Rare Earth Element Geochemistry

Rare Earth Element Geochemistry

1st Edition - November 1, 1983

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  • Editor: P. Henderson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289779

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Developments in Geochemistry, Volume 2: Rare Earth Element Geochemistry presents the remarkable developments in the chemistry and geochemistry of the rare earth elements. This book discusses the analytical techniques and the recognition that rare earth fractionation occurs naturally in different ways. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the wide array of types and sizes of the cation coordination polyhedral in rock-forming minerals. This text then examines the application of rare earth element abundances to petrogenetic problems that has centered on the evolution of igneous rocks. Other chapters consider the matching of observed rare earth element abundances with those provided by the theoretical modeling of petrogenetic processes. This book discusses as well the hypotheses on the genesis of a rock or mineral suite. The final chapter deals with the principal analytical methods. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduates, lecturers, and researchers who study petrology and geochemistry.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    List of Contributors


    Chapter 1. General Geochemical Properties and Abundances of the Rare Earth Elements

    1.1. Introduction

    1.2. Abundances in the Solar System, Sun and Earth

    1.3. Data Presentation

    1.4. Oxidation States

    1.5. Element Co-Ordination and Ionic Radii

    1.6. Element Substitution and Partition

    1.7. Geochemical Reference Literature


    Chapter 2. Minerology of the Rare Earth Elements

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Halides

    2.3. Carbonates

    2.4. Carbonates with Fluoride

    2.5. Oxides

    2.6. Borate

    2.7. Silicates

    2.8. Silicates with Other Anions

    2.9. Phosphates

    2.10. Arsenates

    2.11. Sulphate


    Chapter 3. Cosmochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements: Meteorite Studies

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Condensation Theory

    3.3. REE abundances in Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions

    3.4. REE in Other Components of Chondrites

    3.5. Whole-Rock Chondrite Analyses

    3.6. Analyses of Achondrites

    3.7. REE in Other Differentiated Meteorites

    3.8. Summary of REE Cosmochemistry and Future Directions


    Chapter 4. Petrogenetic Modeling - Use of Rare Earth Elements

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Modeling of Separation Processes

    4.3. Simple Chemical Partitioning — The Nernst D

    4.4. Equilibrium Melting and Crystallization

    4.5. Fractional Crystallization: Continuous Removal of Crystals

    4.6. Fractional Crystallization: Crystal Zoning-Surface Equilibrium

    4.7. Incremental Partial Melting

    4.8. Zone Melting

    4.9. Extraction

    4.10. Mixing

    4.11. References to Combined Models, and Other Comments


    Chapter 5. Rare Earth Element Abundances in Upper Mantle Rocks

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Alpine Peridotites

    5.3. Ultramafics Associated with Ophiolites

    5.4. Ocean Floor Peridotites

    5.5. Ultramafic Inclusions in Basalts and Kimberlites

    5.6. Implications of REE Data for Upper Mantle Composition and Upper Mantle Processes


    Chapter 6. The Rare Earth Element Characteristics of Igneous Rocks from the Ocean Basins

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. History of Research

    6.3. Ocean Ridge Basalts

    6.4. Ocean Islands

    6.5. Ocean Plateau Volcanism

    6.6. Factors Controlling the Distribution of REE in Oceanic Basalts

    6.7. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 7. Rare Earth Elements in Igneous Rocks of the Continental Crust: Predominantly Basic and Ultrabasic Rocks

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Kimberlite

    7.3. Carbonatites and Associated Alkalic Silicate Rocks

    7.4. Lamprophyres

    7.5. Komatiites and Associated Basic Rocks

    7.6. Alkaline Mafic Rocks and Associated Intermediate and Felsic Rocks

    7.7. Tholeiitic Basalts — Continental, Back-Arc Basins and Island Arcs

    7.8. Summary


    Chapter 8. Rare Earth Elements in Igneous Rocks of the Continental Crust: Intermediate and Silicic Rocks - Ore Petrogenesis

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Andesites and Associated Rocks

    8.3. Anorthosites and Associated Jotunites, Mangerites, and Charnockites

    8.4. Granitic Rocks — Quartz Diorite, Tonalite, Granodiorite, and Trondhjemite

    8.5. Granitic Rocks — Monzogranites and Syenogranites

    8.6. REE in Hydro Thermal Systems

    8.7. Summary


    Chapter 9. The Mobility of the Rare Earth Elements in the Crust

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Factors Affecting the Degree of Mobility of the REE

    9.3. Igneous Crystallization History—the Distribution of REE in the Unalterec Rock and their Susceptibility to Weathering and Alteration

    9.4. The Fluid Phase

    9.5. Uptake of the REE by Secondary Minerals

    9.6. Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Aqueous and Sedimentary Geochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Weathering and Transport

    10.3. The Marine Environment

    10.4. REE Contents of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

    10.5. Diagenesis


    Chapter 11. Radiogenic Isotopes - Some Geological Applications

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Radioactive Decay

    11.3. Geochronology — The Dating of Rocks and Minerals

    11.4. Model Nd, or TNdCHUR, Ages

    11.5. Isotopes as Tracers in Petrogenesis

    11.6. Isotope Variations in Seawater

    11.7. Models for the Evolution of the Earth's Crust and Mantle

    11.8. Lu-Hf Isotopes

    11.9. Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 12. The Economic Importance of the Rare Earth Elements

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Abundance and Ore Mineralogy

    12.3. Geological Characteristics of the Deposits

    12.4. World Reserves and Resources

    12.5. Mining, Mineral Processing, Extraction and Separation

    12.6. Historical Production and Demand

    12.7. Current Uses

    12.8. Use Development


    Chapter 13 Analytical Chemistry

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Neutron Activation Analysis

    13.3. Mass-Spectrometric Isotope Dilution Analysis

    13.4. Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry

    13.5. Other Methods

    13.6. Concluding Statement


    Subject Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1983
  • Published: November 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289779

About the Editor

P. Henderson

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