Regional Geology and Tectonics: Principles of Geologic Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444530424, 9780080951867

Regional Geology and Tectonics: Principles of Geologic Analysis

1st Edition

Editors: David G. Roberts A.W. Bally
eBook ISBN: 9780080951867
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444530424
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 16th March 2012
Page Count: 900
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Description

Expert petroleum geologists David Roberts and Albert Bally bring you Regional Geology and Tectonics: Principles of Geologic Analysis, volume one in a three-volume series covering Phanerozoic regional geology and tectonics. It has been written to provide you with a detailed overview of geologic rift systems, passive margins, and cratonic basins, it features the basic principles necessary to grasping the conceptual approaches to hydrocarbon exploration in a broad range of geological settings globally.

Key Features

  • Named a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication
  • A "how-to" regional geology primer that provides a detailed overview of tectonics, rift systems, passive margins, and cratonic basins
  • The principles of regional geological analysis and the main geological and geophysical tools are discussed in detail.
  • The tectonics of the world are captured and identified in detail through a series of unique geographic maps, allowing quick access to exact tectonic locations.
  • Serves as the ideal introductory overview and complementary reference to the core concepts of regional geology and tectonics offered in volumes two and three in the series.

Readership

Geologists, geophysicists, and marine geologists globally in academia and petroleum exploration with a focus on tectonics, basin analysis, sedimentary processes and petroleum systems. The secondary market includes undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as instructors in Geosciences.

Table of Contents

Contributors for Volumes 1A

Foreword and Introduction

Acknowledgements

Section 1 The Earth

1. Regional geology and tectonics of sedimentary basins

1.1 Introduction

1.2 A historical perspective

1.3 Some remarks on regional geology and tectonics

1.4 Conclusion

References

2. The Earth

2.1 Overview

2.2 Methods of investigation

2.3 The lithosphere

2.4 The mantle

2.5 The core

References

3. Phanerozoic volcanism

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Mid-ocean ridge basalts

3.3 Subduction zones: Andesites, basaltic andesites

3.4 Oceanic intraplate volcanism

3.5 Continental intraplate volcanism

3.6 Discussion

References

Section 2 Geological megaprovinces

4. Some remarks on basins and basin classification and tectonostratigraphic megasequences

4.1 Tectonstratigraphic megasequences

References

5. A lithospheric perspective on structure and evolution of Precambrian cratons

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Lateral and depth extent of the cratons

5.3 Correlation between lithospheric thickness and geological age

5.4 Lithosphere modification by mantle convection and plumes

5.5 Correlations between lateral and depth extents of cratonic lithosphere and plate motions

References

6. Convergent margins and orogenic belts

6.1 Introduction and summary

6.2 Orogens, their types, terminology, and plate tectonic setting

6.3 Orogenic belts and tectonics: Some terms defined

6.4 Andean, Cordilleran, and Tethyan tectonics: Products of plate motions, mantle cooling, and supercontinental cycles

6.5 Sutures and megasutures

6.6 Cordilleran tectonics: Compression above non-compressional subduction

6.7 Segments of steep subduction and tectonics of the arc-trench gap

6.8 Segments of low-dip subduction and the compressional style

6.9 Orogenic compression: A cradle of Coulomb wedges

6.10 Five geodynamic concepts of orogeny

6.11 Cordilleran tectonics: Confirming model and distracting details

6.12 Basin types in orogens

6.13 Basin types: Terminology and lithology

6.14 Oceanic accretionary wedges: Sediments and structure

6.15 Geodynamics of sedimentary basins

6.16 Internides and externides

6.17 Cordilleran main thrusts: Links between internides and externides

6.18 Fold-thrust belts: Cordillera's Externides

6.19 Wedge dynamics: Setting and growth of FTB wedges

6.20 Wedge growth

6.21 Wedge thickening

6.22 Tectonic setting of FTB wedges

6.23 FTB: Strain, style elements, and four styles

6.24 First style: Fault-bend folds and duplexes

6.25 Second style: Detached buckle folds

6.26 Third style: FTB-associated basement upthrusts

6.27 Fourth style: Slate belts

6.28 Externide FTB: Selected details

6.29 Foreland flexure

6.30 Foothills and orogenic fronts

6.31 Strain rates and style changes

6.32 Problems with duplexes

6.33 Remnant detached folds and discordant thrust faults

6.34 Rotation zones, retrocharriage, steep zones

6.35 Fanned steep zone

6.36 Kinked steep zone

6.37 Internides

6.38 Arc magmatism and magmatic arcs

6.39 Accreted terranes

6.40 Ophiolite belts and oceanic lithosphere

6.41 Ophiolitic melanges and ophiolite emplacement

6.42 Metamorphism: Concepts and methods

6.43 Structural styles of metamorphic terranes

6.44 Stockwerk tectonics in East Greenland

6.45 Collision orogens

6.46 Orogenic belts and strike-slip tectonics

6.47 Orogenic belts and extensional tectonics

6.48 Oceanic orogenic belts

6.49 Gravity-driven fold-thrust belts

References

7. Crustal seismic reflection profiles of collisional orogens

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The global database

7.3 General seismic reflection characteristics of collisional orogens

7.4 Regional geometric features of collisional orogens

7.5 The significance of the Moho and the crust-mantle transition

7.6 Precambrian orogens

7.7 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Section 3 Principles of Regional Geological Analysis: Geological and Geophysical Tools

8. Geological methods

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Satellite images and data

8.3 Hotspots, rifts, reefs, deltas, and cratonic regions: Views from space (seeChapter 9)

8.4 Geological and tectonic maps

Acknowledgments

References

9. Hotspots, rifts, reefs, deltas, and cratonic basins

9.1 Volcanic oceanic islands, plateaus, hotspots

9.2 Deltas

9.3 Recent carbonate systems

9.4 Rift-transform fault systems

9.5 Cratonic basins and arches

REFERENCE

10. 2D and 3D seismic data

References

11. Wide-angle refraction and reflection

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Wide-angle acquisition

11.3 Modelling wide-angle data

11.4 Examples of wide-angle seismic interpretations

References

12. Regional tectonics and basin formation

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Continental scale gravity and magnetic studies

12.3 Satellite measurements

12.4 Conclusion

Section 4 Sedimentary Systems

13. Seismic and sequence stratigraphic analysis

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Brief history of sequence stratigraphy

13.3 The eustasy debate and cyclicity

13.4 Modern sequence stratigraphic concepts

13.5 Stratigraphic surfaces, sequences and system tracts

13.6 Case history A: Sequences on seismic – Alaska, USA

13.7 Case history B: Sequences on well logs – Barrow Delta, Australia

References

14. A brief review of developments in stratigraphic forward modelling, 2000–2009

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Basics of model formulation

14.3 Model inversion

14.4 Siliciclastic SFMs

14.5 Carbonate SFMs

14.6 What next in SFM?

References

15. Lake systems

15.1 Introduction to lakes and lake systems

15.2 Lakes in time and space; preservation of lakes in the Phanerozoic rock record

15.3 Classification of lakes; the different settings for lakes

15.4 Conditions needed to create and maintain a tectonic lake with well-developed lake sequences

15.5 Megasequences, sequences, and cycles in basins containing tectonic lakes

15.6 Controls on lake sequences and sequence stratigraphy

15.7 Important differences between lake and marine sequence stratigraphy

15.8 Principal depositional environments in lake basins

15.9 Predicting lake sequences and facies

15.10 Major petroleum systems involving lake sequences

15.11 Features of potential petroleum source-rocks that develop in lakes

15.12 Petroleum systems in Early Cretaceous and Tertiary lake basins of South and East Asia

Acknowledgments

References

16. Late Ordovician glaciogenic reservoir heterogeneity

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Study area

16.3 Geological setting

16.4 Stratigraphic architecture

16.5 Internal facies architecture of syn-glacial sandstones (Unit 2)

16.6 Internal facies architecture of syn-glacial to postglacial sandstones (Unit 4)

16.7 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

17. River deltas

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Global distribution of deltas

17.3 Sources of delta variability

17.4 Basic depositional components of deltas

17.5 Shifting of sedimentary facies belts

17.6 Deltas and sea level

References

18. Architecture and growth history of a Miocene carbonate platform from 3D seismic reflection data

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Geological setting

18.3 Data and methods

18.4 Seismic stratigraphic units

18.5 Ties to wells

18.6 Interpretation

18.7 Discussion

18.8 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

19. Pelagic realms

19.1 Overview

19.2 Distribution

19.3 Rates of sedimentation

19.4 Plate stratigraphy

19.5 Pelagic sediments on land

19.6 Temporal trends in pelagic sedimentation

References

20. Controls on reservoir distribution, architecture, and stratigraphic trapping in slope settings

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Accommodation

20.3 Slope types

20.4 Discussion

20.5 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

21. The Barbados ridge

21.1 The Lesser Antilles active margin

21.2 The Atlantic abyssal plain

21.3 The outer deformation front

21.4 The belt of subsurface sediment mobilisation

21.5 Barbados basin

21.6 Barbados crest

21.7 Inner deformation front and the Tobago basin

21.8 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

22. Uplift, denudation, and their causes and constraints over geological timescales

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Some definitions

22.3 Causes of uplift

22.4 Quantifying denudation

22.5 Denudation and sediment supply

22.6 Modelling regional denudation

22.7 Summary statement

References

23. The accumulation of organic-matter-rich rocks within an earth systems framework

23.1 Plate reconstructions

23.2 Proximate controls on accumulation of organic matter

23.3 Application of concepts to predicting source accumulation

23.4 Conclusions

References

24. Fluid flow in sedimentary basins including petroleum systems

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Principles of fluid flow in sedimentary basins

24.3 Overpressure detection and modelling

24.4 Hydrocarbon fluids and charge modelling

24.5 Petroleum systems analysis

References

Section 5 Experimental and analogue structural models

25. 4D analogue modelling of transtensional pull-apart basins

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Experimental procedure

25.3 Experimental results

25.4 Discussion

25.5 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Section 6 Ocean Basins

26. Ocean floor tectonics

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Mid-ocean ridges

26.3 Transform faults

26.4 Subduction zones

References

27. Ophiolites and oceanic lithosphere

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Ophiolites and ophiolites

27.3 Ophiolites as paleogeographic markers

27.4 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
900
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080951867
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444530424

About the Editor

David G. Roberts

Affiliations and Expertise

BP Exploration Operation Co. Ltd., Middlesex, UK

A.W. Bally

Before joining Rice, he was Chief Geologist and Exploration Advisor to Shell Us and Pecten. Dr. Bally is a past President of the Geological Society of America and is the holder of many major awards including the Sydney Powers Award of the AAPG, the Penrose medal of the Geological Society of America and the William Smith medal of the Geological Society of London to name but a few of his awards. In particular, he is internationally recognised for his early work on cross section balancing in the Canadian Rockies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

Awards

CHOICE Outstanding Academic Titles, 2013 , American Library Association