Reliability, Maintainability and Risk

Reliability, Maintainability and Risk

Practical Methods for Engineers

9th Edition - March 15, 2017

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  • Author: David Smith
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081020227
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081020104

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Description

Reliability, Maintainability and Risk: Practical Methods for Engineers, Ninth Edition, has taught reliability and safety engineers techniques to minimize process design, operation defects, and failures for 35 years. For beginners, the book provides tactics on how to avoid pitfalls in this complex and wide field. For experts in the field, well-described, realistic, and illustrative examples and case studies add new insight and assistance. The author uses his 40 years of experience to create a comprehensive and detailed guide to the field, also providing an excellent description of reliability and risk computation concepts. The book is organized into five parts. Part One covers reliability parameters and costs traces the history of reliability and safety technology, presenting a cost-effective approach to quality, reliability, and safety. Part Two deals with the interpretation of failure rates, while Part Three focuses on the prediction of reliability and risk. Part Four discusses design and assurance techniques, review and testing techniques, reliability growth modeling, field data collection and feedback, predicting and demonstrating repair times, quantified reliability maintenance, and systematic failures, while Part 5 deals with legal, management and safety issues, such as project management, product liability, and safety legislation.

Key Features

  • Additional chapter on helicopter and aviation safety record
  • Coverage of models for partial valve stroke test, fault tree logic and quantification difficulties
  • More detail on use of tools such as FMEDA and programming standards like MISRA

Readership

Chemical, process, plant, oil & gas and related systems safety engineers

Table of Contents

  • Part 1: Understanding Reliability Parameters and Costs

    Chapter 1: The History of Reliability and Safety Technology

    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Failure Data
    • 1.2. Hazardous Failures
    • 1.3. Predicting Reliability and Risk
    • 1.4. Achieving Reliability and Safety-Integrity
    • 1.5. The RAMS-Cycle
    • 1.6. Contractual and Legal Pressures
    • 1.7. Reliability versus Functional Safety

    Chapter 2: Understanding Terms and Jargon

    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Defining Failure and Failure Modes
    • 2.2. Failure Rate and Mean Time Between Failures
    • 2.3. Interrelationships of Terms
    • 2.4. The Bathtub Distribution
    • 2.5. Down Time and Repair Time
    • 2.6. Availability, Unavailability and Probability of Failure on Demand
    • 2.7. Hazard and Risk-Related Terms
    • 2.8. Choosing the Appropriate Parameter

    Chapter 3: A Cost-Effective Approach to Quality, Reliability and Safety

    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Reliability and Optimum Cost
    • 3.2. Costs and Safety
    • 3.3. The Cost of Quality

    Part 2: Interpreting Failure Rates

    Chapter 4: Realistic Failure Rates and Prediction Confidence

    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Data Accuracy
    • 4.2. Sources of Data
    • 4.3. Data Ranges
    • 4.4. Confidence Limits of Prediction
    • 4.5. Manufacturers’ Data (Warranty Claims)
    • 4.6. Overall Conclusions

    Chapter 5: Interpreting Data and Demonstrating Reliability

    • Abstract
    • 5.1. The Four Cases
    • 5.2. Inference and Confidence Levels
    • 5.3. The Chi-Square Test
    • 5.4. Understanding the Method in More Detail
    • 5.5. Double-Sided Confidence Limits
    • 5.6. Reliability Demonstration
    • 5.7. Sequential Testing
    • 5.8. Setting Up Demonstration Tests

    Chapter 6: Variable Failure Rates and Probability Plotting

    • Abstract
    • 6.1. The Weibull Distribution
    • 6.2. Using the Weibull Method
    • 6.3. More Complex Cases of the Weibull Distribution
    • 6.4. Continuous Processes

    Part 3: Predicting Reliability and Risk

    Chapter 7: Basic Reliability Prediction Theory

    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Why Predict RAMS?
    • 7.2. Probability Theory
    • 7.3. Reliability of Series Systems
    • 7.4. Redundancy Rules
    • 7.5. General Features of Redundancy
    • Exercises

    Chapter 8: Methods of Modeling

    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Block Diagrams and Repairable Systems
    • 8.2. Common Cause (Dependent) Failure
    • 8.3. Fault Tree Analysis
    • 8.4. Event Tree Diagrams

    Chapter 9: Quantifying the Reliability Models

    • Abstract
    • 9.1. The Reliability Prediction Method
    • 9.2. Allowing for Diagnostic Intervals
    • 9.3. FMEDA (Failure Mode and Diagnostic Analysis)
    • 9.4. Human Factors
    • 9.5. Simulation
    • 9.6. Comparing Predictions with Targets

    Chapter 10: Risk Assessment (QRA)

    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Frequency and Consequence
    • 10.2. Perception of Risk, ALARP and Cost per Life Saved
    • 10.3. Hazard Identification
    • 10.4. Factors to Quantify

    Part 4: Achieving Reliability and Maintainability

    Chapter 11: Design and Assurance Techniques

    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Specifying and Allocating the Requirement
    • 11.2. Stress Analysis
    • 11.3. Environmental Stress Protection
    • 11.4. Failure Mechanisms
    • 11.5. Complexity and Parts
    • 11.6. Burn-In and Screening
    • 11.7. Maintenance Strategies

    Chapter 12: Design Review, Test and Reliability Growth

    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Review Techniques
    • 12.2. Categories of Testing
    • 12.3. Reliability Growth Modeling

    Chapter 13: Field Data Collection and Feedback

    • Abstract
    • 13.1. Reasons for Data Collection
    • 13.2. Information and Difficulties
    • 13.3. Times to Failure
    • 13.4. Spreadsheets and Databases
    • 13.5. Best Practice and Recommendations
    • 13.6. Analysis and Presentation of Results
    • 13.7. Manufacturers’ data
    • 13.8. Anecdotal Data
    • 13.9. Examples of Failure Report Forms
    • 13.10. No-Fault-Found (NFF)

    Chapter 14: Factors Influencing Down Time

    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Key Design Areas
    • 14.2. Maintenance Strategies and Handbooks

    Chapter 15: Predicting and Demonstrating Repair Times

    • Abstract
    • 15.1. Prediction Methods
    • 15.2. Demonstration Plans

    Chapter 16: Quantified Reliability Centered Maintenance

    • Abstract
    • 16.1. What is QRCM?
    • 16.2. The QRCM Decision Process
    • 16.3. Optimum Replacement (Discard)
    • 16.4. Optimum Spares
    • 16.5. Optimum Proof Test
    • 16.6. Condition Monitoring

    Chapter 17: Systematic Failures, Especially Software

    • Abstract
    • 17.1. Random versus Systematic Failures
    • 17.2. Software-related Failures
    • 17.3. Software Failure Modeling
    • 17.4. Software Quality Assurance (Life Cycle Activities)
    • 17.5. Modern/Formal Methods
    • 17.6. Software Checklists

    Part 5: Legal, Management and Safety Considerations

    Chapter 18: Project Management and Competence

    • Abstract
    • 18.1. Setting Objectives and Making Specifications
    • 18.2. Planning, Feasibility and Allocation
    • 18.3. Program Activities
    • 18.4. Responsibilities and Competence
    • 18.5. Functional Safety Capability
    • 18.6. Standards and Guidance Documents

    Chapter 19: Contract Clauses and Their Pitfalls

    • Abstract
    • 19.1. Essential Areas
    • 19.2. Other Areas
    • 19.3. Pitfalls
    • 19.4. Penalties
    • 19.5. Subcontracted Reliability Assessments

    Chapter 20: Product Liability and Safety Legislation

    • Abstract
    • 20.1. The General Situation
    • 20.2. Strict Liability
    • 20.3. The Consumer Protection Act 1987
    • 20.4. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
    • 20.5. Insurance and Product Recall

    Chapter 21: Major Incident Legislation

    • Abstract
    • 21.1. History of Major Incidents
    • 21.2. Development of major incident legislation
    • 21.3. Safety reports
    • 21.4. Offshore Safety Cases
    • 21.5. Problem Areas
    • 21.6. Rail
    • 21.7. Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide

    Chapter 22: Integrity of Safety-Related Systems

    • Abstract
    • 22.1. Safety-Related or Safety-Critical?
    • 22.2. Safety-Integrity Levels (SILs)
    • 22.3. Programable electronic systems (PESs)
    • 22.4. Current guidance
    • 22.5. Framework for Certification

    Chapter 23: A Case Study: The Datamet Project

    • Abstract
    • 23.1. Introduction
    • 23.2. The Datamet Concept
    • 23.3. The Contract
    • 23.4. Detailed Design
    • 23.5. Syndicate Study
    • 23.6. Hints

    Chapter 24: A Case Study: Gas Detection System

    • Abstract
    • 24.1. Safety-Integrity Target
    • 24.2. Random Hardware Failures
    • 24.3. ALARP
    • 24.4. Architectures
    • 24.5. Life-Cycle Activities
    • 24.6. Functional Safety Capability

    Chapter 25: A Case Study: Pressure Control System

    • Abstract
    • 25.1. The Unprotected System
    • 25.2. Protection System
    • 25.3. Assumptions
    • 25.4. Reliability Block Diagram
    • 25.5. Failure Rate Data
    • 25.6. Quantifying the Model
    • 25.7. Proposed Design and Maintenance Modifications
    • 25.8. Modeling Common Cause Failure (Pressure Transmitters)
    • 25.9. Quantifying the Revised Model
    • 25.10. ALARP
    • 25.11. Architectural Constraints

    Chapter 26: Helicopter Incidents and Risk Assessment

    • Abstract
    • 26.1. Helicopter Incidents
    • 26.2. Risk Assessment - Floatation Equipment
    • 26.3. Effect of Pilot Experience on Incident Rate

    Appendix 1: Glossary

    Appendix 2: Percentage Points of the Chi-Square Distribution

    Appendix 3: Microelectronic Failure Rates

    Appendix 4: General Failure Rates

    Appendix 5: Failure Mode Percentages

    Appendix 6: Human Error Probabilities

    Appendix 7: Fatality Rates

    Appendix 8: Answers to Exercises

    Appendix 9: Bibliography

    Appendix 10: Scoring Criteria for BETAPLUS Common Cause Model

    Appendix 11: Example of HAZOP

    Appendix 12: HAZID Checklist

    Appendix 13: Markov Analysis of Redundant Systems

    Appendix 14: Calculating the GDF

Product details

  • No. of pages: 478
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
  • Published: March 15, 2017
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081020227
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081020104

About the Author

David Smith

Dr. David J. Smith is the Proprietor of Technis Consultancy. He has written numerous books on Reliability and Safety over the last 40 years. His FARADIP database has become widely used, and his other software packages are also used throughout the profession. His PhD thesis was on the subject of reliability prediction and common cause failure. He contributed to the first drafting of IEC 61508 and chairs the IGEM panel which produces SR/15 (the gas industry safety related guidance). David is past President of the Safety and Reliability Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Consultant, Technis, Tonbridge, UK

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