Reaction Heats and Bond Strengths

Reaction Heats and Bond Strengths

Based on a Series of Lectures Given to Postgraduate Students at the University of Keele, 1960

1st Edition - January 1, 1962

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  • Author: C. T. Mortimer
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483186504

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Description

Reaction Heats and Bond Strengths presents the variations in the heats of particular types of reaction. This book covers a variety of topics, including the hydrogenation and polymerization of olefinic compounds, the dissociation of organic and organo-metallic compounds, and the molecular-addition compounds. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the concept of bond energy that can be very useful where a comparison is being made between two dissimilar molecules. This text then examines the strain in cyclopropane and cyclobutane, which is largely a result of angular strain due to compression of the tetrahedral angle in the carbon–carbon bonding. Other chapters consider the experimental thermochemical data for some conjugated molecules. This book discusses as well the significance of representing a molecule, which originated from the concept of resonance. The final chapter deals with bond strength in phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur compounds. This book is a valuable resource for postgraduate students.

Table of Contents


  • 1. The Thermochemical Approach

    Introduction

    Energy changes in Heats of Reaction

    Definitions of Bond Strength

    1. Bond Energies

    2. Bond Dissociation Energies

    Heats of Reaction

    Experimental Methods

    2. Strain Energies in Saturated and Unsaturated Organic Compounds

    Saturated Cyclic Compounds

    1. Cyclo-alkanes

    2. Heterocyclic Compounds

    3. Decalins

    4. Perhydroanthracenes

    5. Dimethylcyclohexanes

    6. Dimethylcyclopentanes

    7. Hydrindanes

    Unsaturated Compounds

    1. Cyclic Olefins

    2. Cyclic or^o-Substituted Benzene Derivatives

    3. Acyclic Olefins

    Polycyclo-alkanes and Alkenes

    Exo-Endo Isomerism in Olefins

    Conclusion

    3. Stabilization Energiesm in Non-Aromatic Compounds

    Introduction

    Conjugation and Hyper conjugation

    1. Olefins

    2. Acetylenes

    Polar Effects

    Hybridization

    Conclusion

    4. Strain and Resonance Energies in Aromatic Compounds

    Introduction

    Experimental Determination of Resonance Energies

    1. Bond Compressional Energy

    2. Hybridization Changes

    3. Charge Separation

    4. Steric Effects

    Five- and Seven-membered Ring Systems

    Four- and Eight-membered Ring Systems

    Cat a-Condensed Hydrocarbons

    Polycyclic Hydrocarbons

    1. Stabilization Energies

    2. Strain Energies

    Hetero-aromatics

    Conclusion

    5. Polymerization Energies

    Heats of Self-Polymerization Reactions

    Free Energies and Entropies

    Co-polymerization

    Polymerization of Cyclic Compounds

    1. Cyclo-alkanes

    2. Heterocyclic Compounds

    6. Molecular Addition Compounds

    Introduction

    Steric and Inductive Effects

    Acceptor Molecules: n-Bonding

    Donor Molecules: Donor Strength and Reorganization Energy

    Addition compounds: ^-Bonding

    1. Acceptor Atoms with Available d-Orbitals

    2. Acceptor Atoms with pseudo pπ-Orbitals

    Conclusion

    7. Bond Dissociation Energies and Heats of Formation of Free Radicals

    Introduction

    Heats of Formation of Free Radicals

    1. Alkyl Radicals

    2. Vinyl Radical

    3. Benzyl Radical

    4. Phenyl Radical

    5. Cyanide Radical

    6. Halogen-substituted Alkyl Radicals

    7. Alkoxy Radicals

    8. Thioalkoxy Radicals

    9. Alkyl Amino Radicals

    10. Radicals RCOO

    Stepwise Dissociation Energies

    8. Metal-Carbon and Metal-Halogen Bonds

    Introduction

    Mean Bond Dissociation Energies

    1. Representative and 6-Group Elements

    2. Transition Metals, Carbonyls

    3. Cyclopentadienyl and Benzene Compounds

    Stepwise Dissociation Energies

    1. b-Group Metal Alkyls

    2. Transition Metal Halides

    Summary

    9. Ionization Energies in Aqueous Solution

    Introduction

    Heats of Neutralization of Strong Acids and Strong Bases

    Aliphatic Acids

    Methyl-substituted Compounds

    1. Picolines

    2. Cresols

    3. Chlorophenols

    4. Nitrophenols

    5. Toluidines

    6. Methyl-Benzoic Acids

    7. Lutidines and Xylenols

    8. Summary of Data for Methyl-substituted Compounds

    Halogen Substituted Acetic Acids

    Dibasic Organic Acids

    Conclusion

    10. Bond Strengths in Silicon, Phosphorus and Sulfur Compounds

    Introduction

    dπ-pπ-Bonding in Simple Molecules

    1. Silicon

    2. Phosphorus

    3. Sulfur

    dπ-pπ-Bonding in Cyclic Systems

    1. Cyclic Phosphazenes

    2. Sulphanuric and Thiazyl Compounds

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 242
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1962
  • Published: January 1, 1962
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483186504

About the Author

C. T. Mortimer

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