Regulation of Ventilation and Gas Exchange - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122046506, 9780323156004

Regulation of Ventilation and Gas Exchange

1st Edition

Editors: Donald Davies
eBook ISBN: 9780323156004
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 320
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Description

Regulation of Ventilation and Gas Exchange is a comprehensive account of the regulation of ventilation and gas exchange. Topics covered include central nervous system regulation of ventilation; ventilatory response to muscular exercise; respiratory control in air-breathing ectotherms; and breathing during sleep. Hydrogen ion homeostasis of the cerebral extracellular fluid is also discussed, along with specific mechanisms for O2 and CO transport in the lung and placenta.

Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the neural elements that modify and/or are intrinsic to the respiratory rhythm. The next two chapters deal with the contribution of metabolic factors in the control of ventilation, paying particular attention to the importance of metabolic factors during muscular exercise and the specific role of ammonia in the regulation of respiration. A view of ventilatory control from a comparative standpoint, stressing both adaptive and mechanistic phenomena, is then presented. Subsequent chapters explore the regulation of breathing during sleep; regulation of cerebral extracellular fluid acid-base composition and its role in the control of ventilation and cerebral blood flow; carrier-mediated transport of respiratory gases; and measurement of ventilation-perfusion ratios is presented. The last chapter considers lung surfactant mechanics and addresses issues such as in vitro vs in situ measurements of surface tension and the effects of surface tension on pulmonary vascular resistance and interstitial pressure.

This monograph is designed not only for respiratory physiologists but also for students and researchers in other areas with an inclination toward respiratory physiology.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1 Central Nervous System Regulation of Ventilation

I. Introduction

II. Brainstem Respiratory Centers

III. Nervous System Integration of Chemoreceptor Stimuli

IV. Summary

V. Afterword: The "Problem of Anesthesia"

References

Chapter 2 Ventilatory Response to Muscular Exercise

I. Introduction

II. Moderate Exercise

III. Interaction of Moderate Exercise with Other Ventilatory Stimuli

IV. Severe Exercise

V. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 3 Ammonia and the Regulation of Ventilation

I. Introduction

II. Metabolic Effects of Ammonia

III. Source of Ammonia

IV. Effect of Ammonia on Control of Ventilation in the Dog

V. Summary

References

Chapter 4 Respiratory Control in Air-Breathing Ectotherms

I. Introduction

II. Respiratory Adaptations of Vertebrates

III. Bases of Respiratory Control

IV. Temperature and Respiratory Control

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter 5 Breathing during Sleep

I. Introduction

II. Definition of Sleep and Wakefulness

III. A Description of Breathing during Sleep

IV. Respiratory Reflexes during Sleep

V. Upper Airway Function during Sleep and Wakefulness

VI. Neurophysiological Interpretations

VII. Summary

References

Chapter 6 Hydrogen Ion Homeostasis of the Cerebral Extracellular Fluid

I. Introduction

II. Regulation of CSF PCO2

III. Regulation of CSF Bicarbonate Concentration

Iv. Cerebral ECF Acidity and the Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow and Ventilation

References

Chapter 7 Specific Mechanisms for O2 and CO Transport in the Lung and Placenta

I. Introduction

II. Criteria for Carrier-Mediated Transport

III. Identity of the Carrier

IV. Physiological Importance of Carrier-Mediated Transport

References

Chapter 8 Measurement of the Distribution of Ventilation-Perfusion Ratios

I. Introduction

II. Theoretical Basis

III. Experimental Applications

IV. Summary and Conclusions

References

Appendix: Fortran Listings of Quadratic and Linear Subroutines

Chapter 9 Lung Surfactant Mechanics: Some Unresolved Problems

I. Introduction

II. Historical Developments

III. Factors Involved in Lung Stability

IV. In Vitro vs in Situ Measurements of Surface Tension

V. Stability of the Surface Film

VI. Depletion of the Lining Material

VII. Effects of Surface Tension on Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Interstitial Pressure

VIII. Summary and Conclusions

Appendix: Model of Anisotropie Expansion of Alveolar Duct

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
320
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323156004

About the Editor

Donald Davies