiviral Drugs

V. Conclusions

Therapy of Human Rabies

I. Introduction

II. Prevention of Rabies

III. Therapy of Rabies

IV. New Approaches

V. Conclusions

Mathematical Models for Rabies

I. Introduction

II. The Development of the Mathematical Approach to Rabies Dynamics

III. Modeling Approaches Using Reaction Diffusion Methods

IV. Methods for Incorporating Landscape Heterogeneities

V. Stochastic Models

VI. Incorporating Stochasticity and Spatial Heterogeneity

VII. Optimal Control

VIII. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Evolution of Wildlife Rabies Control Tactics

I. Introduction

II. Historical and Contemporary Wildlife Rabies Control Tactics

III. Advances in Rabies Vaccine-Bait Delivery Systems for Wildlife

IV. Advances in Wildlife Rabies Vaccines

V. Advances in the Assessment of Wildlife Vaccination Systems

VI. Advances in Contingency and Management Planning for Wildlife Rabies Control

VII. Advances in Technologies for Studying the Ecology of the Rabies Virus and Wildlife Rabies Vector Species

VIII. Summary

Understanding Effects of Barriers on the Spread and Control of Rabies

I. The Concept and Mechanisms of Barriers

II. Assessing Barrier Effects

III. Assessing Interaction of Vaccination Barriers and Habitat Patterns

IV. Discussion

Acknowledgments

Rabies Research in Resource—Poor Countries

Key Features

  • Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts
  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Readership

Virologists, microbiologists and infectious diseases specialists


Details

No. of pages:
486
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123870414
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123870407

Reviews

"A mandatory purchase for all types of comprehensive libraries, both public and university, as well as for those interested in or doing research in the field of virology." --Military Medicine

"This serial...is well known to virologists. It is a valuable aid in maintaining an overview of various facets of the rapidly expanding fields of virology...Timely, informative, and useful to the student, teacher, and research scientist." --American Scientist


About the Serial Volume Editors

Alan Jackson Serial Volume Editor

Dr. Jackson is Professor of Medicine (Neurology) and of Medical Microbiology and also Head of the Section of Neurology at University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. He graduated from Queen’s University with BA and MD degrees. He completed an internship in internal medicine at University of Southern California, residencies in internal medicine at Queen’s University and in neurology at the University of Western Ontario, and a fellowship in neurovirology at The Johns Hopkins University with Drs. Richard Johnson and Diane Griffin. Dr. Jackson held a faculty position at Queen’s University from 1987 - 2007. He is on the Editorial Boards of the Journal of NeuroVirology and the Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. He is President of Rabies in the Americas, Inc. and is on the Board of Directors of the International Society for Neurovirology. Dr. Jackson is the principal investigator on research grants to study experimental aspects of rabies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Queen's University, Ontario, Canada