Reinforcement and Behavior - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126836509, 9781483268835

Reinforcement and Behavior

1st Edition

Editors: Jack T. Tapp
eBook ISBN: 9781483268835
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 448
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Reinforcement and Behavior brings together research findings and views of a number of investigators on the principles of learning and reinforcement. Their work has challenged the more traditional interpretations of the nature of the reinforcement process. Within the book, the chapters are organized from a molar level of analysis to a molecular one, not only to reflect the diversity of strategies that are being brought to bear on the problem, but also to show that the research on the nature of reinforcement transcends lines of scientific disciplines and that many different levels of analysis contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon. The first and last chapters give historical perspective to the remainder of the book by reviewing the contributions of a number of individuals who have dealt with the problem in their own work and by pointing out some of the major issues on the molar level that are still unresolved. The remaining chapters can be roughly divided into two categories. One examines the consequences of rewards on behavior in order to specify the limits of their operations and the variables which predispose organisms to be responsive to the consequences of rewards. The other deals with the neural mechanisms which underlie reinforcement and learning.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. Historical Introduction to the Problem of Reinforcement

I. Philosophical Antecedents

II. Early Evolutionism

A. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

B. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

III. The Law of Effect

A. Edward L. Thomdike (1874-1949)

B. Criticisms of the Law of Effect

IV. Noneffect Theories

A. Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936)

B. John B. Watson (1878-1958)

C. Edwin R. Guthrie (1886-1959)

D. Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959)

V. The Empirical Law of Effect

B. F. Skinner (1904- )

VI. Drive Reductionism

A. Clark L. Hull (1884-1952)

B. Neal E. Miller (1909- )

VII. Inadequacies of Drive Reductionism

A. Difficulties Arising outside the Theory

B. Difficulties within the Theory


2. Reinforcement—"The One Ring"

I. Introduction

II. Classification of Learning-Theory Concepts

III. The Superfluous Nature of Glue

IV. Alternative Experimental Strategies

V. Summary


3. Reinforcement in Human Learning

I. Introduction

II. Information versus Effect

III. Provisional Interpretation of the Functions of Reward

IV. An Experimental Test of the Theory

A. Method

B. Results

V. Interpretations of Standard Learning Experiments

A. Thorndikian Experiments

B. Operant Conditioning of Verbal Behavior

C. Magnitude of Reward

D. Delay of Reward

VI. Summary


4. Reward and Reinforcement in Selective Learning: Considerations with Respect to a Mathematical Model of Learning

I. Distinction between Reward and Reinforcement

A. Definition of Reinforcement

B. Definition of Reward

II. A Markov Model for Simple Spatial Discrimination

A. Assumptions of the Model

B. The Parameters of the Model

C. Boundary Conditions of the Model

III. Experimental Data

A. General Procedures

B. Experiment I — Initial Test of Model

C. Experiment II — Correction Procedure

D. Experiment III — Magnitude of Reward

IV. General Discussion and Conclusions

A. The Two-Operator Linear Model

Β. Reward, Reinforcement, and Parameters of the All-or-None Model


5. On Some Boundary Conditions of Contrast

I. Boundary Conditions

II. Different Instrumental Events

III. Different Reinforcers

IV. Response Similarity

V. Two Hypotheses and a Counterhypothesis

VI. Preference

VII. Three Mechanisms of Contrast

VIII. Changes in the Preference Structure

IX. Is Choice Subject to Contrast?

X. Selective Recapitulation


6. Activity, Reactivity, and the Behavior-Directing Properties of Stimuli

I. The Nature of Activity

A. Observational Experiments

B. Interrelations between Activity Measures

II. The Effects of Hunger on Activity

III. The Effects of Needs on Reactions to Stimuli

A. The Effects of Hunger

B. The Effects of Thirst

C. Hunger and Thirst Compared

D. Comparisons between Stimuli

IV. Summary and Conclusions


7. The Reward-Value of Indifferent Stimulation

I. Introduction

A. The Nature of Reinforcement

B. Need to Distinguish Reinforcement from Performance Effects

C. Use of Indifferent Stimuli as Rewards

D. Specificity versus Generality

Ε. Photic Reinforcement

II. Is Light Increment Really Rewarding?

A. Experiment 1: No Light Change during Test Trials

B. Experiment 2: Light Change during Test Trials

III. Effects of Degree of Change and Consequent Level

A. Experiment 1: Light Increment

B. Experiment 2: Light Decrement

C. Conclusions

IV. Deprivation of Stimulus-Change, Novelty, and Arousal

A. Experiment 1: Novelty and Stimulus Deprivation

B. Experiment 2: Novelty and Methamphetamine

V. The Reward-Value of Light Change at Supranormal and Subnormal Arousal Levels

A. Experiment 1: Effects of Methamphetamine on the Reward-Value of Light Increment

B. Experiment 2: Effects of Pentobarbital on the Reward-Value of Light Increment

VI. Reward and Arousal


8. Taste Preference and Reinforcement

I. Introduction

II. Hedonic Scales

III. Animal Studies of Taste

A. Electrophysiology and Behavior

B. Behavioral Studies of Sugar Response

C. The Definition of Preference

D. Preference and Reinforcement

E. Origin of Preference-Aversion Functions

IV. Summary


9. The Hypothalamus and Motivated Behavior

I. Introduction and Historical Perspective

II. Experiments on Stimulus-Bound Behavior

A. General Experimental Methodology

B. Initial Results, Subsequent Experiments, and Discussion

III. General Discussion


10. Brain-Acetylcholine and Inhibition

I. Anticholinergics and Habituation

II. Anticholinergics and Memory

III. A Note on Stimulus-Change

IV. Anticholinergics and Suppression

V. Brain-Acetylcholine and Inhibition

VI. The Generality of Cholinergic Inhibitory Processes

VII. Anatomical Correlates of Cholinergic Inhibition


11. Chemistry of Purposive Behavior

I. Anatomical Substrates of Reward and Punishment

II. Pharmacology of the Reward System

III. Identification of an Ascending Adrenergic Pathway in the Reward System

IV. Perfusion Studies

V. Pharmacology of the Punishment System

VI. Lesions and Cholinergic Stimulation of Medial Hypothalamus

VII. Lesions and Adrenergic Stimulation of the Amygdala


12. Plasticity in Aplysia Neurons and Some Simple Neuronal Models of Learning

I. Introduction

A. The Cellular Approach and the Use of Simplified Preparations

B. The Neuron and Its Functional Components

II. Simple Neuronal Models of Learning

A. Models Involving Alterations of Synaptic Efficacy

B. Models Involving Alterations of Endogenous Activity

III. Summary and Conclusions


13. Current Status and Future Directions

I. Introduction

A. Prologue

Β. Classification of Reinforcement Theories

II. Motivational Theories

A. Drive Reduction

B. Arousal

III. Stimulus Theories

A. Stimulus-Change

B. Optimal Level of Stimulation

C. Hedonic Properties of Stimuli

IV. Response Theories

A. Consummatory Response

B. Prepotent Response

C. Central Confirming Reaction

V. Eclectic Views

VI. Overview


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1969
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Jack T. Tapp

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