Reinforcement - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122831508, 9781483266244

Reinforcement

1st Edition

Behavioral Analyses

Editors: R. M. Gilbert J. R. Millenson
eBook ISBN: 9781483266244
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 302
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Description

Reinforcement: Behavioral Analyses covers the proceedings of the 1970 Symposium on Schedule-induced and Schedule-Dependent Phenomena, held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This symposium highlights theoretically inclined papers on reinforcement processes.

This text contains 10 chapters and begins with a description of how behavior is induced by various environmental events, especially reinforcing events, as well as the relationship between control by inducing stimuli and reinforceability. The subsequent chapters deal with reinforcement phenomena in terms of preference relations and the conditioned emotional responses in terms of opposing motivational processes. These topics are followed by reviews of schedule-dependent effects of preaversive stimuli and the maintenance of behavior by apparent reinforcers that might be expected to punish, as well as the identification of critical variable that underlie the phenomenon. Other chapters examine the interactions between operant and responded conditioning processes. The final chapters outline the experiments on behavior stream whose hallmark is reinforcement if the absence of specified behavior. These chapters emphasize the analogy between the evolution of species and the modification of behavior.

This book will be of value to behaviorists and psychologists.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1—Induction and the Provenance of Operants

I. Proem

II. Induction by Reinforcement: Shaping

III. Induction by Deprivation

IV. Induction by Reflex Elicitation

V. Induction by Releasing Stimuli

VI. Emotional Induction

VII. General Discussion

VIII. Summary

References

Chapter 2—Constraints on the Operant Conditioning of Drinking

I. Introduction

II. The Operant Conditioning of Drinking and Bar Pressing in the Rat

III. Specification of Properties of the Response: System Constraints

IV. Neural Correlates of Drinking and Bar Pressing

V. Summary

References

Chapter 3—The Effect on Extinction of the Preference Relations Between the Instrumental and Contingent Events

I. Introduction

II. Experiment I: Reinforcement of Drinking by Self-Forced Running

III. Stimulus Generalization as an Alternative Explanation

IV. Experiment II: Reinforcement of Running by Drinking

V. Summary

References

Chapter 4—Development and Maintenance of Responding under Schedules of Electric-Shock Presentation

I. Introductory Comments

II. Punishment

III. Experiments Demonstrating the Maintenance of Responding under Fixed-Interval Schedules of Response-Produced Electric Shocks

IV. Further Experiments Demonstrating the Maintenance of Responding under Schedules of Response-Produced Electric Shocks

V. Behavior Maintained by Response-Independent Shock Presentation

VI. Two-Process Learning Theory: Experiments Analyzing Instrumental Avoidance Behavior by Pavlovian Conditioning Procedures

VII. Summary

References

Chapter 5—Motivational Properties of Conditioned Anxiety

I. Introduction

II. Explanatory Mechanisms for the CER

III. Toward an Experimental Analysis

IV. Experimental Analysis

V. Deploying the Drive-Decrement Hypothesis

References

Chapter 6—The Measurement of Rate-Dependent Changes in Responding

I. Introduction

II. Assumptions Behind Relative Rate Measures

III. Tests of the Independent Choices Model

IV. Choice in Concurrent Schedules

V. Conditioned Suppression

VI. Generalization Gradients

VII. Conclusions

References

Chapter 7—Behavioral Control by Intermittent Stimulation

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Procedures

References

Chapter 8-Reinforcement Schedules: Contingency or Contiguity?

I. Introduction

II. Contingency without Contiguity

III. Classical-Instrumental Interactions

IV. An information-Transmission Theory of Contingency

V. The Nature of Classical Conditioning

VI. Information and Reinforcement

VII. Conclusions

Appendix 1. Calculating Information Transmission

Appendix 2. Avoidance: Learned Helplessness and Facilitation

Appendix 3. Simultaneous Pavlovian and Instrumental Training

Appendix 4. S-Only as an Informative Signal

References

Chapter 9—Temporal Control and the Theory of Reinforcement Schedules

I. Temporal and Situational Control

II. The Relative Proximity Principle

III. The Establishment of Temporal Control

IV. Transfer Properties of Temporal Control

V. Difficulties of the Approach

VI. Summary

References

Chapter 10—Variation and Selection of Behavior

I. Variation and Selection as Essential Requirements of Adaptive Mechanistic Systems

II. Ontogeny Resembles Phytogeny

III. The Relative Status of Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Selection

IV. Preference Relations in the Analysis of Behavior

V. The Selection of Stimuli

VI. Behavioral Variation

VII. The Behavior Stream

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
302
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483266244

About the Editor

R. M. Gilbert

J. R. Millenson