Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Materials

Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Materials

Synthesis, Magnetic Properties and Room Temperature Spintronics

1st Edition - January 23, 2016

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  • Editors: Volkmar Dierolf, Ian Ferguson, John Zavada
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081000601

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Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Material explores traditional semiconductor devices that are based on control of the electron’s electric charge. This book looks at the semiconductor materials used for spintronics applications, in particular focusing on wide band-gap semiconductors doped with transition metals and rare earths. These materials are of particular commercial interest because their spin can be controlled at room temperature, a clear opposition to the most previous research on Gallium Arsenide, which allowed for control of spins at supercold temperatures. Part One of the book explains the theory of magnetism in semiconductors, while Part Two covers the growth of semiconductors for spintronics. Finally, Part Three looks at the characterization and properties of semiconductors for spintronics, with Part Four exploring the devices and the future direction of spintronics.

Key Features

  • Examines materials which are of commercial interest for producing smaller, faster, and more power-efficient computers and other devices
  • Analyzes the theory behind magnetism in semiconductors and the growth of semiconductors for spintronics
  • Details the properties of semiconductors for spintronics


Postgraduate students, scientists, applied researchers and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization and analysis of new semiconductor materials for spintronics applications.

Table of Contents

    • Related titles
    • List of contributors
    • Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
    • Part One. Theory of magnetism in III-V semiconductors
      • 1. Computational nanomaterials design for nanospintronics: Room-temperature spintronics applications
        • 1.1. Introduction
        • 1.2. Disordered dilute magnetic semiconductors
        • 1.3. Spinodal nanodecomposition and high blocking temperature
        • 1.4. Rare-earth impurities in gallium nitride
        • 1.5. MgO-based high-TC nanospintronics
      • 2. Electronic structure of magnetic impurities and defects in semiconductors: A guide to the theoretical models
        • 2.1. Introduction
        • 2.2. Electronic structure of transition-metal and rare-earth elements in semiconductors
        • 2.3. Computational methods dealing with strongly correlated electrons
        • 2.4. Magnetism
        • 2.5. Case study: Gd in GaN
      • 3. Energetics, atomic structure, and magnetics of rare earth-doped GaN bulk and nanoparticles
        • 3.1. Introduction
        • 3.2. Methods of calculation
        • 3.3. Doping of bulk GaN with Eu and codoping with Si
        • 3.4. Doping of rare earths in GaN nanoparticles
        • 3.5. Conclusions
    • Part Two. Magnetic semiconductors based on rare earth/transition metals
      • 4. Prospects for rare-earth-based dilute magnetic semiconductor alloys and hybrid magnetic rare-earth/semiconductor heterostructures
        • 4.1. Introduction
        • 4.2. Single-phase magnetic semiconductor alloys based on rare earths
        • 4.3. Inhomogeneous and mixed-phase magnetic rare-earth systems
        • 4.4. Heterostructures of semiconductor and magnetic rare-earth compounds
        • 4.5. Rare-earth-based layered chalcogenides and pnictides, including mixed anion systems
        • 4.6. Spintronic possibilities with antiferromagnetic rare-earth compounds
        • 4.7. Conclusions
      • 5. Electron spin resonance studies of GaAs:Er,O
        • 5.1. Introduction and previous studies
        • 5.2. Sample preparations
        • 5.3. Electron spin resonance results in Kobe
        • 5.4. Discussion and proposed models
        • 5.5. Summary
      • 6. Gadolinium-doped gallium-nitride: Synthesis routes, structure, and magnetism
        • 6.1. Introduction
        • 6.2. General considerations and experimental methods
        • 6.3. GaN:Gd samples with colossal magnetic moments
        • 6.4. Gd ion implantation into various GaN samples
        • 6.5. Synchrotron-based investigations on molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN:Gd
        • 6.6. Summary of magnetic properties of GaN:Gd
      • 7. MOCVD growth of Er-doped III-N and optical-magnetic characterization
        • 7.1. Introduction
        • 7.2. MOCVD growth of Er-doped III-N films
        • 7.3. Optical properties
        • 7.4. Magnetic properties of III-N:Er thin films
        • 7.5. Summary
      • 8. Growth of Eu-doped GaN and its magneto-optical properties
        • 8.1. Introduction
        • 8.2. Growth of Eu-doped GaN by OMVPE
        • 8.3. Nature of Eu incorporation into GaN: structural, optical, and magneto-optical properties
        • 8.4. Summary and conclusions
      • 9. Optical and magnetic characterization of III-N:Nd grown by molecular beam epitaxy
        • 9.1. Introduction
        • 9.2. Molecular beam epitaxy growth
        • 9.3. Optical characterization
        • 9.4. Magnetic properties
        • 9.5. Applications to quantum sciences
        • 9.6. Conclusions
    • Part Three. Properties of magnetic semiconductors for spintronics
      • 10. Transition metal and rare earth doping in GaN
        • 10.1. Introduction
        • 10.2. Classic exchange mechanisms
        • 10.3. MOCVD growth of Ga1−xTMxN and Ga1−xRExN
        • 10.4. Experimental studies for Ga1−xCrxN
        • 10.5. LEDs containing nitride dilute magnetic semiconductors
        • 10.6. Conclusions
      • 11. Gadolinium-doped III-nitride diluted magnetic semiconductors for spintronics applications
        • 11.1. Introduction
        • 11.2. Growth and structural properties of Gd-doped III-nitride semiconductors
        • 11.3. Properties of Gd-doped III-nitride semiconductors
        • 11.4. Properties of Dy-doped GaN
        • 11.5. Spintronic device application
        • 11.6. Summary
      • 12. Ferromagnetic behavior in transition metal-doped III-N semiconductors
        • 12.1. Introduction
        • 12.2. Transition metal-doping of III-V nitride films by diffusion
        • 12.3. Mn doping of GaN films by MOCVD
        • 12.4. Fermi level engineering of magnetic behavior of GaMnN
        • 12.5. Room-temperature spintronic device based on GaMnN
        • 12.6. Summary and concluding remarks
      • 13. Bipolar magnetic junction transistors for logic applications
        • 13.1. Introduction
        • 13.2. Spin diodes
        • 13.3. Bipolar magnetic junction transistor
        • 13.4. Applications
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 470
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: January 23, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081000601

About the Editors

Volkmar Dierolf

Prof Dierolf came to Lehigh in 2000 with a Ph.D in Physics from the University of Utah, and a Habilitation from the University of Paderborn, Germany, He is the current Chair of the Physics Department and holds a Joint appointment with the Materials Science Department. In 2008, he was a Visiting Mercator Professor at the University of Bonn. He is on the International Committees of both the International and the European Conference on Defect in Insulating Materials (ICDIM, EuroDIM). He has served as a Principal Editor for the Journal of Materials Research and has been Guest Editor for Optical Materials. His research is focused on the optical spectroscopy and microscopy of insulating and semiconducting materials. His group exploits the wealth of information that can be obtained by combining high spatial resolution (down to 50nm) of a near field optical microscope or a SEM instrument with the structural and atomic scale information contained in excitation-emission data, cathodoluminescence and Raman spectra.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chair of the Physics Department, Lehigh University, Bethlehelm, PA, USA

Ian Ferguson

Ferguson holds a Ph.D. in compound semiconductors from University of St. Andrews in Scotland (1989). He also holds a master of science in optoelectronics and laser devices from St. Andrews (1986) and a bachelor of science degree in physics from Heriot-Watt University in Scotland (1984).

Prior to joining UNC Charlotte, Ferguson was a professor of electrical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology from 2001 to 2009. While at Georgia Tech, he also served as director of the Focused Research Program on Next-Generation Lighting and held a faculty appointment in the School of Materials Science and Engineering from 2004 through 2009.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA

John Zavada

Dr. Zavada received a BA degree in physics from Catholic University and MS and PhD degrees, also in physics, from New York University. He has held previous academic appointments at North Carolina State University and the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. He is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and a recipient of the Army’s Meritorious Civilian Service Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Program Director for the NSF in the area of Electronics, Photonics, and Magnetic Devices

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