Regional and Specific Deposits - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444418241, 9780444597076

Regional and Specific Deposits, Volume 9

1st Edition

Authors: Author Unknown
eBook ISBN: 9780444597076
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1981
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1. The Timing of Mineralization in Stratiform Copper Deposits

Introduction

Criteria for Post-Sedimentary Mineralization at White Pine, Michigan

Configuration of the Mineralized Zone

Mineralogy

Seal Lake, Labrador

Creta, South-Central U.S.A

The Kupferschiefer, North-Central Europe

Central African Copperbelts

The Zambian Copperbelt

The Shaban Copperbelt

Other Deposits

Complementary Sources and Transport Mechanisms

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

Appendix - Usage of Some Descriptive and Genetic Terms in this Chapter

References

Chapter 2. Oolitic Iron Formations

Introduction

Chronological Development of Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formation

Precambrian Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formation

Paleozoic Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formation

Mesozoic Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formation

Tertiary Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formation

Tertiary Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formation of Colombia and Venezuela

Introduction

Stratigraphy of the Paz de Rio Area, Colombia

General Features of the Paz de Rio Iron Formation

Mineralogy of the Paz de Rio Iron Formation

Petrography of the Paz de Rio Iron Formation

Chemistry of the Paz de Rio Iron Formation

Sedimentary Environment of the Paz de Rio Iron Formation

Sabanalarga Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formation

Proposed Origin of Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formations

Statement of the Problem

Outline of the Genetic Model

Evaluation of the Genetic Model

Evidence for the Genetic Model

Previous Arguments Against Related Genetic Models

Other Genetic Models for Oolitic-Inland-Sea Iron Formations

Constraint on Sedimentation Rate

Hypothesis of Marine Iron Supply

Hypotheses of Fluvial Iron Supply

Hypotheses of Lateral And Upward Groundwater Supply of Iron

Miscellaneous Hypotheses

Proposed Modern Lacustrine Ferriferous Oolite

Relevant Quaternary Carbonate Ferruginization

Possible Implications of the Genetic Model

References

Chapter 3. Metalliferous Deep-Sea Sediments

Introduction

Background

Metal Source and Composition

Economic Significance and Related Ores

Principal Types of Deep-Sea Metal-Enriched Sediments

Carbonaceous Sediments

Metalliferous Sediments

Nature of Metal-Bearing Phases

Iron Oxide Phases

Iron Smectite Phase

Sulphide Phases

Manganese Oxide Phase

Other Phases

Size Fractionation and Chemical Leaching of the Iron Phases

Marine Distribution and Nature of Surface and Near-Surface Deposits

East Pacific Rise

Iron in East Pacific Rise Sediments

Bauer Deep

Galapagos Spreading Centre

Northeastern Pacific

Southwestern Pacific Basin

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Indian Ocean

Red Sea

Submarine Volcanic Vents

Marine Distribution and Nature of Basal Deposits

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Indian Ocean

Sediment Chemistry

Compositional Variation

Metal Accumulation Rates

Structural Setting and Associated Deposits

Transform Fault Valley "A", Famous Area of Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Tag Geothermal Area, North Atlantic

Red Sea

Ophiolite Sequences

Massive Sulphide Ores

Origin

Significance to Geochemical Exploration for Ores

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 4. Recent Heavy-Metal Accumulation in Limnic Sediments

Introduction

Recent Sedimentary Environments of Metal Accumulation

Lake Sediments

Major Factors of Metal Accumulation in Recent Limnic Sediments

Metal Distribution in Recent Lacustrine Sediments

Geochemical Background Values for Freshwater Sediments

Allochthonous Influences on the Heavy-Metal Composition in Recent Lacustrine Sediments

Grain-Size Effects

Natural Allochthonous Influences

Man's Impact on Metal Distribution in Limnic Sediments

Lake Sediments as Indicators of Metal Pollution

Geochemical Reconnaissance of Limnic Sediments

Autochthonous Processes Affecting Metal Concentrations in Recent Limnic Sediments

Dilution of Heavy Metals by Endogenic Minerals in Lake Sediments

Heavy-Metal Accumulation in Endogenic Phases of Lake Sediments

Diagenetic Effects on Metal Accumulation in Limnic Sediments

Phases of Heavy-Metal Accumulation in Limnic Sediments

Extraction of Different Chemical Phases of Heavy Metals

Separation of Heavy-Metal Associations with Fe and Mn Hydroxides

Evaluation of Diagenetic Effects on Metal Phases in Limnic Sediments

Extraction of Trace Metals from Carbonates

Metal Bonding on Organic Material

Metal Associations in Less-Polluted Lake Sediments

Metal Phases in Contaminated Dredged Sediments

Grain-Size Variations of Chemical Phases

Phase Concentration Factors of Heavy Metals in Limnic Sediments

Release of Heavy Metals from Sediments

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Note Added in Proof

Chapter 5. Trace Metals in Fresh Waters (with Particular Reference to Mine Effluents)

Introduction

Sources and Effects of Metals in Natural Waters

Water-Quality Criteria

Transport Phases of Heavy Metals in River Waters

Dependencies of Metal Transport from Water Discharge and Annual Cycles

Dissolved Metal Concentrations in Large Freshwater Systems

River-Sea Interface

Metal Enrichment in Mine Effluents

Conclusions

References

Chapter 6. The Nature and Origin of Archaean Strata-Bound Volcanic-Associated Nickel-Iron-Copper Sulphide Deposits

Introduction

Genetic and Economic Importance

Definition

Comparison with Other Deposits

Type Examples

Nature of Review

Temporal and Tectonic Setting

Distribution and Age

Tectonic Setting

Structural, Metamorphic and Stratigraphic Setting

Lithological Associations

Introduction

Metabasalt Sequences

Metasedimentary Rocks

Later Intrusives

Ultramafic Stratigraphy

The Ore Environment

Introduction

Mineralized Ultramafic Units

Primary Sulphide Ores

Mineralogy of Sulphide Ores

Structural and Metamorphic Modification Of Ore

Introduction

Mesoscopic Features

Microscopic Features

Mineralogical Changes

Associated Gold Mineralization

Oxidation and Supergene Alteration of Ores

Introduction

Transition Zone

Reactive Zone

Supergene Zone

Oxide Zone

Supergene Alteration of Disseminated Sulphides

Electrochemical Model for Supergene Alteration

Gossans

Geochemical Exploration

Genetic Models

Introduction

Nature of Syngenetic Sulphides

Source Of Magmatic Sulphides

Emplacement of Sulphide-Rich Magmas

Crystallization of Sulphide Ores

Metamorphic Modification

Summary Genetic Model

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 7. The Significance of Pyritic Black Shales in the Genesis of Archean Nickel Sulphide Deposits

Introduction

Contrasted Massive Ni-Sulphide Host Environments, and Definition of Environment Under Discussion

Geological Relationships of Archean Massive Nickel-Sulphide Deposits

Regional Setting

Comparison of Deposits

Ore Zones and Host Ultramafic

Carbonate Alteration

Chromite and Magnetite

Association of Pyritic Sediments

Structural Relationships

Significance of Structural Data

Geochemical Relationships Between Host Ultramafic and Ore Zone

Discussion

Ore Genesis Mechanisms in the Literature

Observations Inadequately Explained by Current Mechanisms in the Literature

Proposed Ore Genesis Mechanism

Concluding Note

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 8. Sediment-Hosted Submarine Exhalative Lead-Zinc Deposits - A Review of their Geological Characteristics and Genesis

Introduction

General Characteristics of Sediment-Hosted, Submarine Exhalative Mineralisation

Regional Geological Setting

Lineaments and Hinge Zones

Age of Mineralisation

Sedimentary Environment at the Site of Mineralisation

Some Comparisons with the Geological Setting of Other Sediment-Hosted Pb-Zn Deposits

Genesis of the Sediment-Hosted Submarine Exhalative Lead-Zinc Deposits

Origin of the Metals and Sulphur

The Ore-Bearing Solution

Convective Circulation of the Metal-Bearing Solution

Precipitation of the Metal Sulphides

Relationship of Barite to Stratabound, Sediment-Hosted Sulphides

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 9. The Geology of the Meggen Ore Deposit

Introduction

Geologic Setting

Stratigraphy

The Meggen Basin

The Meggen Reef

Paleogeography

The Attendorn Reef

The Hachen Basin

The Meggen Reef

The Meggen Basin

Tectonics

The Ore

Footwall Mineralization

Hanging-Wall Mineralization

Isotope Geochemistry

Sulphur Isotopes

Lead Isotopes

Geochemistry of Elements

Ore-Controlling Parameters

(1) Relation to Pelagic Basinal Sediments of the Variscan Trough

(2) Relation to Paleotopographical Depressions on the Sea Floor Which Acted as a Potential "Ore Trap"

(3) Relation to Paleogeographical Turning Points

(4) Relation to Culminations of Volcanic Activity or Intrusive Heat

(5) Relation to Hydrothermally Altered And Mineralized Channelways

(6) Relation to Active Faults And Lineaments

Origin

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 10. Genesis of the Rammelsberg Ore Deposit Near Goslar/Upper Harz, Federal Republic of Germany

The Historical Development of Ideas on the Genesis of the Rammelsberg Ore Deposit

The Stratigraphic and Palaeogeographic Development of the Environment of the Deposit and the Initial Geosynclinal Tuff Volcanism

Tectonism of the Host and Surrounding Rocks of the Orebodies

Primary Ore Fabrics, Ore-Mineral Parageneses, Distribution of Trace Elements and Sulphur Isotopes

Silicification Phase (Origin of the "Kniest")

The Main Ore Formation

Tectonic Ore Fabric, Synkinematic Mineral Formation and Alteration

Ore Mineralization in Silicified Lenses (so-Called Kniest Mineralization) and Other Post-Kinematic Mineralizations

Summary and Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 11. Geology of the Pine Point Lead-Zinc District

Introduction

Geological Setting

Stratigraphy

Structural Evolution

Diagenesis and Development of Sulfide-Hosting Structures

Dolomitization

Karstification and Development of Sulfide-Hosting Porosity

Ore Deposits

General Characteristics

Metal Zoning

Mineralogy

Sulfide Textures and Sulfide-Carbonate Relationships

Paragenesis

Mineralization: Discussion

Nature of the Transporting Fluid

Source of Metals

Source of Sulfur

Fluid Movement

Sulfide Precipitation and Concentration

Timing Of Mineralization

Comparison with Other Carbonate-Hosted Districts

Summary

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 12. Strata-Bound Tin Deposits

Introduction

Deposits in Precambrian Host Rocks

Halsbrucke District, Erzgebirge (G.D.R.) and Gierczyn Area, Izera Mountains (Poland)

Sullivan Mine, British Columbia (Canada)

Rooiberg District, Transvaal (South Africa)

Deposits In Phanerozoic Host Rocks

Cleveland Mine, Tasmania (Australia)

Belitung (Billiton) District (Indonesia)

Kellhuani District (Bolivia)

Okehampton District (England)

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Description

Handbook of Strata-Bound and Stratiform Ore Deposits, Volume 9: Regional and Specific Deposits focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in the identification of regional and specific ore deposits.

The selection first elaborates on the timing of mineralization in stratiform copper deposits, oolitic iron formations, and metalliferous deep-sea sediments. Discussions focus on marine distribution and nature of surface and near-surface deposits, structural setting and associated deposits, principal types of deep-sea metal-enriched sediments, chronological development of oolitic-inland-sea iron formation, and complementary sources and transport mechanisms.

The text then tackles heavy-metal accumulation in limnic sediments, trace metals in fresh waters, nature and origin of Archaean strata-bound volcanic associated nickel-iron-copper sulphide deposits, and the significance of pyritic black shales in the genesis of Archean nickel sulphide deposits. Topics include lithological associations, oxidation and supergene alteration of ores, temporal and tectonic setting, dissolved metal concentrations in large freshwater systems, and transport phases of heavy metals in river water. The publication examines strata-bound tin deposits, geology of the Pine Point lead-zinc district, and genesis of the Rammelsberg ore deposit near Goslar/Upper Harz in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The selection is a valuable reference for researchers wanting to explore ore deposits.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780444597076

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