Receptors and Hormone Action

Receptors and Hormone Action

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editors: Bert W. O'Malley, Lutz Birnbaumer
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144940

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Receptors and Hormone Action, Volume 1, provides an overview of the state of knowledge in hormone action. This book describes basic methodologies and model systems used in the exploration of the molecular bases of hormone action. The chapters present not only a rather extensive description of hormone receptors and their properties, but also basic aspects of structure and function of chromatin and membranes, the sites at which hormones and their receptors exert their action. The receptors discussed include soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors for steroid hormones and vitamins, membrane-bound receptors for protein hormones and biogenic amines, and nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones. Receptor types are also covered in view of the large body of literature accumulated on the various functions of these fascinating but elusive molecules. This book is intended for a broad spectrum of readers, including those who have not yet worked in the field as well as those who have considerable expertise in one or another aspect of hormone action.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    1 Sequence Organization of Eukaryotic DNA

    I. Introduction

    II. Techniques for Determining Interspersion Patterns

    III. The Short and Long Interspersion Patterns

    IV. Generality of the Interspersion Patterns

    V. Conclusions


    2 The Eukaryotic Nucleus

    I. Introduction

    II. The Nuclear Structures

    III. Chromatin

    IV. The Nucleolus


    3 Chromatin Structure

    I. Introduction

    II. Histone-DNA Interactions

    III. Histone-Histone Interactions

    IV. Structure of Histone-Bound Regions in Chromatin

    V. Structure of Chromatin Subunits

    VI. Chromatin Structure and Its Relation to Biological Functions


    4 Functional Organization of Chromatin

    I. Introduction

    II. Histones as Gene Repressors and Structural Elements

    III. Nonhistone Proteins in DNA Transcription

    IV. Immunospecificity of Chromosomal Components

    V. Chromsomal Proteins with Affinity for DNA

    VI. Biological Properties of the Chromosomal Nonhistone Protein Fraction NP

    VII. Nonhistone Proteins in Chromatin Fractionation

    VIII. Discussion and Conclusions


    5 Animal Nuclear RNA Polymerases

    I. Introduction

    II. Isolation and Diversity of Nuclear RNA Polymerases

    III. General Properties of Nuclear RNA Polymerases

    IV. General Functions of Nuclear RNA Polymerases

    V. Molecular Structures of Nuclear RNA Polymerases

    VI. Levels of Nuclear RNA Polymerases during Alterations in Gene Activity

    VII. Components Which Regulate the Activity or Selectivity of Nuclear RNA Polymerases

    VIII. Selective Gene Transcription by Nuclear RNA Polymerases in Reconstructed Systems

    IX. Conclusions


    6 Synthesis and Processing of Eukaryotic Messenger RNA

    I. Introduction

    II. Size and Sequence Organization of Primary Transcripts

    III. Posttranscriptional Modifications

    IV. Synthesis and Processing of Specific Gene Sequences

    V. Conclusions: Future Approaches


    7 Purification and Characterization of Eukaryotic RNA and Unique Sequenee Genes

    I. Introduction

    II. Translation of Messenger RNA in Vitro

    III. Preparation of RNA from Tissue

    IV. Purification of Messenger RNA

    V. Characterization of Messenger RNA

    VI. Synthesis and Amplification of Structural Genes

    VII. Isolation of Intact Genes from Natural Eukaryotic DNA

    VIII. Purification of Eukaryotic Messenger RNA's Present in Low Concentrations


    8 Analysis of Cellular Messenger RNA Using Complementary DNA Probes

    I. Introduction

    II. Synthesis of eDNA's

    III. Hybridization Experiments with eDNA's

    IV. Interpretation of Hybridization Data

    V. Uses of eDNA Probes to Isolate Hormone- or Tissue-Specific RNA Sequences

    VI. Incorporation of eDNA's into Bacterial Plasmids

    VII. Conclusions

    VIII. Appendix: A Computer Program for Analysis of Nucleic Acid Hybridization


    9 Gene Expression in the Eukaryotie Cell

    I. Introduction

    II. Evidence for Differential Gene Transcription

    III. Possible Mechanisms for Selective Gene Expression

    IV. The Role of Nonhistone Proteins in Gene Regulation

    V. Problems and Perspectives


    10 Regulation of Gene Expression in the Eukaryotie Cell

    I. Introduction

    II. Subreactions of Transcription and Kinetics

    III. Measurement of Chromatin Initiation Sites during Estrogen Mediated Oviduct Differentiation

    IV. In Vitro Transcription of the Ovalbumin Gene

    V. Fidelity of In Vitro Transcription of the Ovalbumin Gene

    VI. Role of Chromatin Proteins in the Regulation of the Ovalbumin Gene


    11 Steroid Hormone Receptors: Basic Principles and Measurement

    I. Introduction

    II. Receptor Criteria and Measurement

    III. Determination of Receptor Parameters: Theory and Practice

    IV. Receptor States and Measurement by [3H]Steroid Exchange


    12 Current Views on the Organization of Lipids and Proteins in Plasma Membranes

    I. Introduction

    II. Organization of Membrane Lipids

    III. Organization of Membrane Proteins

    IV. Membrane Lipid-Protein Association

    V. Regulation of Membrane Function


    13 Fluidity in Membranes

    I. Introduction

    II. Probes of Membrane Structure

    III. Applications to Natural Membranes


    14 Reconstitution of the Coupled Transports of Na+ and K+ from Purified Na+K+-ATPase

    I. Purification of the Na+K+-ATPase

    II. Properties of Na+K+-ATPase 451

    III. Reconstitution of Coupled Na+ and K+ Transport in Vesicles Containing the Purified NA+K+-ATPase from the Rectal Gland of Squalus acanthias

    IV. Role of Phospholipids in the Coupled Transports of Na+ and K+ in Vesicles

    V. Exchange Diffusion of Na+

    VI. Exchange Diffusion of K+

    VII. Other Studies on the Reconstitution of K+ Transport


    15 Solubilization and Characterization of Adenylyl Cyclase: Approaches and Problems

    I. Solubilization of Adenylyl Cyclase

    II. Characterization of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    III. Conclusions


    16 The Actions of Hormones and Nucleotides on Membrane Bound Adenylyl Cyclases: An Overview

    I. Introduction

    II. General Properties of Adenylyl Cyclases

    III. Stimulation by Hormones

    IV. Coupling

    V. Effects of GMP-P(NH)P

    VI. Alternate Models for Action of Guanyl Nucleotides

    VII. Modes of Action of Hormones

    VIII. Concluding Remarks


    17 An Approach to the Study of the Kinetics of Adenylyl Cyclase

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Procedures

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion and Conclusions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 596
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144940

About the Editors

Bert W. O'Malley

Dr. Bert O’Malley was first to discover that nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate specific mRNA production in target cells in response to intracellular hormones. He uncovered mechanisms for activating steroid receptors, and discovered the existence of ‘coactivators’, the ‘master genes of transcription that regulate normal and disease functions in reproduction, growth and metabolism. He developed the concept that small molecule drugs can regulate coactivators to produce therapeutic outcomes for diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Dr. O’Malley is the founding father of the field of Molecular Endocrinology and a member of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Medicine, and National Academy of Inventors.

Affiliations and Expertise

Thompson Distinguished Leadership Professor of MCB, Chancellor, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Lutz Birnbaumer

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

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