Regenerative Biology and Medicine

Regenerative Biology and Medicine

1st Edition - August 28, 2006

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  • Author: David Stocum
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080493022

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Description

The purpose of the book is to bring together in one place the different facets of regenerative biology and medicine while providing the reader with an overview of the basic and clinically-oriented research that is being done. Not only does the content cover a plethora tissues and systems, it also includes information about the developmental plasticity of adult stem cells and the regeneration of appendages.As part of its balanced presentation, Regenerative Biology and Medicine does address the biological/bioethical issues and challanges involved in the new and exciting field of regenerative biology and medicine.

Key Features

*Tissues covered include skin, hair, teeth, cornea, and central neural types
*Systems presented are digestive, respiratory, urogenital, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular
*Includes amphibians as powerful research models
*Discusses appendage regeneration in amphibians and mammals

Readership

Researchers and students in biology, chemistry, and bioengineering; medical students; academic and clinical physicians; and research investigators

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: An Overview of Regenerative Biology and Medicine

    Introduction

    A Brief History of Regenerative Biology and Medicine

    The Biology of Regeneration

    1. Regeneration Takes Place at all Levels of Biological Organization

    2. Mechanisms of Regeneration at the Tissue Level

    3. Epimorphosis and Morphallaxis

    4. Evolutionary Significance of Regeneration and Fibrosis

    Strategies of Regenerative Medicine

    1. Cell Transplantation

    2. Bioartificial Tissues

    3. Induction of Regeneration In Situ

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 2: Repair of Skin Wounds by Fibrosis

    Introduction

    Structure of Adult Mammalian Skin

    The Effect of Wound Type and Extent on Dermal Repair

    Phases of Repair in Excisional Wounds

    1. Hemostasis and Clot Formation

    2. Inflammation

    3. Structural Repair

    4. The Role of Wound Contraction in Dermal Repair

    Molecular Comparison of Wounded vs. Unwounded Skin

    Fetal Skin Heals Without Scarring

    1. Cellular and ECM Differences Between Fetal and Adult Wound Healing

    2. Fetal Wounds have a Minimal Inflammatory Response

    Summary

    References


    Chapter 3: Regeneration of Epidermal Tissues

    Introduction

    Regeneration of Epidermis and Hair

    1. Maintenance Regeneration

    2. Injury-Induced Regeneration of the IFE

    Regeneration of Nails

    Regeneration of Dental Tissues

    Regeneration of the Lens

    1. Structure of the Eye and Lens

    2. Cellular Events of Lens Regeneration in the Newt Eye

    3. Transcription Factors Regulating Lens Regeneration

    4. Signals Invlved in Lens Regeneration

    5. Mammals Have Some Capacity for Lens Regeneration

    Regeneration of the Cornea

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 4: Regenerative Medicine of Skin, Hair and Dental Tissues

    Introduction

    Repair of Skin

    1. Acceleration of Acute Wound Repair by Topically Applied Agents

    2. Acceleration of Repair in Chronic Wounds by Topically Applied Agents

    3. Keratinocyte Transplants

    4. Bioartificial Skin Equivalents

    5. Acellular Dermal Regeneration Templates

    Use of Acellular Templates for Abdominal Wall Repair

    Stimulation of Hair Regeneration

    Repair of Teeth and Peridontium

    Corneal Regeneration

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 5: Regeneration of Neural Tissues

    Introduction

    Axon Regeneration

    1. Axons of Mammalian Spinal (Peripheral) Nerves

    2. Axons of Mammalian Spinal Cord

    3, Axons of Amphibian Spinal Cord

    4. Axons of Amphibian and Fish Optic Nerve

    Maintenance Regeneration of Neurons in the Mammalian CNS

    1. Discovery of Neural Stem Cells

    2. Regeneration of Olfactory Nerve and Bulb Neurons

    3. Regeneration of Hippocampal Neurons

    4. Regeneration of Cortical Neurons

    5. The CNS Neural Stem Cell Microniche

    Injury-Induced CNS Regeneration

    1. Avian and Mammalian Auditory Sensory Neurons

    2. Regeneration of Neurons in the Mammalian Brain

    3. Regeneration of the Retina

    4. Regeneration of the Spinal Cord in Amputated Amphibian and Lizard Tails

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 6: Regenerative Medicine of Neural Tissues

    Introduction

    Therapies for Injured Peripheral Nerve

    Therapies for Injured Spinal Cord

    1. Pharmaceutical Therapies

    2. Regeneration Templates

    3. Cell Transplant Therapies

    4. Bioartificial Spinal Cord

    5. Rehabilitation Programs and Synaptic Plasticity

    6. Combinatorial Approaches May Bring Better Success

    Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    1. Demyelinating Disorders

    2. Parkinson¡¦s Disease

    3. Huntington¡¦s Disease

    4. Alzheimer¡¦s Disease

    5. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Summary

    References


    Chapter 7: Regeneration of Digestive, Respiratory and Urogenital Tissues

    Introduction

    Intestinal Epithelium

    1. Structure of the Intestinal Tract

    2. Regeneration of the Villous Epithelium

    3. Regeneration of Transected Intestine

    Liver

    1. Structure and Function of the Mammalian Liver

    2. Regeneration by Compensatory Hyperplasia

    3. Injury-Induced Regeneration via Stem Cells

    4. Heterogeneity of Hepatocyte Size and Growth Potential

    Pancreas

    1. Structure and Function of the Pancreas

    2. Regeneration of the Pancreas

    3. Origin of Regenerated ƒÒ-Cells

    Alveolar Epithelium of the Lung

    1. Structure of the Respiratory System

    2. Regeneration of Alveolar Epithelium

    Kidney and Urinary System

    1. Structure of the Kidney and Urinary System

    2. Regeneration of Kidney Tubule Epithelium

    Gonads

    Prostate Tissue

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 8: Regenerative Medicine of Digestive, Respiratory and Urinary Tissues

    Introduction

    Regenerative Therapies for the Liver

    1. Hepatocyte Transplants

    2. Extracorporeal Liver Assist Devices

    Regenerative Therapies for the Pancreas

    1. Cell Transplants

    2. Suppression of Autoimmunity and Regeneration From Remaining ƒÒ-Cells

    3. Bioartificial Pancreas

    4. Gene Therapy to Induce Islet Neogenesis


    Regenerative Therapies for the Esophagus and Intestine

    1. Esophagus

    2. Intestine


    Regenerative Therapies for the Respiratory System

    1. Trachea

    2. Lung


    Regenerative Therapies for the Urinary System

    1. Nephrons

    2. Urinary Conduit Tissue

    Summary

    References


    Chapter 9: Regeneration of Musculoskeletal Tissues

    Introduction

    Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle

    1. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    2. Satellite Cells are the Source of Regenerated Muscle

    3. Cellular and Molecular Events of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    4. The Activation and Proliferation of SCs is Regulated by a Variety of Signaling Molecules

    5. Tension and Innervation are Required for Normal Muscle Regeneration

    Regeneration of Bone

    1. Structure of Bone

    2. Maintenance Regeneration of Bone

    3. Injury-Induced Regeneration of Bone

    Repair of Articular Cartilage

    Repair of Tendon and Ligament

    1. Structure of Tendons and Ligaments

    2. Repair of Tendons and Ligaments

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 10: Regenerative Medicine of Musculoskeletal Tissues

    Introduction

    Regenerative Therapies for Muscle

    1. Muscular Dystrophy

    2. Bioartificial Muscle

    Regenerative Therapies for Meniscus and Articular Cartilage

    1. Meniscus

    2. Articular Cartilage

    Regenerative Therapies for Bone
    1. Electromagnetic Field Stimulation

    2. Ilizarov Distraction Technique for Lengthening Bones

    3. Induction of Bone Regeneration by Osteogenic Factors and Acellular Templates

    4. Cell Transplants and Bioartificial Bone

    5. The Long Bones of Salamanders Can Regenerate When Removed

    Regenerative Therapies for Tendon and Ligament

    1. Tendon

    2. Ligament

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 11: Regeneration of Hematopoietic and Cardiovascular Tissues

    Introduction

    Regeneration of Hematopoietic Cells

    1. Composition of Adult Blood

    2. Hematopoietic Stem Cells of the Bone Marrow

    3. Regulation of LT-HSC Activation and Proliferation

    Regeneration of Blood Vessels

    1. Development and Structure of the Vascular System

    2. Blood Vessel Regeneration in Wounded Tissue

    Regeneration of Cardiac Muscle

    1. Structure of Cardiac Muscle

    2. Mammalian Cardiac Muscle Does Not Regenerate, but Harbors Adult Stem Cells

    3. Amphibian and Zebrafish Cardiac Muscle Regenerates When Injured

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 12: Regenerative Medicine of Hematopoietic and Cardiovascular Tissues

    Introduction

    Therapies for Hematopoietic Disorders

    1. Myeloablative Therapy

    2. Non-Myeloablative Therapy

    3. The Future of Hematopoietic Transplants

    4. Gene Therapy for Genetic Hematopoietic Diseases

    Therapies for Blood Vessel Regeneration

    1. Stem Cell Transplants

    2. Acellular Regeneration Templates

    3. Bioartificial Blood Vessels

    Therapies for Protection and Regeneration of the Infarcted Myocardium

    1. Transplants of Bone Marrow Cells

    2. Satellite Cell Transplants

    3. Cardiomyocyte Transplants

    4. Soluble Factors and Myocardial Regeneration

    5. Bioartificial Cardiac Muscle

    Summary
    References


    Chapter 13: Regenerative Medicine: Developmental Plasticity of Adult Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Assays to Test Developmental Plasticity
    Experimental Results

    1. Neural Stem Cells

    2. Satellite Cells

    3. Liver Oval Cells

    4. Dental Pulp Cells

    5. Unfractionated Bone Marrow and HSCs

    6. MSCs of the Bone Marrow and Related MSCs

    Many Reports of Lineage Conversion are Due to Fusion With Host Cells

    Adult Stem Cell Pluripotency: Fact or Fiction?

    Might Organisms Contain ESC-Like Stem Cells in Their Tissues?

    Effects of Aging on Number and Developmental Status of Regeneration-Competent Cells

    Summary

    References


    Chapter 14: Regeneration of Appendages

    Introduction

    Amphibian Limb Regeneration

    1. Events of Limb Regeneration

    2. Origin of the Blastema

    3. Mechanism of Blastema Formation

    4. Epidermal and Neural Requirements for Survival and Proliferation of Blastema Cells

    5. Developmental Plasticity of Blastema Cells in Regenerating Amphibian Limbs

    6. Spatial Organization of Tissue Patterns in the Regenerating Limb

    7. Stimulation of Frog Limb Regeneration

    8. Comparative Analysis of Gene Activity in Regeneration-Competent vs. Regeneration-Deficient Limbs

    Regeneration of Amphibian Jaws

    Appendage Regeneration in Mammals

    1. Regeneration of Ear Tissue

    2. Regeneration of Deer Antlers

    3. Regeneration of Mouse and Human Digit Tips

    4. Stimulation of Digit and Limb Regeneration in Mice and Rats

    Summary

    References


    Chapter 15: Research Issues in Regenerative Medicine

    Introduction

    Biological Issues and Challenges.

    1. Cell Sources for Transplantation and Bioartificial Tissue Construction

    2. Expansion and Directed Differentiation of Regeneration-Competent Cells xiii

    3. Challenges for Bioartificial Tissue Construction

    4. The Challenge of Immunorejection

    5. Challenges for the Chemical Induction of Regeneration

    6. The Challenge of Curing Disease

    Bioethical Issues and Challenges

    1. The Derivation of Designer Human ESCs by SCNT

    2. The Controversy Over Human ESC Research
    3. Resolving an Unresolvable Dilemma

    4. The Specter of Interspecies Grafting

    Concluding Remarks

    Summary

    References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 464
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2006
  • Published: August 28, 2006
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080493022

About the Author

David Stocum

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, USA

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