Regenerative Engineering of Musculoskeletal Tissues and Interfaces

Regenerative Engineering of Musculoskeletal Tissues and Interfaces

1st Edition - April 23, 2015

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  • Editors: Syam Nukavarapu, Joseph Freeman, Cato Laurencin
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782423140
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782423010

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Repair and regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues is generating substantial interest within the biomedical community. Consequently, these are the most researched tissues from the regeneration point of view. Regenerative Engineering of Musculoskeletal Tissues and Interfaces presents information on the fundamentals, progress and recent developments related to the repair and regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues and interfaces. This comprehensive review looks at individual tissues as well as tissue interfaces. Early chapters cover various fundamentals of biomaterials and scaffolds, types of cells, growth factors, and mechanical forces, moving on to discuss tissue-engineering strategies for bone, tendon, ligament, cartilage, meniscus, and muscle, as well as progress and advances in tissue vascularization and nerve innervation of the individual tissues. Final chapters present information on musculoskeletal tissue interfaces.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive review of the repair and regeneration of musculoskeletal individual tissues and tissue interfaces
  • Presents recent developments, fundamentals and progress in the field of engineering tissues
  • Reviews progress and advances in tissue vascularization and innervation


Researchers, clinicians who deal with soft and hard tissue repair and regeneration, teachers, students and industry professionals who are in the broad field of Tissue Engineering and focused on musculoskeletal tissues.

Table of Contents

    • Related titles
    • Dedication
    • List of contributors
    • Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials
    • Part One. Basic elements of musculoskeletal tissue engineering
      • 1. Biomaterials and scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering
        • 1.1. Introduction
        • 1.2. Biomaterials
        • 1.3. Physical property requirements
        • 1.4. Scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering
        • 1.5. Conclusion and future directions
      • 2. Cells for musculoskeletal tissue engineering
        • 2.1. Introduction
        • 2.2. Postnatal progenitor cells for musculoskeletal tissue engineering
        • 2.3. Prenatal progenitor cells for musculoskeletal tissue engineering
        • 2.4. Summary
      • 3. Growth factors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering
        • 3.1. Introduction
        • 3.2. Origin and development of musculoskeletal tissues
        • 3.3. Molecular regulation of musculoskeletal system development
        • 3.4. Growth factor-based musculoskeletal tissue regeneration
        • 3.5. Current approaches for spatiotemporal control of growth factors
        • 3.6. Future directions
      • 4. Mechanical forces in musculoskeletal tissue engineering
        • 4.1. Introduction
        • 4.2. Mechanical forces in guiding differentiation and extracellular matrix production
        • 4.3. Mechanical stimuli for tissue regeneration
        • 4.4. Methods of introducing mechanical stimuli
    • Part Two. Individual musculoskeletal tissues
      • 5. Bone tissue engineering
        • 5.1. Introduction
        • 5.2. Traditional concepts in bone tissue engineering
        • 5.3. Current and new strategies for engineered bone: discussion and examples
        • 5.4. Bone tissue engineering challenges and a vision for the future
        • 5.5. The development challenges of an engineered bone product
      • 6. Cartilage tissue engineering
        • 6.1. Introduction
        • 6.2. Cartilage anatomy, physiology, and injury
        • 6.3. Current treatment options
        • 6.4. Tissue engineering considerations
        • 6.5. Conclusions
      • 7. Ligament tissue engineering
        • 7.1. Introduction
        • 7.2. Ligament composition and structure
        • 7.3. Ligament mechanical properties
        • 7.4. Ligament injuries and their current clinical outcomes
        • 7.5. Options for surgical ligament replacement
        • 7.6. Summary
      • 8. Tendon tissue engineering
        • 8.1. Introduction
        • 8.2. Tendon structure and function
        • 8.3. Tendon injury and degeneration
        • 8.4. Tendon healing
        • 8.5. Current treatment: the traditional approach
        • 8.6. Tissue engineering approach
        • 8.7. Scaffolds
        • 8.8. Materials selection
        • 8.9. Nanofibers
        • 8.10. Mechanical stimulation
        • 8.11. Cells
        • 8.12. Growth factors
        • 8.13. Gene therapy
        • 8.14. Future trends
        • 8.15. Conclusions
      • 9. Meniscus tissue engineering
        • 9.1. Structure, anatomy, and function of the meniscus
        • 9.2. Meniscus injury and repair
        • 9.3. Meniscus replacement
        • 9.4. Conclusions
      • 10. Muscle tissue engineering
        • 10.1. Introduction
        • 10.2. Skeletal muscle tissue
        • 10.3. In vitro muscle differentiation
        • 10.4. Artificial muscle tissue
        • 10.5. Clinical application
        • 10.6. Conclusions
      • 11. Vascularization of engineered musculoskeletal tissues
        • 11.1. Introduction
        • 11.2. Lack of vascularization remains a bottleneck in tissue-engineering
        • 11.3. Biomaterial selection and microfabrication
        • 11.4. Cells and growth factors
        • 11.5. Bioreactor conditioning of engineered musculoskeletal tissue
        • 11.6. Conclusion and future perspectives
      • 12. Neural innervation of engineered musculoskeletal tissues
        • 12.1. Introduction and clinical motivation
        • 12.2. Anatomy and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
        • 12.3. Current techniques for peripheral nerve repair
        • 12.4. Neural tissue engineering strategies
        • 12.5. Conclusions and future approaches
    • Part Three. Musculoskeletal tissue interfaces
      • 13. Bone–cartilage interface
        • 13.1. Introduction
        • 13.2. Structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM)
        • 13.3. Biomaterials for osteochondral tissue regeneration
        • 13.4. Conclusions
      • 14. Bone–tendon interface
        • 14.1. Introduction
        • 14.2. Current clinical techniques
        • 14.3. Existing tissues
        • 14.4. Administration of active compounds to promote anchoring of the tendon
        • 14.5. Tissue regeneration
        • 14.6. Self-reorganized constructs
        • 14.7. Conclusions
      • 15. Bone–ligament interface
        • 15.1. Introduction
        • 15.2. Structure and function of the ligament–bone interface
        • 15.3. Scaffolds for ligament–bone interface tissue engineering
        • 15.4. Conclusions and future trends
      • 16. Bone–meniscus interface
        • 16.1. Introduction
        • 16.2. Structure
        • 16.3. Biochemical composition
        • 16.4. Mechanics
        • 16.5. Pathophysiology
        • 16.6. Peripheral attachments
        • 16.7. Tissue engineering
      • 17. Muscle–tendon interface
        • 17.1. Introduction
        • 17.2. Muscle and tendon structure and the role of the myotendinous junction (MTJ)
        • 17.3. Structural and functional properties of the muscle–tendon interface
        • 17.4. Injury to the MTJ interface and current repair strategies
        • 17.5. Tissue engineering strategies for MTJ repair
        • 17.6. Current scaffolded tissue engineering approaches
        • 17.7. Biological scaffold approaches
        • 17.8. Current scaffoldless tissue engineering approaches
        • 17.9. Conclusions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 462
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2015
  • Published: April 23, 2015
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782423140
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782423010

About the Editors

Syam Nukavarapu

Dr. Nukavarapu is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Connecticut Health Center (UConn Health), Connecticut. He has joint appointments with the departments of Biomedical Engineering (BME) and Materials Science & Engineering (MSE) at The University of Connecticut. His research interests include Biomaterials, Stem Cells, and Tissue Engineering. Dr. Nukavarapu's laboratory has been focused on developing advanced matrix systems for Bone and Osteochondral Tissue Engineering. His group is at the forefront of developing Completely Intra-operative Tissue Engineering Strategies (CITES) for on-site therapy or bedside tissue engineering. Dr. Nukavarapu has published about 50 articles in peer-reviewed journals and has 10 book chapters and holds 2 patents. He is serving as editorial board member for many field journals. Dr. Nukavarapu teaches Advanced Biomaterials (BME 4701) course at the University of Connecticut.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA

Joseph Freeman

Joseph W. Freeman is Associate Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Rutgers University his research interests

include new biomaterial-based strategies for the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues.

Affiliations and Expertise

Rutgers University, School of Engineering, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

Cato Laurencin

Cato Laurencin

Dr. Laurencin is the Van Dusen Distinguished Endowed Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, and Professor of Chemical, Materials, and Biomedical Engineering at the University of Connecticut. In addition, Dr. Laurencin is a University Professor at the University of Connecticut (the 7th in the institution’s history). He is the Director of both the Institute for Regenerative Engineering, and the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Center at the University of Connecticut Health Center. Dr. Laurencin serves as the Chief Executive Officer of the Connecticut Institute for Clinical and Translational Science at UCONN.

Dr. Laurencin earned his undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering from Princeton, his medical degree, Magna Cum Laude, from Harvard Medical School, and his Ph.D. in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology from M.I.T.

A board certified orthopaedic surgeon and shoulder/ knee specialist, he won the Nicolas Andry Award from the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons. His discoveries in research have been highlighted by Scientific American Magazine, and more recently by National Geographic Magazine in its “100 Scientific Discoveries that Changed the World” edition.

Dr. Laurencin is an outstanding mentor and he has received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring in ceremonies at the White House. Dr. Laurencin has received the Elizabeth Hurlock Beckman Award for mentoring, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Mentor Award.

Dr. Laurencin previously served as the UConn Health Center’s Vice President for Health Affairs and Dean of the School of Medicine. Prior to that, Dr. Laurencin was the Lillian T. Pratt Distinguished Professor and Chair of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Virginia, and Orthopaedic Surgeon-in-Chief for the University of Virginia Health System.

Dr. Laurencin is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering. He is also an elected member of the National Academy of Inventors.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA

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