Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128042397, 9780128042403

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology

2nd Edition

Editors: Ramesh C. Gupta
eBook ISBN: 9780128042403
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128042397
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st April 2017
Page Count: 1460
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Description

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and authoritative resource that provides the latest literature on this complex subject with a primary focus on three core components—parent, placenta, and fetus—and the continuous changes that occur in each. Enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of reproductive toxicology, this revised and updated resource addresses the totality of the subject, discussing a broad range of topics, including nanoparticles and radiation, gases and solvents, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and metals, amongst others.

With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, also including discussions on reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

Completely revised and updated to include the most recent developments in the field, the book is an essential resource for advanced students and researchers in toxicology, as well as biologists, pharmacologists, and teratologists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies.

Key Features

  • Provides a complete, up-to-date, integrated source of information on the key risk stages during reproduction and development
  • Includes new chapters covering significant developments, such as dose-response assessment for developmental toxicity, juvenile toxicity, and neural tube defects, as well as emerging science, such as stem cell application, toxicoproteomics, metabolomics, endocrine disruption, surveillance and regulatory considerations, and risk assessment
  • Offers diverse and unique in vitro and in vivo toxicity models for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing in a user-friendly format that assists in comparative analysis

Readership

Researchers and advanced students in Toxicology. Also, biologists, pharmacologists, and teratologists from academia, industry, and governmental agencies; domestic, wildlife, and aquatic specialists; environmentalists; regulatory agencies

Table of Contents

Section I. General

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology

  • Introduction
  • Important Definitions and Concepts
  • Review of Normal Human Reproduction
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 3. Pharmacokinetics in Pregnancy

  • Introduction
  • Factors Affecting Pharmacokinetics in Pregnancy
  • The Fetal Compartment
  • Highlighting the Value of PK Information in Pregnancy: Tocolytic Therapy
  • Maternal Disease and Obstetrical Complications
  • Origins of the Knowledge Gap
  • Current Initiatives and Future Directions
  • Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 4. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology

  • Introduction
  • PBPK Modeling: Basic Concepts and Tools
  • PBPK Modeling in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology
  • PBPK Model Applications in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 5. Drugs and Chemical Contaminants in Human Breast Milk

  • Introduction
  • Breast-Feeding
  • Drug Excretion Into Breast Milk
  • Drug Disposition in the Infant
  • Drugs That Should Be Used With Caution
  • Commonly Used Herbal Products
  • Nonmedicinal Substances
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section II. Toxicity Testing Models and Safety Evaluation

Chapter 6. Reproductive and Developmental Safety Evaluation of New Pharmaceutical Compounds

  • Introduction
  • Overview of Human Pharmaceutical Development Process
  • Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Studies Needed for Development of Innovative Human Pharmaceuticals
  • Interpretation of Human Risk From the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Studies in Animals
  • Reproductive Risks Communication and Management
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 7. Juvenile Toxicology Testing

  • Introduction
  • Considerations Regarding Toxicology Studies Conducted for Submission to Regulatory Agencies
  • Anatomical and Functional Assessments
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 8. Postmarket Surveillance and Regulatory Considerations in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology: A Food and Drug Administration Perspective

  • Introduction
  • Drugs Intended for Use in Humans
  • Vaccines Intended for Use in Humans
  • Drugs Intended for Use in Animals

Chapter 9. OECD Guidelines for In Vivo Testing of Reproductive Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study (OECD 414)
  • One-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study (OECD 415)
  • Two-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study (OECD 416)
  • Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test (OECD 421)
  • Combined Repeated-Dose Toxicity Study With the Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test (OECD 422)
  • Developmental Neurotoxicity Study (OECD 426)
  • Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (OECD 443)
  • Other Methods Not Included in the OECD Test Guidelines
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 10. Guidelines for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Testing and Risk Assessment of Chemicals

  • Introduction
  • Regulation of Chemicals and Guidelines
  • Risk Assessment and the Use of Data From Testing
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 11. Validated and Nonvalidated Mechanism-Based Methods for Testing Developmental Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Validated Alternative Models for Testing Developmental Toxicology
  • Nonvalidated Cellular Methods
  • Nonvalidated Alternative Models Using Whole Embryos
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 12. Relevance of Animal Testing and Sensitivity of End Points in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Choice of Animal Test Models
  • Nonmammalian Animal Models
  • End Points of Reproductive Toxicity
  • Tests and Test Guidelines
  • Types of Studies
  • Path to Alternative Tests and Concluding Remarks

Chapter 13. Embryonic Toxic Lesions and Stem Cell Therapy

  • Introduction
  • Development and Establishment of Mammalian Vasculogenesis and Embryonic and Fetal Hematopoiesis
  • Experiments on the Correction of Impaired Embryonic Vasculogenesis and Primary Hematopoiesis
  • In Vivo Experiments on the Correction of Impaired Early Fetal Liver Hematopoiesis
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 14. In Vitro and Alternative Approaches to Developmental Neurotoxicity

  • Introduction
  • In Vivo Testing for Neurotoxicity and Developmental Neurotoxicity
  • In Vitro Approaches to Developmental Neurotoxicity
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 15. In Vitro Biomarkers of Developmental Neurotoxicity

  • Introduction
  • Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis
  • Neurite Outgrowth
  • Neurotransmission/Synaptogenesis
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Transcription Factors and Signaling Pathways
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 16. Using Zebrafish to Assess Developmental Neurotoxicity

  • Introduction
  • Early Development
  • Vulnerability of the Developing Nervous System
  • Evaluating Testing for Adverse Effects Produced by Developmental Neurotoxicants
  • Alternative Animal Models
  • Practical Considerations in Zebrafish Neurotoxicological Research
  • Zebrafish as a Model of Developmental Neurotoxicity
  • The Importance of Screens
  • Screening Approaches Using Larval Zebrafish: Some Basic Principles
  • Zebrafish Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing
  • The Zebrafish/Human Connection
  • Emerging Novel Technologies
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 17. Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model to Assess Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • C. elegans as a Model Organism
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 18. A Primate as an Animal Model for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Testing

  • Introduction
  • Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Studies
  • Enhanced Pre- and Postnatal Development
  • Immunogenicity
  • Logistical and/or Technical Challenges
  • Strength and Limitations
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section III. Nanoparticles and Radiation

Chapter 19. Developmental Toxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials

  • Introduction
  • Characteristics, Production, and Applications of Some Engineered Industrial Nanomaterials
  • Special Features of Nanomaterials in Relation to Their Developmental Toxicity
  • Exposure and Assessment of Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterial
  • Crossing Biological Barriers
  • Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 20. Toxicity of Radiation: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Reproduction

  • Introduction
  • Radiation Dose and Risk
  • Effects of Radiation on Different Organs
  • Radiation Exposure and Genetic Hazards
  • Effect of Radiation Exposure on the Hypothalamus–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis
  • Female Reproductive Functions and Radiation Effects
  • Radiation Effects on Male Reproductive System
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section IV. Gases and Solvents

Chapter 21. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Solvents and Gases

  • Introduction
  • Carbon Tetrachloride (CASRN 56-23-5)
  • Tetrachloroethylene (CASRN 127-18-4)
  • Styrene (CASRN 100-42-5)
  • Toluene (CASRN 108-88-3)
  • Benzene (CASRN 608-93-5)
  • Gasoline (CASRN 8006-61-9)
  • Kerosene and Jet Fuels
  • Formaldehyde (CASRN 50-00-0)
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section V. Drugs of Abuse and Addiction, Smoking and Alcohol

Chapter 22. Caffeine

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 23. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Abused Drugs

  • Introduction
  • Animal Models of Developmental Neurotoxicity
  • Psychostimulants
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 24. Effects of Alcohol on Embryo/Fetal Development

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background and Terminology Used to Describe the Effects of Alcohol
  • Clinical Features of FAS/FASD
  • Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol
  • Mechanisms of Ethanol-Induced Teratogenesis
  • Effects of Ethanol on Reproduction and Embryogenesis
  • CNS Dysfunctions Caused by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
  • Biomarkers of Fetal Alcohol Exposure
  • Therapeutics of FASD
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 25. Cigarette Smoking and Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanisms of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section VI. Pharmaceuticals and Food Additives

Chapter 26. Thalidomide

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Thalidomide Embryopathy (Thalidomide Syndrome)
  • Pharmacology
  • Mechanism of Action—Adult Clinical Conditions
  • Mechanism of Action—Thalidomide Embryopathy
  • Phocomelia
  • Framework of Thalidomide Teratogenicity
  • Toxicity and Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 27. Retinoids

  • Introduction
  • Metabolism
  • Retinoids in Reproduction
  • Toxicity in General
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • Developmental Toxicity
  • Patchy Perspective for Vitamin A Support
  • Anticancer Effects in the Reproductive System
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 28. Melamine and Cyanuric Acid

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 29. Ionophores

  • Introduction
  • Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics/Mechanism of Action
  • Ionophore Toxic Syndrome
  • Safety and Toxicity Studies in Cattle
  • Safety and Toxicity Studies in Chickens
  • Safety and Toxicity Studies in Pigs
  • Single-Dose and Multidose Toxicity in Laboratory Animals
  • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
  • Reproductive Safety in Cattle
  • Reproductive Safety in Nontarget Animal Species
  • Risk Assessment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section VII. Metals

Chapter 30. Boron

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background and Sources
  • Exposure
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Therapeutic Strategies
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 31. Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead

  • Introduction
  • Arsenic
  • Cadmium
  • Lead
  • Therapeutic Strategies
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 32. Manganese

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 33. Mercury

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 34. Selenium

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • General Toxicity
  • Toxic Effects of Selenium on Reproduction
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Direction

Section VIII. Pesticides, Industrial and Other Environmental Contaminants

Chapter 35. Organophosphates and Carbamates

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Adverse Outcome Pathways in General Toxicity
  • Adverse Outcome Pathways in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
  • Toxicity
  • Biomarkers
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 36. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Pyrethrins/Pyrethroids

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Adverse Outcome Pathways in General Toxicity
  • Adverse Outcome Pathways in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
  • Endocrine Disruption
  • Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment
  • Biomarkers
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 37. Herbicides and Fungicides

  • Introduction
  • Herbicides
  • Fungicides
  • Endocrine Disruption
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 38. Brominated Flame Retardants

  • Introduction
  • Environmental Contamination and Human Exposure
  • Effects on Human Health
  • Health Effects in Animals and Wildlife
  • Toxicokinetics and Metabolites
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 39. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Biphenyls, Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Health Effects
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 40. Reproductive Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 41. Toxicity and Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A

  • Introduction
  • The Endocrine System
  • Toxicology
  • Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Major Evaluations and Assessments
  • Low-Dose Effects and Nonmonotonicity
  • Regulatory Aspects
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 42. Ethylene Glycol

  • Introduction
  • Acute Toxicity
  • Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity
  • Reproductive Toxicity
  • Developmental Toxicity
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Risk Assessment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 43. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 44. Phthalates

  • Introduction
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Risk Assessment and Phthalate Action Plans
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 45. Personal Care Products and Cosmetics

  • Introduction
  • Phthalates
  • Parabens
  • Triclosan
  • Other Chemicals in PCPs
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section IX. Phytotoxicants, Mycotoxins and Zootoxins

Chapter 46. Toxic plants

  • Introduction
  • Locoweeds, Astragalus, and Oxytropis spp.
  • Pine Needle Abortion, Ponderosa Pine, and Related Species
  • Broom Snakeweed
  • Poisonous Plants That Affect Embryo and Fetal Health
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Prevention and Treatment
  • Veratrum spp. (Skunk Cabbage, False Hellebore)
  • Other Plant Species With Suspected Teratogenic Activity
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 47. Fumonisins

  • Introduction
  • Pharmacokinetics, Toxicokinetics, and Metabolism in Animals
  • Bioavailability and Urinary Biomarker Studies in Humans
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Evidence for Ceramide Synthase Inhibition in Humans
  • Systemic Toxicity in Animals
  • Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
  • Fumonisins and Neural Tube Defects
  • Fumonisins and Growth Retardation
  • Risk Assessment and Regulatory Action
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 48. Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins, and Citrinin

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Toxicity
  • Biomarkers
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 49. Zootoxins

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Marine Zootoxins
  • Insects
  • Arachnida
  • Reptilia
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section X. Special Topics

Chapter 50. Systems Toxicology and Predictive Modeling of Male Developmental Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Male Developmental Toxicity
  • Systems Toxicology Model
  • Spatial Models
  • Cell Agent-Based Models
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 51. Stem Cells in Developmental Toxicity Testing

  • Introduction
  • Use of Stem Cells in Developmental Toxicology
  • Assays for Predicting Developmental Osteotoxicity
  • Assays for Predicting Developmental Neurotoxicity
  • Transcriptomic-Based Assays
  • Non Stem Cell Human Cell Lines
  • Assays Using Human Cells
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 52. Epigenetics in Reproduction and Development

  • Introduction
  • Epigenetic Modifications During Reproduction and Early Development
  • Epigenetic Modifications After Birth
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 53. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Mitochondrial Structure
  • Mitochondria and Energy Production: Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • Mitochondria, ROS, and Oxidative Stress
  • Mitochondria and Calcium Homeostasis
  • The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition
  • Regulation and Significance of the MPT Induction
  • Mitochondria in the Germ Line
  • Testis Mitochondria and Spermatogenesis
  • The Particular Characteristics of Testicular Bioenergetics
  • Mitochondria and Toxicology Studies in the Reproductive System
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 54. Cell Signaling Mechanisms in Developmental Neurotoxicity

  • Introduction
  • Developmental Neurotoxic Chemicals
  • Vulnerability of the Developing Brain
  • Cell Signaling Mechanisms in Developmental Neurotoxicity
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Free Radicals Generation, and Oxidative Stress
  • Impacts on DNA Synthesis
  • Gene Expression Deregulation
  • Protein Modification
  • Epigenetic Modifications
  • Cell Signaling Integration
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 55. Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Injury in Developmental Neurotoxicity

  • Introduction
  • Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Damage
  • Suppression of Innate Immunity-Mediated Neuronal Damage
  • Aging
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 56. Effects of Stress on Reproductive and Developmental Biology

  • Introduction
  • Stressors and Their Impact on Biological Systems
  • Stress and Developmental Biology
  • Stress and Reproductive Biology
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 57. Disruption of Cholesterol Homeostasis in Developmental Neurotoxicity

  • Introduction
  • Cholesterol Homeostasis in the Brain
  • Cholesterol and Brain Development
  • Cholesterol and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
  • Opposite Effects of Brain Cholesterol in Development and Aging
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section XI. Endocrine Disruption, Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Infertility and Teratogenicity

Chapter 58. Endocrine Disruption

  • Introduction
  • Definitions and Important Concepts
  • Mechanisms of Endocrine Disruption
  • Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
  • Screening for Endocrine Disruptors
  • Remaining Questions About Endocrine Disruption
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 59. Developmental and Reproductive Disorders—Role of Endocrine Disruptors in Testicular Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Development of Male Genital System
  • Male Reproductive Tract as Target Site
  • Hormonal Control
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Exposure and Regulation of EDs
  • Association Between EDs and Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome
  • Effect of Various Endocrine Disruptors on Male Fertility
  • Molecular Mechanism of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 60. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity: Human Reproductive Cancer and Risk Factors

  • Introduction
  • Mutagenesis and Reproductive Organ Diseases
  • Carcinogenicity and Reproductive Diseases
  • Transgenerational Effects on Reproductive and Developmental Diseases
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 61. Environmental Pollutants and Neural Tube Defects

  • Introduction
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Arsenic
  • Pesticides
  • Organic Solvents
  • Ambient and Indoor Air Pollution
  • Nitrate and Nitrite
  • Disinfection By-products
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 62. Teratogenicity

  • Introduction
  • The Principles of Teratology
  • Birth Defect Prevalence
  • Teratogenesis and Pregnancy
  • Workplace, Occupation, and Adverse Reproductive Effects
  • General Testing Methods for Teratogenic Effects in Experimental Animals
  • Neurodevelopmental Toxicity
  • The Role of Epigenetics
  • Gene Editing
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 63. Micro–Computed Tomography and Volumetric Imaging in Developmental Toxicology

  • Introduction
  • X-ray Microimaging and Micro-CT
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section XII. Toxicologic Pathology

Chapter 64. Toxicologic Pathology of the Reproductive System

  • Introduction
  • Reproductive Toxicity Studies
  • Hormonal Regulation of Male and Female Reproduction
  • Potential Mechanisms Involved in Reproductive Toxicity
  • Evaluation of Reproductive Toxicity
  • Nonneoplastic Lesions of Male and Female Reproductive Systems
  • Role of Toxicokinetics in Male and Female Reproductive Toxicity
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Teratogenesis
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section XIII. Placental Toxicity

Chapter 65. The Placental Role in Developmental Programming

  • Introduction
  • Placental Function and Regulation
  • The Placental Barrier
  • Diffusion Across the Placenta
  • Placental Transport
  • Regulation of Placental Transfer
  • The Placenta as an Endocrine Organ
  • Fetal Programming
  • Epidemiological Evidence
  • Animal Evidence
  • Periconceptional Influences
  • Mechanisms of Programming
  • Epigenetics and Programming
  • Developmental Alterations
  • Evolutionary Perspectives
  • Programming Summary
  • Other Exposures
  • The “Placental Phenotype,” Interventions, and Treatments
  • Interventions
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 66. Strategies for Investigating Hemochorial Placentation

  • Introduction
  • Early Development of the Placenta
  • The Definitive Placenta in Humans and Rodents
  • Appropriate Models of Hemochorial Placentation
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 67. The Significance of ABC Transporters in Human Placenta for the Exposure of Fetus to Xenobiotics

  • Introduction
  • Structure, Localization, Function, and Polymorphisms of Human Placental ABC Transporters
  • Models to Study Human Placental Transporters
  • Studies on Transplacental Transport and Placental Transporters
  • Significance of ABC Transporters in Fetal Health and Important Targets for Future Studies
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 68. Placental Toxicity

  • Introduction
  • Placental Structure, Function, and Species Differences
  • Placental Barrier
  • Placental Susceptibility to Chemical Toxicity
  • Placental-Toxicity-Modifying Factors
  • Toxicity
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 69. Placental Pathology

  • Introduction
  • Maternal “Effect” Pathologies of the Placenta
  • Maldevelopment of the Placental Implantation Site
  • Intraplacental Interference to Maternal Flow
  • Fetal Pathologies of the Placenta
  • Primary Placental Pathologies
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Section XIV. Domestic and Wildlife Species

Chapter 70. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Avian Species

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Mating Behavior and Nest Building
  • Egg Laying and Reproductive Outcomes
  • Endocrine Disruption
  • Generation Effects and Teratology
  • Toxicology of Specific Agents
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 71. Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife Species

  • Introduction
  • Life History Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • Neuroendocrine Disruption
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Thyroid
  • Sex Hormones and Reproduction
  • Ecological Effects
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 72. Teratogenesis in Livestock

  • Introduction
  • Embryology of Domestic Animals
  • Teratogenic Viruses
  • Nutritional Links With Fetal Development and Teratology
  • Mycotoxins
  • Pesticides
  • Drugs
  • Environmental Chemicals and Factors
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Details

No. of pages:
1460
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128042403
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128042397

About the Editor

Ramesh C. Gupta

Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in experimental brain research in relation to Alzheimer(s) disease (AD) and pesticide toxicity. He has delivered lectures in Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, and Sweden. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >350 publications to his credit, including six major books: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, and (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

DVM, MVSc, PhD, DABT, FACT, FACN, FATS, Professor and Head, Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA