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Rare Earth Element Geochemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444421487, 9781483289779

Rare Earth Element Geochemistry, Volume 2

1st Edition

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Editor: P. Henderson
eBook ISBN: 9781483289779
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st November 1983
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Table of Contents


List of Contributors


Chapter 1. General Geochemical Properties and Abundances of the Rare Earth Elements

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Abundances in the Solar System, Sun and Earth

1.3. Data Presentation

1.4. Oxidation States

1.5. Element Co-Ordination and Ionic Radii

1.6. Element Substitution and Partition

1.7. Geochemical Reference Literature


Chapter 2. Minerology of the Rare Earth Elements

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Halides

2.3. Carbonates

2.4. Carbonates with Fluoride

2.5. Oxides

2.6. Borate

2.7. Silicates

2.8. Silicates with Other Anions

2.9. Phosphates

2.10. Arsenates

2.11. Sulphate


Chapter 3. Cosmochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements: Meteorite Studies

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Condensation Theory

3.3. REE abundances in Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions

3.4. REE in Other Components of Chondrites

3.5. Whole-Rock Chondrite Analyses

3.6. Analyses of Achondrites

3.7. REE in Other Differentiated Meteorites

3.8. Summary of REE Cosmochemistry and Future Directions


Chapter 4. Petrogenetic Modeling - Use of Rare Earth Elements

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Modeling of Separation Processes

4.3. Simple Chemical Partitioning — The Nernst D

4.4. Equilibrium Melting and Crystallization

4.5. Fractional Crystallization: Continuous Removal of Crystals

4.6. Fractional Crystallization: Crystal Zoning-Surface Equilibrium

4.7. Incremental Partial Melting

4.8. Zone Melting

4.9. Extraction

4.10. Mixing

4.11. References to Combined Models, and Other Comments


Chapter 5. Rare Earth Element Abundances in Upper Mantle Rocks

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Alpine Peridotites

5.3. Ultramafics Associated with Ophiolites

5.4. Ocean Floor Peridotites

5.5. Ultramafic Inclusions in Basalts and Kimberlites

5.6. Implications of REE Data for Upper Mantle Composition and Upper Mantle Processes


Chapter 6. The Rare Earth Element Characteristics of Igneous Rocks from the Ocean Basins

6.1. Introduction

6.2. History of Research

6.3. Ocean Ridge Basalts

6.4. Ocean Islands

6.5. Ocean Plateau Volcanism

6.6. Factors Controlling the Distribution of REE in Oceanic Basalts

6.7. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 7. Rare Earth Elements in Igneous Rocks of the Continental Crust: Predominantly Basic and Ultrabasic Rocks

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Kimberlite

7.3. Carbonatites and Associated Alkalic Silicate Rocks

7.4. Lamprophyres

7.5. Komatiites and Associated Basic Rocks

7.6. Alkaline Mafic Rocks and Associated Intermediate and Felsic Rocks

7.7. Tholeiitic Basalts — Continental, Back-Arc Basins and Island Arcs

7.8. Summary


Chapter 8. Rare Earth Elements in Igneous Rocks of the Continental Crust: Intermediate and Silicic Rocks - Ore Petrogenesis

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Andesites and Associated Rocks

8.3. Anorthosites and Associated Jotunites, Mangerites, and Charnockites

8.4. Granitic Rocks — Quartz Diorite, Tonalite, Granodiorite, and Trondhjemite

8.5. Granitic Rocks — Monzogranites and Syenogranites

8.6. REE in Hydro Thermal Systems

8.7. Summary


Chapter 9. The Mobility of the Rare Earth Elements in the Crust

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Factors Affecting the Degree of Mobility of the REE

9.3. Igneous Crystallization History—the Distribution of REE in the Unalterec Rock and their Susceptibility to Weathering and Alteration

9.4. The Fluid Phase

9.5. Uptake of the REE by Secondary Minerals

9.6. Conclusions


Chapter 10. Aqueous and Sedimentary Geochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Weathering and Transport

10.3. The Marine Environment

10.4. REE Contents of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

10.5. Diagenesis


Chapter 11. Radiogenic Isotopes - Some Geological Applications

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Radioactive Decay

11.3. Geochronology — The Dating of Rocks and Minerals

11.4. Model Nd, or TNdCHUR, Ages

11.5. Isotopes as Tracers in Petrogenesis

11.6. Isotope Variations in Seawater

11.7. Models for the Evolution of the Earth's Crust and Mantle

11.8. Lu-Hf Isotopes

11.9. Concluding Remarks



Chapter 12. The Economic Importance of the Rare Earth Elements

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Abundance and Ore Mineralogy

12.3. Geological Characteristics of the Deposits

12.4. World Reserves and Resources

12.5. Mining, Mineral Processing, Extraction and Separation

12.6. Historical Production and Demand

12.7. Current Uses

12.8. Use Development


Chapter 13 Analytical Chemistry

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Neutron Activation Analysis

13.3. Mass-Spectrometric Isotope Dilution Analysis

13.4. Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry

13.5. Other Methods

13.6. Concluding Statement


Subject Index


Developments in Geochemistry, Volume 2: Rare Earth Element Geochemistry presents the remarkable developments in the chemistry and geochemistry of the rare earth elements. This book discusses the analytical techniques and the recognition that rare earth fractionation occurs naturally in different ways. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the wide array of types and sizes of the cation coordination polyhedral in rock-forming minerals. This text then examines the application of rare earth element abundances to petrogenetic problems that has centered on the evolution of igneous rocks. Other chapters consider the matching of observed rare earth element abundances with those provided by the theoretical modeling of petrogenetic processes. This book discusses as well the hypotheses on the genesis of a rock or mineral suite. The final chapter deals with the principal analytical methods. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduates, lecturers, and researchers who study petrology and geochemistry.


© Elsevier Science 1984
1st November 1983
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:


"A welcome contribution as a synthesis of world progress in a relatively new and exciting field." --Australian Mineral Foundation

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About the Editor

P. Henderson