Regulation of Ventilation and Gas Exchange

Regulation of Ventilation and Gas Exchange

1st Edition - January 1, 1978

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  • Editor: Donald Davies
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323156004

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Regulation of Ventilation and Gas Exchange is a comprehensive account of the regulation of ventilation and gas exchange. Topics covered include central nervous system regulation of ventilation; ventilatory response to muscular exercise; respiratory control in air-breathing ectotherms; and breathing during sleep. Hydrogen ion homeostasis of the cerebral extracellular fluid is also discussed, along with specific mechanisms for O2 and CO transport in the lung and placenta. Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the neural elements that modify and/or are intrinsic to the respiratory rhythm. The next two chapters deal with the contribution of metabolic factors in the control of ventilation, paying particular attention to the importance of metabolic factors during muscular exercise and the specific role of ammonia in the regulation of respiration. A view of ventilatory control from a comparative standpoint, stressing both adaptive and mechanistic phenomena, is then presented. Subsequent chapters explore the regulation of breathing during sleep; regulation of cerebral extracellular fluid acid-base composition and its role in the control of ventilation and cerebral blood flow; carrier-mediated transport of respiratory gases; and measurement of ventilation-perfusion ratios is presented. The last chapter considers lung surfactant mechanics and addresses issues such as in vitro vs in situ measurements of surface tension and the effects of surface tension on pulmonary vascular resistance and interstitial pressure. This monograph is designed not only for respiratory physiologists but also for students and researchers in other areas with an inclination toward respiratory physiology.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 Central Nervous System Regulation of Ventilation

    I. Introduction

    II. Brainstem Respiratory Centers

    III. Nervous System Integration of Chemoreceptor Stimuli

    IV. Summary

    V. Afterword: The "Problem of Anesthesia"


    Chapter 2 Ventilatory Response to Muscular Exercise

    I. Introduction

    II. Moderate Exercise

    III. Interaction of Moderate Exercise with Other Ventilatory Stimuli

    IV. Severe Exercise

    V. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 3 Ammonia and the Regulation of Ventilation

    I. Introduction

    II. Metabolic Effects of Ammonia

    III. Source of Ammonia

    IV. Effect of Ammonia on Control of Ventilation in the Dog

    V. Summary


    Chapter 4 Respiratory Control in Air-Breathing Ectotherms

    I. Introduction

    II. Respiratory Adaptations of Vertebrates

    III. Bases of Respiratory Control

    IV. Temperature and Respiratory Control

    V. Conclusions


    Chapter 5 Breathing during Sleep

    I. Introduction

    II. Definition of Sleep and Wakefulness

    III. A Description of Breathing during Sleep

    IV. Respiratory Reflexes during Sleep

    V. Upper Airway Function during Sleep and Wakefulness

    VI. Neurophysiological Interpretations

    VII. Summary


    Chapter 6 Hydrogen Ion Homeostasis of the Cerebral Extracellular Fluid

    I. Introduction

    II. Regulation of CSF PCO2

    III. Regulation of CSF Bicarbonate Concentration

    Iv. Cerebral ECF Acidity and the Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow and Ventilation


    Chapter 7 Specific Mechanisms for O2 and CO Transport in the Lung and Placenta

    I. Introduction

    II. Criteria for Carrier-Mediated Transport

    III. Identity of the Carrier

    IV. Physiological Importance of Carrier-Mediated Transport


    Chapter 8 Measurement of the Distribution of Ventilation-Perfusion Ratios

    I. Introduction

    II. Theoretical Basis

    III. Experimental Applications

    IV. Summary and Conclusions


    Appendix: Fortran Listings of Quadratic and Linear Subroutines

    Chapter 9 Lung Surfactant Mechanics: Some Unresolved Problems

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Developments

    III. Factors Involved in Lung Stability

    IV. In Vitro vs in Situ Measurements of Surface Tension

    V. Stability of the Surface Film

    VI. Depletion of the Lining Material

    VII. Effects of Surface Tension on Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Interstitial Pressure

    VIII. Summary and Conclusions

    Appendix: Model of Anisotropie Expansion of Alveolar Duct


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1978
  • Published: January 1, 1978
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323156004

About the Editor

Donald Davies

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