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Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128192542, 9780128192559

Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices

1st Edition

Editors: Robert Herrick Osamu Ueda
Paperback ISBN: 9780128192542
eBook ISBN: 9780128192559
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 6th March 2021
Page Count: 334
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Table of Contents

List of contributors xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1 Introduction to optoelectronic devices 1

Robert W. Herrick and Qiang Guo

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Optoelectronic applications 2

1.3 Principles of operation for optoelectronic components 11

1.4 Method of fabrication 25

1.5 Critical metrics 31

1.6 Laser and light-emitting diode reliability 35

1.7 New technology developments 36

1.8 Summary 41

References 41

2 Reliability engineering in optoelectronic devices and fiber

optic transceivers 47

Robert W. Herrick

2.1 Reliability engineering organizations and management 47

2.2 Developing a product: design for reliability 49

2.3 Developing a test plan: standards-based testing versus

customized testing 53

2.4 Test engineering and data collection 67

2.5 Data collection and analysis 69

2.6 Failure analysis 80

2.7 Physics of failure and common failure mechanisms 80

2.8 Product release, ongoing monitoring, and postrelease support 82

2.9 Conclusion 83

References 84

3 Case studies in fiber optic reliability 89

Robert W. Herrick

3.1 Introduction 89

3.2 Group 1: issues that were caught before product release 90

3.3 Group 2: cases that had reliability issues from the start,

but were not detected in the reliability qualification 98

3.4 Group 3: parts that were reliable after release, but later developed

reliability issues during high-volume manufacturing 104

3.5 Conclusion 111

References 111

4 Materials science of defects in GaAs-based semiconductor lasers 113

Kunal Mukherjee

4.1 Introduction 113

4.2 Characteristics of simple point defects in GaAs 114

4.3 Dislocations in GaAs 122

4.4 Epitaxial integration of GaAs-based materials on silicon 143

4.5 Recombination-enhanced processes 152

4.6 Outlook 166

References 167

5 Grown-in defects and thermal instability affecting the

reliability of lasers: III

Osamu Ueda and Shigetaka Tomiya

5.1 Introduction 177

5.2 Grown-in defects in III

5.3 Influence of grown-in defects on device reliability and

degradation in III-V based optoelectronics 193

5.4 Grown-in defects in III-nitrides 202

5.5 Composition-modulated structures and ordered structures

in III-V based optoelectronics 214

5.6 Thermal instability in III-nitrides 226

5.7 Conclusion 232

References 233

6 Reliability of lasers on silicon substrates for silicon photonics 239

Justin C. Norman, Daehwan Jung, Alan Y. Liu, Jennifer Selvidge,

Kunal Mukherjee, John E. Bowers and Robert W. Herrick

6.1 Introduction 239

6.2 Early-stage prospective technologies 240

6.3 Heterogeneous lasers on silicon 242

6.4 Heteroepitaxial lasers grown on silicon substrates 246

6.5 Reliability results for quantum dot lasers grown

on silicon substrates 250

6.6 Degradation mechanisms in quantum dot lasers on silicon 259

6.7 The path forward and future improvements for quantum dot

lasers grown on silicon substrates 265

6.8 Conclusion 267

Acknowledgments 268

References 268

7 Degradation mechanisms of InGaN visible LEDs

and AlGaN UV LEDs 273

C. De Santi, A. Caria, F. Piva, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni

and M. Meneghini

7.1 Introduction 273

7.2 Degradation of InGaN visible LEDs 273

7.3 Degradation of AlGaN UV LEDs 292

7.4 Conclusions 303

References 304

Index 313


Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices simplifies complex concepts of

optoelectronics reliability with approachable introductory chapters and a focus on real-world

applications. This book provides a brief look at the fundamentals of laser diodes, introduces reliability

qualification, and then presents real-world case studies discussing the principles of reliability and

what occurs when these rules are broken. Then this book comprehensively looks at optoelectronics

devices and the defects that cause premature failure in them and how to control those defects.

Key materials and devices are reviewed including silicon photonics, vertical-cavity surface-emitting

lasers (VCSELs), InGaN LEDs and lasers, and AlGaN LEDs, covering the majority of optoelectronic

devices that we use in our everyday lives, powering the Internet, telecommunication, solid-state

lighting, illuminators, and many other applications. This book features contributions from experts

in industry and academia working in these areas and includes numerous practical examples and

case studies.

This book is suitable for new entrants to the field of optoelectronics working in R&D.

Key Features

    • Includes case studies and numerous examples showing best practices and common mistakes affecting optoelectronics reliability written by experts working in the industry

    • Features the first wide-ranging and comprehensive overview of fiber optics reliability engineering, covering all elements of the practice from building a reliability laboratory, qualifying new products, to improving reliability on mature products.

    • Provides a look at the reliability issues and failure mechanisms for silicon photonics, VCSELs, InGaN LEDs and lasers, AIGaN LEDs, and more.


Materials Scientists and Electrical Engineers primarily working in R&D


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2021
6th March 2021
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Robert Herrick

Robert Herrick

Dr. Robert W. Herrick is one of the world’s leading authorities in semiconductor laser reliability and failure analysis with over 25 years of experience in this field. After receiving his MSEE from the University of Illinois, United States, he worked as a designer and process developer on many of the earliest record-breaking integrated photonics devices in the late 1980s and early 1990s. He did his PhD research at the University of California, Santa Barbara, United States in the mid-1990s, doing the first research on VCSEL reliability and failure analysis. After graduating, he worked for many of the largest optoelectronic transceiver providers, including HP/Agilent, EMCORE, Finisar, and JDSU, primarily in VCSEL reliability and failure analysis, but also in roles in fiber optic transceiver reliability. He now works for Intel’s Silicon Photonics Product Division and is the Principal Engineer responsible for laser reliability.

Affiliations and Expertise

Sr. Staff Engineer, Intel Corporation, USA

Osamu Ueda

Osamu Ueda

Dr. and Prof. Osamu Ueda received BS and PhD degrees from the University of Tokyo, Japan, in 1974 and 1990, respectively. He joined Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. in 1974. Since then, his research has been focused on the evaluation of defects and microstructures in various semiconducting materials and degradation mechanism of compound semiconductor optical devices such as semiconductor lasers and LEDs for over 30 years. The key technique of his work is transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of defects in semiconductors and degraded optical devices. He left Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. in 2005 and joined the Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan as a professor until 2019. He is currently a visiting professor at the Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan. He authored more than 150 scientific papers including 30 invited papers, 5 books, and 56 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan