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Regulation of Ventilation and Gas Exchange is a comprehensive account of the regulation of ventilation and gas exchange. Topics covered include central nervous system regulation of ventilation; ventilatory response to muscular exercise; respiratory control in air-breathing ectotherms; and breathing during sleep. Hydrogen ion homeostasis of the cerebral extracellular fluid is also discussed, along with specific mechanisms for O2 and CO transport in the lung and placenta.
Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the neural elements that modify and/or are intrinsic to the respiratory rhythm. The next two chapters deal with the contribution of metabolic factors in the control of ventilation, paying particular attention to the importance of metabolic factors during muscular exercise and the specific role of ammonia in the regulation of respiration. A view of ventilatory control from a comparative standpoint, stressing both adaptive and mechanistic phenomena, is then presented. Subsequent chapters explore the regulation of breathing during sleep; regulation of cerebral extracellular fluid acid-base composition and its role in the control of ventilation and cerebral blood flow; carrier-mediated transport of respiratory gases; and measurement of ventilation-perfusion ratios is presented. The last chapter considers lung surfactant mechanics and addresses issues such as in vitro vs in situ measurements of surface tension and the effects of surface tension on pulmonary vascular resistance and interstitial pressure.
This monograph is designed not only for respiratory physiologists but also for students and researchers in other areas with an inclination toward respiratory physiology.
List of Contributors
Chapter 1 Central Nervous System Regulation of Ventilation
II. Brainstem Respiratory Centers
III. Nervous System Integration of Chemoreceptor Stimuli
V. Afterword: The "Problem of Anesthesia"
Chapter 2 Ventilatory Response to Muscular Exercise
II. Moderate Exercise
III. Interaction of Moderate Exercise with Other Ventilatory Stimuli
IV. Severe Exercise
V. Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 3 Ammonia and the Regulation of Ventilation
II. Metabolic Effects of Ammonia
III. Source of Ammonia
IV. Effect of Ammonia on Control of Ventilation in the Dog
Chapter 4 Respiratory Control in Air-Breathing Ectotherms
II. Respiratory Adaptations of Vertebrates
III. Bases of Respiratory Control
IV. Temperature and Respiratory Control
Chapter 5 Breathing during Sleep
II. Definition of Sleep and Wakefulness
III. A Description of Breathing during Sleep
IV. Respiratory Reflexes during Sleep
V. Upper Airway Function during Sleep and Wakefulness
VI. Neurophysiological Interpretations
Chapter 6 Hydrogen Ion Homeostasis of the Cerebral Extracellular Fluid
II. Regulation of CSF PCO2
III. Regulation of CSF Bicarbonate Concentration
Iv. Cerebral ECF Acidity and the Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow and Ventilation
Chapter 7 Specific Mechanisms for O2 and CO Transport in the Lung and Placenta
II. Criteria for Carrier-Mediated Transport
III. Identity of the Carrier
IV. Physiological Importance of Carrier-Mediated Transport
Chapter 8 Measurement of the Distribution of Ventilation-Perfusion Ratios
II. Theoretical Basis
III. Experimental Applications
IV. Summary and Conclusions
Appendix: Fortran Listings of Quadratic and Linear Subroutines
Chapter 9 Lung Surfactant Mechanics: Some Unresolved Problems
II. Historical Developments
III. Factors Involved in Lung Stability
IV. In Vitro vs in Situ Measurements of Surface Tension
V. Stability of the Surface Film
VI. Depletion of the Lining Material
VII. Effects of Surface Tension on Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Interstitial Pressure
VIII. Summary and Conclusions
Appendix: Model of Anisotropie Expansion of Alveolar Duct
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 1978
- 1st January 1978
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
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