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Reinforcement: Behavioral Analyses covers the proceedings of the 1970 Symposium on Schedule-induced and Schedule-Dependent Phenomena, held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This symposium highlights theoretically inclined papers on reinforcement processes.
This text contains 10 chapters and begins with a description of how behavior is induced by various environmental events, especially reinforcing events, as well as the relationship between control by inducing stimuli and reinforceability. The subsequent chapters deal with reinforcement phenomena in terms of preference relations and the conditioned emotional responses in terms of opposing motivational processes. These topics are followed by reviews of schedule-dependent effects of preaversive stimuli and the maintenance of behavior by apparent reinforcers that might be expected to punish, as well as the identification of critical variable that underlie the phenomenon. Other chapters examine the interactions between operant and responded conditioning processes. The final chapters outline the experiments on behavior stream whose hallmark is reinforcement if the absence of specified behavior. These chapters emphasize the analogy between the evolution of species and the modification of behavior.
This book will be of value to behaviorists and psychologists.
List of Contributors
Chapter 1—Induction and the Provenance of Operants
II. Induction by Reinforcement: Shaping
III. Induction by Deprivation
IV. Induction by Reflex Elicitation
V. Induction by Releasing Stimuli
VI. Emotional Induction
VII. General Discussion
Chapter 2—Constraints on the Operant Conditioning of Drinking
II. The Operant Conditioning of Drinking and Bar Pressing in the Rat
III. Specification of Properties of the Response: System Constraints
IV. Neural Correlates of Drinking and Bar Pressing
Chapter 3—The Effect on Extinction of the Preference Relations Between the Instrumental and Contingent Events
II. Experiment I: Reinforcement of Drinking by Self-Forced Running
III. Stimulus Generalization as an Alternative Explanation
IV. Experiment II: Reinforcement of Running by Drinking
Chapter 4—Development and Maintenance of Responding under Schedules of Electric-Shock Presentation
I. Introductory Comments
III. Experiments Demonstrating the Maintenance of Responding under Fixed-Interval Schedules of Response-Produced Electric Shocks
IV. Further Experiments Demonstrating the Maintenance of Responding under Schedules of Response-Produced Electric Shocks
V. Behavior Maintained by Response-Independent Shock Presentation
VI. Two-Process Learning Theory: Experiments Analyzing Instrumental Avoidance Behavior by Pavlovian Conditioning Procedures
Chapter 5—Motivational Properties of Conditioned Anxiety
II. Explanatory Mechanisms for the CER
III. Toward an Experimental Analysis
IV. Experimental Analysis
V. Deploying the Drive-Decrement Hypothesis
Chapter 6—The Measurement of Rate-Dependent Changes in Responding
II. Assumptions Behind Relative Rate Measures
III. Tests of the Independent Choices Model
IV. Choice in Concurrent Schedules
V. Conditioned Suppression
VI. Generalization Gradients
Chapter 7—Behavioral Control by Intermittent Stimulation
II. Experimental Procedures
Chapter 8-Reinforcement Schedules: Contingency or Contiguity?
II. Contingency without Contiguity
III. Classical-Instrumental Interactions
IV. An information-Transmission Theory of Contingency
V. The Nature of Classical Conditioning
VI. Information and Reinforcement
Appendix 1. Calculating Information Transmission
Appendix 2. Avoidance: Learned Helplessness and Facilitation
Appendix 3. Simultaneous Pavlovian and Instrumental Training
Appendix 4. S-Only as an Informative Signal
Chapter 9—Temporal Control and the Theory of Reinforcement Schedules
I. Temporal and Situational Control
II. The Relative Proximity Principle
III. The Establishment of Temporal Control
IV. Transfer Properties of Temporal Control
V. Difficulties of the Approach
Chapter 10—Variation and Selection of Behavior
I. Variation and Selection as Essential Requirements of Adaptive Mechanistic Systems
II. Ontogeny Resembles Phytogeny
III. The Relative Status of Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Selection
IV. Preference Relations in the Analysis of Behavior
V. The Selection of Stimuli
VI. Behavioral Variation
VII. The Behavior Stream
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 1972
- 1st January 1972
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
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