Regulating Safety of Traditional and Ethnic Foods

Regulating Safety of Traditional and Ethnic Foods

1st Edition - November 23, 2015

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  • Editors: V. Prakash, Olga Martin-Belloso, Larry Keener, Sian Bethan Astley, Susanne Braun, Helena McMahon, Huub Lelieveld
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128006054
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128006207

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Regulating Safety of Traditional and Ethnic Foods, a compilation from a team of experts in food safety, nutrition, and regulatory affairs, examines a variety of traditional foods from around the world, their risks and benefits, and how regulatory steps may assist in establishing safe parameters for these foods without reducing their cultural or nutritive value. Many traditional foods provide excellent nutrition from sustainable resources, with some containing nutraceutical properties that make them not only a source of cultural and traditional value, but also valuable options for addressing the growing need for food resources. This book discusses these ideas and concepts in a comprehensive and scientific manner.

Key Features

  • Addresses the need for balance in safety regulation and retaining traditional food options
  • Includes case studies from around the world to provide practical insight and guidance
  • Presents suggestions for developing appropriate global safety standards


University professors and students, Food companies (producers and traders), NGO's, Researchers interested in food biochemistry, Regulators, and in particular those who export or import EF and TF

Table of Contents

    • List of Contributors
    • Prologue
    • Foreword
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1: Introduction: The Importance of Traditional and Ethnic Food in the Context of Food Safety, Harmonization, and Regulations
      • Abstract
      • 1.1. New approaches for understanding traditional foods
      • 1.2. R&D and understanding traditional foods
      • 1.3. Knowledge platform of traditional foods: leveraging an integrated approach
      • 1.4. Science, regulation, and the global harmonization initiative approach
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 2: Safety by Control of Water Activity: Drying, Smoking, and Salt or Sugar Addition
      • Abstract
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Water activity, stability, and quality of foods
      • 2.3. Water activity and microbial growth
      • 2.4. Drying
      • 2.5. Smoking
      • 2.6. Salting
      • 2.7. The use of sugars
      • 2.8. Combined methods for food preservation based on water activity control
    • Chapter 3: Typical Traditional Processes: Cooking and Frying
      • Abstract
      • 3.1. Traditional cooking procedures
      • 3.2. Dry cooking
      • 3.3. Wet cooking traditional procedures
      • 3.4. Traditional frying procedures
      • 3.5. Nutritional impact of cooking and frying
    • Chapter 4: Safety of Meat and Poultry
      • Abstract
      • 4.1. Description and origin of meat and poultry
      • 4.2. History of meat and poultry products
      • 4.3. Public health risks
      • 4.4. Traditional methods of meat and poultry preservation
      • 4.5. Epidemiology
      • 4.6. Local and global regulatory status
      • 4.7. Future trends and expectations
      • 4.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 5: Safety of Fish Products
      • Abstract
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Raw seafood
      • 5.3. Cured products
      • 5.4. Marinated (pickled) fish
      • 5.5. Dried fish
      • 5.6. Smoked fish
      • 5.7. Salted fish
      • 5.8. Thermally processed (cooked) products
      • 5.9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Safety in the Shrimp Supply Chain
      • Abstract
      • 6.1. Description and origin(s) of the food(s)
      • 6.2. Organization of the farmed shrimp supply chain
      • 6.3. History of use
      • 6.4. Public health risk
      • 6.5. The traditional method of preservation
      • 6.6. Epidemiologic data
      • 6.7. Local and global regulatory status
      • 6.8. Contemporary considerations to ensure safety
      • 6.9. Future trends and expectations
      • 6.10. Conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Safety of Fermented Meat
      • Abstract
      • 7.1. Description and origin of traditional and ethnic fermented meat products
      • 7.2. History of fermented meat products
      • 7.3. Public health risks
      • 7.4. The traditional method of preservation: the fermentation process
      • 7.5. Epidemiologic data
      • 7.6. Regulatory status
      • 7.7. Contemporary and innovative aspects to improve safety
      • 7.8. Future trends and expectations
      • 7.9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 8: Safety of Fermented Fish Products
      • Abstract
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Fermented fish products across the world
      • 8.3. Europe
      • 8.4. Safety issues of fermented fish products
      • 8.5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: Safety of Milk Processing and Distribution Chain in India
      • Abstract
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Tradition of milk use in India
      • 9.3. Public health risks from milk
      • 9.4. Traditional methods of preservation
      • 9.5. Regulatory status of milk and milk products
      • 9.6. Contemporary considerations to ensure safety
      • 9.7. Future trends and expectations
      • 9.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: Safety of Fermented Dairy Products
      • Abstract
      • 10.1. Origin and history of artisanal cheese in Mexico
      • 10.2. Raw milk cheese: public health risks and preservation principles
      • 10.3. Raw milk cheese: regulatory status and epidemiologic data
      • 10.4. Contemporary considerations to ensure safety, future trends, and expectations
      • 10.5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Safety of Foods Based on Insects
      • Abstract
      • 11.1. Description and origin of edible insect foods
      • 11.2. History of use
      • 11.3. Public health risk
      • 11.4. Potential natural hazards of insects
      • 11.5. Potential hazards introduced by feed and environment
      • 11.6. Production methods
      • 11.7. Traditional methods of preservation
      • 11.8. Epidemiologic data
      • 11.9. Global and local regulatory status
      • 11.10. Future trends and expectations
      • 11.11. Conclusions
    • Chapter 12: Safety of Honey
      • Abstract
      • 12.1. Description and origins of honey as food
      • 12.2. Quality parameters of honey
      • 12.3. Honey classification
      • 12.4. Nutritional value
      • 12.5. Bioactive compounds and antibacterial properties
      • 12.6. Historical data of beekeeping origin
      • 12.7. Public health: contaminants and toxic compounds
      • 12.8. Phytotoxins in honey
      • 12.9. Residues of veterinary medicinal products and other chemical contaminants
      • 12.10. Heavy metals
      • 12.11. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
      • 12.12. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
      • 12.13. Antibiotic residues in honey
      • 12.14. Adulterated honey
      • 12.15. Shelf life and preservation of quality
      • 12.16. Contemporary considerations to ensure safety
      • 12.17. Conclusions
    • Chapter 13: Naturally Occurring Toxicants: Presence in Selected Commonly Consumed Fruits
      • Abstract
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Mamey apple (Mamea americana)
      • 13.3. Tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata)
      • 13.4. Ackee (Blighia sapidia)
      • 13.5. Cassava (Manihot esculenta)
      • 13.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 14: Safety of Fermented Cereals and Legumes
      • Abstract
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. History of use
      • 14.3. The technology of fermentation
      • 14.4. Fermented cereal- and legume-based foods around the world
      • 14.5. Nutritional and health benefits
      • 14.6. Safety concerns of fermented foods
      • 14.7. Contemporary considerations to ensure safety
      • 14.8. Future research needs
      • 14.9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Safety of Fermented Products Based on Soybean
      • Abstract
      • 15.1. Description and origin(s) of fermented soybean products
      • 15.2. History of use
      • 15.3. Preventing public health risks by traditional methods of preservation
      • 15.4. Epidemiologic data
      • 15.5. Future trends and expectations
      • 15.6. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 16: Safety of Fermented Cassava Products
      • Abstract
      • 16.1. Description and origin(s) of fermented cassava products
      • 16.2. History of use
      • 16.3. Public health risk
      • 16.4. The traditional method of preservation
      • 16.5. Epidemiologic data
      • 16.6. Regulatory status (local and global)
      • 16.7. Current measures to ensure safety
      • 16.8. Future trends and expectations
      • 16.9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Safety of Traditional Bread Production
      • Abstract
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Rye flour products
      • 17.3. Wheat flour products
      • 17.4. Precursors for rye
      • 17.5. Wheat precursors
    • Chapter 18: Safety of Fermented Fruits and Vegetables
      • Abstract
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Table olives
      • 18.3. Cucumbers
      • 18.4. Sauerkraut
      • 18.5. Fermented onion (sour onion)
      • 18.6. Fermented carrots
      • 18.7. Caperberries
      • 18.8. Pickled garlic
      • 18.9. Potential hazards associated with traditional fermented vegetables: Public health risks
      • 18.10. Epidemiologic data
      • 18.11. Contemporary studies and trends
      • 18.12. Regulatory status
      • 18.13. Conclusions
    • Chapter 19: Safety of Kimchi
      • Abstract
      • 19.1. Introduction
      • 19.2. Origin of Kimchi
      • 19.3. General characteristics of making Kimchi
      • 19.4. Kimchi fermentation and related microorganisms
      • 19.5. Kimchi as a natural health food
      • 19.6. Safety of Kimchi
      • 19.7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Safety of Borsh
      • Abstract
      • 20.1. Description of borsh
      • 20.2. Origins and history of use
      • 20.3. Public health risk
      • 20.4. Traditional method of making borsh
      • 20.5. Epidemiologic data and health concerns
      • 20.6. Regulatory status (local and global)
      • 20.7. Contemporary considerations to ensure safety
      • 20.8. Trends and expectations
      • 20.9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 21: Safety of Edible Flowers
      • Abstract
      • 21.1. Description and origin(s)
      • 21.2. History of use
      • 21.3. Public health risk
      • 21.4. Methods of preservation
      • 21.5. Epidemiologic data
      • 21.6. Regulatory status (local and global)
      • 21.7. Contemporary considerations to ensure safety
      • 21.8. Future trends and expectations
      • 21.9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 22: Safety of Foods Based on Mushrooms
      • Abstract
      • 22.1. Description and origin of the mushroom
      • 22.2. History of use
      • 22.3. Nutritional and medicinal value
      • 22.4. Traditional method of preservation
      • 22.5. Public health risks and regulatory status
      • 22.6. Chemical contamination
      • 22.7. Radioactivity in mushrooms
      • 22.8. Microbial contamination
      • 22.9. Misidentification of nonedible or poisonous mushrooms as an edible species
      • 22.10. Contemporary considerations to ensure mushroom safety
      • 22.11. Future trends
      • 22.12. Conclusions
    • Chapter 23: Food Safety Regulations Applied to Traditional and Ethnic Foods
      • Abstract
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. United States
      • 23.3. Australia and New Zealand
      • 23.4. Brazil
      • 23.5. China
      • 23.6. European Union
      • 23.7. Observation from the perspective of global harmonization
    • Chapter 24: Validated Methods for the Analysis of Traditional and Ethnic Foods and Use of Analytical Data for Risk Management
      • Abstract
    • Chapter 25: Science-Based Harmonization of Regulations for the Safety of Traditional and Ethnic Foods
      • Abstract
    • Afterword
    • Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 536
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: November 23, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128006054
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128006207

About the Editors

V. Prakash


Distinguished Scientist of CSIR - India

Immediate Past Director, CSIR - CFTRI, Mysore, India

Hon. Director of Research, INNOVATION and Development, at JSS - MVP, JSS Technical Institution Campus, MYSORE 570 006, INDIA

Council Member, International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS)

Former Coordinator, United Nations University Programme at CFTRI, Mysore, India

Immediate Past President, Nutrition Society of India

President, International Society for Nutraceuticals , Nutritionals And Naturals (ISNNAN)

Past President, Academy Executive Committee Member of IAFoST

Council Member, International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST)

Task Force Chairman on Nutraceuticals in IUNS

Executive Council Member, Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI)

Chair, Panel on Regulatory of Nutraceuticals, Nutritionals, Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements, FSSAI, Govt. of India

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Scientist of CSIR, India

Olga Martin-Belloso

Olga Martín-Belloso is Professor of Food Science and Technology at University of Lleida, Spain, and Head of the research unit Novel Technologies for Food Processing.

Her research interests are focussed on the development of ready-to-eat, safe and healthy products by combining the already existing processing technologies with novel techniques, as well as the valorization of wastes generated by the fruits and vegetables processing industries.

Pulsed electric fields, intense pulsed light and cold plasma treatments, modified atmosphere packaging, edible coatings, and nanostructured systems are among the key technologies developed by her research group. She led technology transfer to the industry in a center devoted to canned vegetables and supported the industrial implementation of HACCP and Quality management systems, while providing a boost to the innovative culture in the canned vegetables industry in Spain.

She has authored more than three hundred research papers, several books, book chapters and patents. In addition, she has been invited as speaker in numerous international meetings and courses. She also belongs to the editorial board of recognized Journals and is associate editor of two of them. Dr. Martin-Belloso is member of several executive committees of international scientific organizations as the European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) and the Nonthermal Processing Division of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT). She is the Ambassador of the Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI) in Spain.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Food Science and Technology, University of Lleida, Spain, and Head research unit Novel Technologies for Food Processing.

Larry Keener

Affiliations and Expertise

GHI Association, Wien, Austria

Sian Bethan Astley

Training and Communications Manager for EuroFIR AISBL supporting training within EU-funded research projects and networks and communication of research activities.

Siân has worked extensively with individuals and organisations throughout Europe from a variety of disciplines including research, food and biotech industries and the media.

Author of more than 300 popular science articles for magazines and trade publications as well as 25 peer-reviewed papers, and she was awarded her Diploma in Science Communication in 2009 (Birkbeck University of London). She is Editor of GHI Publications, including the GHI Newsletter.

Affiliations and Expertise

Training and Communications Manager, EuroFIR AISBL

Susanne Braun

Susanne Braun is Managing Director of the Hohenheim Research Center for Bioeconomy, founded in April 2015. Dr. Braun has a broad knowledge in the food sector, based on an academic degree in food technology (MSc) and a second academic education in economy and European politics (MBA). Her work includes international management and consulting activities within food companies in different countries. She is highly experienced in working on international research projects and is involved in the coordination and management of EU research projects. She is a member of various European food networks and associations, such as EFFoST and IUFoST. Her main activities in recent years have included the optimisation of the knowhow transfer to SMEs in the food sector (several publications) and the linking with a trans-European network of various stakeholders in the food sector. Her work also included the organization of and participation in a large number of international conferences and workshops.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany

Helena McMahon

Helena McMahon received a BSc in Biomedical Science from University College Cork Ireland, in 1999, an MSc in Molecular Medicine and PhD in Cellular Therapeutic from Trinity College Dublin in 2001 and 2007 respectively.

Following Post Doctoral roles at Trinity College Dublin and Teagasc the National Food Research Center in Ireland, Dr. McMahon joined the Institute of Technology Tralee 2009 where she is currently a Principle Investigator within Shannon Applied Biotechnology Centre. Project protfolio an activities are focused in the fields of biotechnology, the bvio-economy and SME collaborative actions with a particular focus on innovation management and knowledge transfer.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principle Investigator, Shannon Applied Biotechnology Center, Institute of Technology Tralee, Co Kerry, Ireland

Huub Lelieveld

Prof. Dr. h.c. H.L.M. (Huub) Lelieveld is President of the Global Harmonization Initiative and Fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology, and was formerly at Unilever in Vlaardingen, The Netherlands. He editor or co-editor of numerous books, including several on hygiene and food safety management; novel food processing technologies and harmonization of food safety regulations. He produced chapters for many books and encyclopaedia, hundreds of scientific articles and articles for magazines and presented hundreds of papers, globally. He has been awarded doctor honoris causa at the National University of Food Technologies in Kiev, Ukraine.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of the Global Harmonization Initiative (

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