Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors

Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors

1st Edition - August 2, 2014

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  • Editors: M Forsyth, B Hinton
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093585

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Corrosion inhibitors are an important method for minimizing corrosion; however traditional inhibitors such as chromates pose environmental problems. Rare earth metals provide an important, environmentally-friendly alternative. This book provides a comprehensive review of current research and examines how rare earth metals can be used to prevent corrosion and applied to protect metals in such industries as aerospace and construction. Chapter 1 begins by examining the important need to replace chromate, and then goes on to discuss the chemistry of the rare earth metals and their related compounds. Chapter 2 considers the techniques that can be used to identify corrosion inhibition mechanisms and to test the levels of protection offered to different metals by rare earth compounds. Subsequent chapters consider in more detail how rare earth elements can be used as corrosion inhibitors in different forms and for different metals. This includes discussion on the potential of rare earth elements for self-healing, tunable and multifunctional coatings. Finally, chapter 10 considers the cost and availability of the rare earths and the potential health and environmental risks associated with extracting them.  

Key Features

  • Provides a review of current research and examines how rare earth metals can be used to prevent corrosion and applied to protect metals in such industries as aerospace and construction
  • Includes discussion on the potential of rare earth elements for self-healing, tunable and multifunctional coatings
  • Considers the cost and availability of the rare earths and the potential health and environmental risks associated with extracting them


Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors is a useful resource for engineers and chemists who specialize in corrosion, as well as for those who work in the automotive, military, aerospace and chemical plant industries.

Table of Contents

  • 1. The chemistry of rare earth metals, compounds, and corrosion inhibitors

    • Abstract:
    • 1.1 Introduction: the need to replace chromate
    • 1.2 Rare earth elements and their place in the Periodic Table
    • 1.3 Discovery, location and abundance of rare earths
    • 1.4 Uses of the rare earths
    • 1.5 General chemistry properties of rare earth elements and compounds
    • 1.6 Rare earth corrosion inhibitors: carboxylate complexes
    • 1.7 Strategies to model corrosion protection mechanisms
    • 1.8 Future trends
    • 1.9 Acknowledgement
    • 1.10 References

    2. Testing and analysis techniques in rare earth inhibitor research

    • Abstract:
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Identification and simulation of corrosion and inhibition mechanisms
    • 2.3 Non-electrochemical and electrochemical corrosion testing and analysis techniques
    • 2.4 Probe techniques for localized corrosion inhibitor research
    • 2.5 Using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques to evaluate corrosion protection by rare earth metal (REM) compounds
    • 2.6 Evaluating the corrosion protection of aluminum and its alloys using REM compounds
    • 2.7 Evaluating the corrosion protection of zinc, zinc alloys and galvanized steel using REM compounds
    • 2.8 Evaluating the corrosion protection of magnesium and magnesium alloys using REM compounds
    • 2.9 Evaluating the corrosion protection of steel and stainless steels using REM compounds
    • 2.11 Conclusions
    • 2.11 References

    3. Corrosion inhibition with rare earth metal compounds in aqueous solutions

    • Abstract:
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Corrosion inhibitors: the new role of green chemistry
    • 3.3 Rare earths as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous systems
    • 3.4 Mechanisms of formation of the layer
    • 3.5 Special cases of inhibition by rare earth compounds: mechanically assisted corrosion
    • 3.6 Future trends
    • 3.7 References

    4. Multifunctional rare earth organic corrosion inhibitors

    • Abstract:
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Corrosion inhibitor technologies
    • 4.3 Types and performance of multifunctional inhibitors
    • 4.4 Multifunctional inhibitors for steel
    • 4.5 Multifunctional inhibitors for aluminium alloys and other metals and alloys
    • 4.6 Advantages and limitations of using multifunctional rare earth organic inhibitors for corrosion protection
    • 4.7 Future trends
    • 4.8 References

    5. Anodized anti-corrosion coatings for aluminium using rare earth metals

    • Abstract:
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Fundamentals of anodizing of aluminium
    • 5.3 Anodizing technology
    • 5.4 Corrosion protection by rare earth species
    • 5.5 Summary
    • 5.6 References

    6. Corrosion-resistant polymer coatings containing rare earth compounds

    • Abstract:
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Rare earth compounds as replacements of chromate compounds in polymer coatings
    • 6.3 Using cerium-based inhibitors in eCoat paints
    • 6.4 Praseodymium-based inhibitors in epoxy polyamide primers
    • 6.5 Future trends
    • 6.6 Acknowledgements
    • 6.7 References

    7. Coatings for corrosion prevention based on rare earths

    • Abstract:
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Rare earth metal (REM) aqueous chemistry
    • 7.3 Characterization of rare earth corrosion inhibition mechanisms
    • 7.4 The development of REM containing coatings for aluminium
    • 7.5 Conversion coating processes
    • 7.6 Sol-gel coating processes
    • 7.7 Boehmite formation in solutions containing rare earths
    • 7.8 Surface cleaning processes and coating effectiveness
    • 7.9 Performance testing
    • 7.10 Coatings for metals other than aluminium
    • 7.11 Summary
    • 7.12 References

    8. Novel and self-healing anticorrosion coatings using rare earth compounds

    • Abstract:
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Types of self-healing coating
    • 8.3 Hybrid coatings containing rare earth (RE) compounds: sol-gel coatings
    • 8.4 Hybrid coatings containing RE compounds: sol-gel coatings modified by soluble RE inhibitors
    • 8.5 Hybrid coatings containing RE compounds: RE inhibitors in nanoreservoirs
    • 8.6 Hybrid coatings containing RE compounds: nanocarriers with immobilized RE-based inhibitors
    • 8.7 RE-doped organic coatings
    • 8.8 RE-containing metallic coatings
    • 8.9 Summary
    • 8.10 References

    9. Tunable multifunctional corrosion-resistant metallic coatings containing rare earth elements

    • Abstract:
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Corrosion protection mechanisms by passive films and coatings
    • 9.3 Sacrificial anode-based cathodic protection versus active corrosion inhibition
    • 9.4 Long-range corrosion protection of coating defects
    • 9.5 One vision for new coatings with multiple, tunable functions
    • 9.6 Materials and fabrication of tunable amorphous metallic coatings
    • 9.7 Tunable barrier properties in multifunctional amorphous Al-TM-RE coatings
    • 9.8 Tunable sacrificial anode-based cathodic protection in Al-TM-RE coatings
    • 9.9 On-demand active-corrosion inhibition based on tunable Al-TM-RE alloy coatings
    • 9.10 Summary
    • 9.11 Acknowledgements
    • 9.12 References

    10. The cost and availability of rare earth-based corrosion inhibitors

    • Abstract:
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 The rare earth elements
    • 10.3 Abundance
    • 10.4 Mineralogy and mining
    • 10.5 Rare earth availability
    • 10.6 Uses
    • 10.7 Potential demand for rare earth and other inhibitors
    • 10.8 Health and environment issues
    • 10.9 Summary
    • 10.10 References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 338
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2014
  • Published: August 2, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093585

About the Editors

M Forsyth

Professor Maria Forsyth is Chair in Electromaterials and Corrosion Sciences and Associate Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science at Deakin University, Australia

Affiliations and Expertise

Deakin University, Australia

B Hinton

Professor Bruce Hinton is an adjunct professorial research fellow in the Engineering Department at Monash University, Australia

Affiliations and Expertise

Monash University, Australia

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