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The annealing of deformed materials is of both technological importance and scientific interest. The phenomena have been most widely studied in metals, although they occur in all crystalline materials such as the natural deformation of rocks and the processing of technical ceramics. Research is mainly driven by the requirements of industry, and where appropriate, the book discusses the extent to which we are able to formulate quantitative, physically-based models which can be applied to metal-forming processes.
The subjects treated in this book are all active research areas, and form a major part of at least four regular international conference series. However, there have only been two monographs published in recent times on the subject of recrystallization, the latest nearly 20 years ago. Since that time, considerable advances have been made, both in our understanding of the subject and in the techniques available to the researcher.
The book covers recovery, recrystallization and grain growth in depth including specific chapters on ordered materials, two-phase alloys, annealing textures and annealing during and after hot working. Also contained are treatments of the deformed state and the structure and mobility of grain boundaries, technologically important examples and a chapter on computer simulation and modelling.
The book provides a scientific treatment of the subject for researchers or students in Materials Science, Metallurgy and related disciplines, who require a more detailed coverage than is found in textbooks on physical metallurgy, and a more coherent treatment than will be found in the many conference proceedings and review articles.
For academic and industrial researchers in metallurgy and materials science, and also structural geologists, mechanical engineers and solid state physicists.
Chapter headings and selected sections: Introduction. The annealing of a deformed material. Historical perspective. Forces pressures and units. The Deformed State. Introduction. The stored energy of cold work. The microstructure of deformed metals. Deformation textures. The Structure and Energy of Grain Boundaries. Introduction. The orientation relationship between grains. Low angle grain boundaries. High angle grain boundaries. The topology of boundaries and grains. The interaction of second-phase particles with boundaries. The Mobility and Migration of Boundaries. Introduction. The mobility of low angle boundaries. Measurements of the mobility of high angle boundaries. Theories of the mobility of high angle boundaries. Recovery After Deformation. Introduction. Experimental measurements of recovery. Dislocation migration and annihilation during recovery. Rearrangement of dislocations into stable arrays. Subgrain coarsening. The effect of second-phase particles on recovery. Extended recovery and continuous recrystallization. Recrystallization of Single-Phase Alloys. Introduction. Factors affecting the rate of recrystallization. The formal kinetics of primary recrystallization. Recrystallization kinetics in real materials. The recrystallized microstructure. The nucleation of recrystallization. Annealing twins. Recrystallization of Ordered Materials. Introduction. Ordered structures. Recovery and recrystallization of ordered materials. Dynamic recrystallization. Controversial areas. Recrystallization of Two-Phase Alloys. Introduction. The deformed microstructure. The observed effects of particles on recrystallization. Particle stimulated nucleation of recrystallization. Particle pinning during recrystallization (Zener drag). Bimodal particle distributions. Control of grain size by particles. Particulate metal-matrix composites. The interaction of precipitation and recrystallization. The recrystallization of duplex alloys. Grain Growth Following Recrystallization. Introduction. The development of theories and models of grain growth. Grain orientation and texture effects during grain growth. The effect of second-phase particles on grain growth. Abnormal grain growth. Recrystallization Textures. Introduction. Recrystallization textures in fcc metals. Recrystallization textures in bcc metals. Recrystallization textures in hexagonal metals. Texture development during grain growth. Recrystallization textures in multiphase alloys. Theories of recrystallization textures. Recovery and Recrystallization During and After Hot Deformation. Softening by dynamic recovery. Dynamic recrystallization. Other mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization. Dynamic recrystallization in single crystals. Dynamic recrystallization in minerals. Annealing after hot deformation. Control of Recrystallization. Introduction. The production of aluminium beverage cans. Recent developments in low carbon, deep drawing steels. Recent developments in grain oriented, silicon steel sheets. Commercial superplastic aluminium alloys. Computer Modelling and Simulation of Annealing. Introduction. Micro models. Macro models. Appendix. Representation of texture. Measurement of macrotextures. Measurement of microtextures.
- No. of pages:
- © Pergamon 2002
- 20th July 1995
- eBook ISBN:
Manchester Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester and UMIST, UK
School of Materials, University of New South Wales, Australia