Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps - 5th Edition - ISBN: 9780081006474, 9780081006665

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

5th Edition

Authors: G F Hundy
eBook ISBN: 9780081006665
Paperback ISBN: 9780081006474
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 2nd March 2016
Page Count: 510
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Description

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps, Fifth Edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practice of refrigeration. Clear and comprehensive, it is suitable for both trainee and professional HVAC engineers, with a straightforward approach that also helps inexperienced readers gain a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the technology. With its concise style and broad scope, the book covers most of the equipment and applications professionals will encounter. The simplicity of the descriptions helps users understand, specify, commission, use, and maintain these systems.

It is a must-have text for anyone who needs thorough, foundational information on refrigeration and air conditioning, but without textbook pedagogy. It includes detailed technicalities or product-specific information. New material to this edition includes the latest developments in refrigerants and lubricants, together with updated information on compressors, heat exchangers, liquid chillers, electronic expansion valves, controls, and cold storage. In addition, efficiency, environmental impact, split systems, retail refrigeration (supermarket systems and cold rooms), industrial systems, fans, air infiltration, and noise are also included.

Key Features

  • Full theoretical and practical treatment of current issues and trends in refrigeration and air conditioning technology
  • Meets the needs of industry practitioners and system designers who need a rigorous, but accessible reference to the latest developments in refrigeration and AC that is supported by coverage at a level not found in typical course textbooks
  • New edition features updated content on refrigerants, microchannel technology, noise, condensers, data centers, and electronic control

Readership

Students and professional mechanical and HVAC engineers, refrigeration specialists, building services engineers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Preface to the Previous Edition
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Chapter 1: Fundamentals
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Temperature, work and heat
    • 1.3. Heat and enthalpy
    • 1.4. Boiling point
    • 1.5. General gas laws
    • 1.6. Dalton’s law
    • 1.7. The pressure – enthalpy chart
    • 1.8. Heat transfer
    • 1.9. Transient heat flow
    • 1.10. Two-phase heat transfer
  • Chapter 2: The Refrigeration Cycle
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Ideal cycle
    • 2.2. Simple vapour compression cycle
    • 2.3. Practical considerations and COP
    • 2.4. Multistage cycles
    • 2.5. Transcritical carbon dioxide cycles
    • 2.6. Heat powered cycles
    • 2.7. Other processes
  • Chapter 3: Refrigerants
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Ideal properties for a refrigerant
    • 3.3. Ozone depletion potential
    • 3.4. Global warming potential
    • 3.5. Nomenclature
    • 3.6. Refrigerant blends and glide
    • 3.7. Legislation
    • 3.8. Containment and training
    • 3.9. Refrigerant applications
    • 3.10. Refrigerants and efficiency
    • 3.11. Health and safety
    • 3.12. Innovation
  • Chapter 4: Compressors
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. The piston compression process
    • 4.3. Multi-cylinder compressors
    • 4.4. Valves
    • 4.5. Capacity reduction
    • 4.6. Enclosed motors
    • 4.7. Open compressors
    • 4.8. Cooling and protection
    • 4.9. Strainers, lubrication and crankcase heaters
    • 4.10. Compressor efficiency
    • 4.11. Screw compressors
    • 4.12. Scroll compressors
    • 4.13. Sliding and rotary vane compressors
    • 4.14. Dynamic compressors
    • 4.15. Refrigerant suitability
  • Chapter 5: Oil in Refrigerant Circuits
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Requirements and characteristics
    • 5.3. Moisture and AIR contamination
    • 5.4. Oil separators
    • 5.5. Oil circulation
    • 5.6. Oil properties summary
  • Chapter 6: Condensers and Cooling Towers
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Heat to be removed
    • 6.3. Air-cooled condensers
    • 6.4. Water-cooled condensers
    • 6.5. Cooling towers and dry coolers
    • 6.6. Evaporative condensers
    • 6.7. Water treatment
    • 6.8. Condenser maintenance
    • 6.9. Legionella
    • 6.10. Design considerations
    • 6.11. Low ambient operation
    • 6.12. Receivers
    • 6.13. Heat-pump condensers
  • Chapter 7: Evaporators
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Air cooling evaporators
    • 7.3. Liquid cooling evaporators
    • 7.4. Plate evaporators for freezing
    • 7.5. Defrosting
    • 7.6. Condensate pumps
  • Chapter 8: Expansion Valves
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Thermostatic expansion valves
    • 8.3. External equaliser
    • 8.4. Electronic expansion valves
    • 8.5. Capillary tubes and restrictors
    • 8.6. Low-pressure float valves and switches
    • 8.7. High-pressure float valves
    • 8.8. Other level controls
  • Chapter 9: Controls and Other Circuit Components
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Main control functions
    • 9.3. Safety and protection devices
    • 9.4. Oil-pressure switches
    • 9.5. Pressure and temperature indicators
    • 9.6. Solenoid valves
    • 9.7. Evaporator pressure regulation valves
    • 9.8. Hot gas by-pass valves
    • 9.9. Shut-off valves
    • 9.10. Filter-driers
    • 9.11. Sight glasses
    • 9.12. Suction accumulators
    • 9.13. Suction-to-liquid heat exchangers
    • 9.14. Condenser pressure regulators
    • 9.15. Strainers
    • 9.16. Charging connection
    • 9.17. Check valves
    • 9.18. Liquid refrigerant pumps
  • Chapter 10: Component Selection and Balancing
    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Criteria and options
    • 10.3. Evaporating temperature
    • 10.4. Evaporator
    • 10.5. Compressor
    • 10.6. Condenser
    • 10.7. Expansion valve
    • 10.8. Sizing pipe and other components
    • 10.9. Re-check components
  • Chapter 11: Installation and Construction
    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Materials
    • 11.3. Pressure safety and containment
    • 11.4. Pipe-joining methods
    • 11.5. Piping for oil return
    • 11.6. Siting, access and pipe supports
    • 11.7. Instruments
    • 11.8. Rising liquid lines
    • 11.9. Vibration
    • 11.10. Cleanliness of piping
    • 11.11. Evacuation
    • 11.12. Charging with refrigerant
    • 11.13. Insulation
    • 11.14. Water circuits
    • 11.15. Non-condensable gases
  • Chapter 12: Distributed Cooling and Heating
    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Refrigerant circulation
    • 12.3. Chilled water
    • 12.4. Baudelot coolers and ice bank coils
    • 12.5. Ice manufacture
    • 12.6. Secondary coolants
    • 12.7. Phase change materials as secondary coolants
    • 12.8. Thermal storage
  • Chapter 13: Packaged Units
    • Abstract
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Condensing units
    • 13.3. Compressor packs
    • 13.4. Chillers and air cooling packages
    • 13.5. Split packages
    • 13.6. Testing of packaged units
    • 13.7. Other packages
  • Chapter 14: Food Refrigeration and Freezing
    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Pre-storage treatment
    • 14.3. Pre-cooling
    • 14.4. Freezing
    • 14.5. Quick freezing
    • 14.6. Contact freezing
    • 14.7. Freeze drying
    • 14.8. Post-storage operations
  • Chapter 15: Cold Storage and Refrigeration Load Estimation
    • Abstract
    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. Cold storage loads
    • 15.3. Product cooling
    • 15.4. Conducted and radiated heat
    • 15.5. Convected heat
    • 15.6. Internal heat sources
    • 15.7. Heat of respiration
    • 15.8. Packing and handling
    • 15.9. Frost avoidance
    • 15.10. Insulation and vapour barriers
    • 15.11. Sectional cold rooms
    • 15.12. Cold store construction
    • 15.13. Floors
    • 15.14. Frost heave
    • 15.15. Fire risk
    • 15.16. Door and safety exits
    • 15.17. Interior finish and fittings
    • 15.18. Evaporators
    • 15.19. Automated cold stores
    • 15.20. Security of operation
  • Chapter 16: Food Refrigeration – Product by Product
    • Abstract
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Meat industry applications
    • 16.3. Boned, boxed and processed meats
    • 16.4. Pork and bacon
    • 16.5. Poultry
    • 16.6. Fish
    • 16.7. Milk and milk products
    • 16.8. Ice cream
    • 16.9. Beer and brewing
    • 16.10. Wines and spirits
    • 16.11. Soft drinks
    • 16.12. Fruits
    • 16.13. Vegetables
    • 16.14. Bakery products
    • 16.15. Ready meals
    • 16.16. Chocolate
  • Chapter 17: The Cold Chain – Transport, Storage, Retail
    • Abstract
    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Air transport
    • 17.3. Sea and intermodal transport
    • 17.4. Road and rail transport
    • 17.5. Logistics
    • 17.6. Refrigerated display
    • 17.7. Retail refrigeration
    • 17.8. Transition to low gwp refrigerants
  • Chapter 18: Industrial Applications
    • Abstract
    • 18.1. Introduction
    • 18.2. R717 and R744 industrial systems
    • 18.3. Chilled liquids for cooling
    • 18.4. Solvent recovery
    • 18.5. Low-temperature liquid storage and transport
    • 18.6. De-waxing of oils
    • 18.7. Ice and snow sports
    • 18.8. Cooling concrete
    • 18.9. Ground freezing
    • 18.10. Low-temperature testing
    • 18.11. Chemical industry
  • Chapter 19: Air and Water Vapour Mixtures
    • Abstract
    • 19.1. Introduction
    • 19.2. Calculation of properties
    • 19.3. Moisture content, percentage saturation, and relative humidity
    • 19.4. Dew point
    • 19.5. Wet bulb temperature
    • 19.6. The psychrometric chart
    • 19.7. Effects on human comfort
    • 19.8. Climatic conditions
    • 19.9. Other comfort factors
    • 19.10. Air quality
  • Chapter 20: Air Treatment Fundamentals
    • Abstract
    • 20.1. Introduction
    • 20.2. Heating
    • 20.3. Mixing of airstreams
    • 20.4. Sensible cooling
    • 20.5. Water spray (adiabatic saturation)
    • 20.6. Steam injection
    • 20.7. Air washer with chilled water
    • 20.8. Cooling and dehumidifying coil
    • 20.9. Sensible–latent ratio
    • 20.10. Multi-step processes
    • 20.11. Process analysis
  • Chapter 21: Practical Air Treatment
    • Abstract
    • 21.1. Introduction
    • 21.2. Heating
    • 21.3. Cooling
    • 21.4. Dehumidification
    • 21.5. Numerical Examples
  • Chapter 22: Air Conditioning Load Estimation
    • Abstract
    • 22.1. Introduction
    • 22.2. Components of load
    • 22.3. Conduction heat gains
    • 22.4. Solar heat
    • 22.5. Fresh air
    • 22.6. Internal heat sources
    • 22.7. Assessment of total load estimates
  • Chapter 23: Air Movement
    • Abstract
    • 23.1. Introduction
    • 23.2. Static and total pressure
    • 23.3. Measuring devices
    • 23.4. Fans
    • 23.5. Fan laws and fan control
    • 23.6. Flow of air in ducts
    • 23.7. Flow of air under kinetic energy
    • 23.8. Flow of air in a room
    • 23.9. Grilles
    • 23.10. Return air
    • 23.11. Textile ducting
    • 23.12. Air filtration
    • 23.13. Cleanliness and cleaning of ducting
  • Chapter 24: Air Conditioning Methods and Applications
    • Abstract
    • 24.1. Introduction
    • 24.2. Air handling units
    • 24.3. Fan coil units
    • 24.4. Integral units
    • 24.5. Underfloor systems
    • 24.6. Static cooling devices
    • 24.7. Packaged units and split systems
    • 24.8. Transport air conditioning
    • 24.9. Data centre cooling applications
    • 24.10. Dehumification applications
  • Chapter 25: Heat Pumps and Integrated Systems
    • Abstract
    • 25.1. Introduction
    • 25.2. Heat recovery and reversible air conditioners
    • 25.3. Ground source heat pumps
    • 25.4. Air source heat pumps
    • 25.5. Heat delivery in residential and commercial heat pumps
    • 25.6. VRV/VRF systems
    • 25.7. Two-pipe systems
    • 25.8. Hybrid heat pumps
    • 25.9. Engine-driven and heat powered heat pumps
    • 25.10. Heat recovery from refrigeration installations
  • Chapter 26: Control Systems
    • Abstract
    • 26.1. Introduction
    • 26.2. The control loop
    • 26.3. Detectors and sensors
    • 26.4. Controllers
    • 26.5. Controlled devices
    • 26.6. Controls communications
    • 26.7. Control system planning
    • 26.8. Commissioning of control systems
    • 26.9. The internet of things
  • Chapter 27: Commissioning and Maintenance
    • Abstract
    • 27.1. Introduction
    • 27.2. Specification
    • 27.3. Commissioning
    • 27.4. Performance measurements
    • 27.5. Planned maintenance
    • 27.6. Repairs and modifications
    • 27.7. Faultfinding
    • 27.8. Running log
    • 27.9. Leak testing
    • 27.10. Mandatory inspections
    • 27.11. Training and competence
  • Chapter 28: Efficiency, Running Cost and Carbon Footprint
    • Abstract
    • 28.1. Introduction
    • 28.2. Energy efficiency, COP and SEI
    • 28.3. Energy efficiency, practical considerations
    • 28.4. Running cost
    • 28.5. Life cycle cost analysis
    • 28.6. Heat pump/boiler comparison
    • 28.7. Efficiency standards, certification and labelling
    • 28.8. Commitment to energy savings
  • Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration
    • Abstract
    • 29.1. Introduction
    • 29.2. Noise sources
    • 29.3. Noise transmission and attenuation
    • 29.4. Noise perception
    • 29.5. Some simple rules
    • 29.6. Published information
    • 29.7. Air system noise
    • 29.8. Noise prediction software
    • 29.9. Vibration
  • Chapter 30: Renewable Energy Innovations
    • Abstract
    • 30.1. Introduction
    • 30.2. Renewable energy storage and availability
    • 30.3. Efficiency
    • 30.4. Examples
  • Appendix: Notes on Units of Measurement
  • List of Some Suggested Sources of Further Information
  • Useful Web Sites
  • References
  • Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
510
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9780081006665
Paperback ISBN:
9780081006474

About the Author

G F Hundy

Guy Hundy has extensive experience in the design and application of refrigeration compressors. Previously Director of Application Engineering with Copeland Europe and a Past-President of the Institute of Refrigeration, he has particular expertise in the field of compressor performance and efficiency in commercial refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps.

Hundy is currently Director at Aleph Zero Ltd a refrigeration and cooling optimization consultancy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Aleph Zero Ltd, UK

Reviews

"The book, which includes references and suggestions for further reading, is a good reference text for students of refrigeration engineering and for those wishing to take a professional qualification in the industry." --CIBSE Journal, Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps, Fifth Edition