Rapidly Quenched Metals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444869395, 9780444601117

Rapidly Quenched Metals

1st Edition

Editors: S Steeb
eBook ISBN: 9780444601117
Imprint: North Holland
Published Date: 1st January 1985
Page Count: 1112
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Rapidly Quenched Metals, Volume I covers the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Rapidly Quenched Metals, held in Wurzburg, Germany on September 3-7, 1984. The book focuses on amorphous and crystalline metals formed by rapid quenching from the melt.

The selection first covers the scope and trends of developments in rapid solidification technology, rapid solidification, and undercooling of liquid metals by rapid quenching. Discussions focus on experimental method, powders, strip, particulate production, consolidation, and alloys and alloy systems. The text then examines the solidification of undercooled liquid alloys entrapped in solid; crystallization kinetics in undercooled droplets; and grain refinement in bulk undercooled alloys.

The manuscript tackles the undercooling of niobium-germanium alloys in a 100 meter drop tube; influence of process parameters on the cooling rate of the meltspinning process; and the mechanism of ribbon formation in melt-spun copper and copper-zirconium. The formation and structure of thick sections of rapidly-solidified material by incremental deposition and production of ultrafine dispersions of rare earth oxides in Ti alloys using rapid solidification are also mentioned.

The selection is a valuable reference for physicists, chemists, physical metallurgists, and engineers.

Table of Contents


List of Committees

Conference Photographs


In memoriam – Pol E. Duwez

Contents for Volume I

Contents for Volume II


Introductory Remarks

Historical Remarks and Honours

The Early Days of Quench Condensed Amorphous Films

Opening Lecture

The Scope and Trends of Developments in Rapid Solidification Technology

A. Rapid Solidification Process


Rapid Solidification - Process Technology for New Materials and Products

Solidification at Large Undercooling

Undercooling of Liquid Metals by Rapid Quenching

Solidification of Undercooled Liquid Alloys Entrapped in Solid - A Structural Investigation

Crystallization Kinetics in Undercooled Droplets

Solidification Structures Developed in Undercooled Al-Si and Pb-Sb Alloys

Grain Refinement in Bulk Undercooled Alloys

Formation of a High Pressure Phase in In-Bi Alloys Solidified from Highly Undercooled Liquid at Atmospheric Pressure

Undercooling of Niobium-Germanium Alloys in a 100 Meter Drop Tube

Analysis of Ribbon Casting Processing

The Influence of Process Parameters on the Cooling Rate of the Meltspinning Process

The Mechanism of Ribbon Formation in Melt-Spun Copper and Copper-Zirconium

Ribbon Formation of Roller Cast Al-Cu

Thermal History Calculations for Continuous Casting of Metallic Glass Tapes

Surface Quality and Thickness Effects of Amorphous Ribbons for Recording Head Applications

Analysis of Casting Conditions of Amorphous Ribbons

The Process Parameters and the Properties of Fe40Ni40B13Si7 Ribbons

Analysis of the Solidification Process in the Roller Quenching Method

Comparison of the Single Roller and Double Roller Processes for Casting Low Carbon Steel

Techniques of Rapid Solidification

Solidification Mechanisms in Amorphous and Crystalline Ribbon Casting

On the Possibilities of Making Multiple Layer Ribbons by Single Roller Melt Spinning

Properties of Fe-C-Si, Cu-Al, Al-Si Alloy Wires Produced by In-Rotating Water-Spinning Process

Pilot Scale Arc Melt Spinning for Ti Rich Alloys

Formation of Metallic and Metallic-Glass Hollow Spheres and Their Solidification Characteristics

Vitrification of Fe-Cr-Mo-P-C Alloys on Entire Surfaces by Laser Treatment

Preparation and Physical Properties of Fe-W and Co-W Amorphous Alloys by Electroplating Method

Preparation for Ni-S Amorphous Alloy by Electroplating Method

Formation and Structure of Thick Sections of Rapidly-Solidified Materials by Incremental Deposition

Composite Structures and Properties of Magnetic Amorphous Alloys Dispersed with Oxide and Carbide Particles

Surface-Smoothing and Densification of Spray-Quenched Amorphous Alloy Sheets by Warm-Rolling

B. Glass-Forming Ability and Crystallization


Metallic Glass Forming Ability

Glass-Forming Ability

Formation, Thermal Stability and Magnetic Properties of Amorphous Ni-Base Alloys

Relationships Between the Glass-Forming Ability (GFA) and Several Metallurgical Parameters : Tl, Tq, To, Tn, T and tg

On Complex Formation in Molten Alloys and Its Role in Glass Formation

Glass-Forming Ability in Binary and Ternary Systems Containing Palladium

A Theoretical Study of the Transition from Crystalline to Amorphous Structure in Alloys Produced by the Melt Spinning Process

Prediction of Glass Forming Range in Ternary Alloys from the Constituent Binary Systems

Pattern Recognition Applied to the Formability Criteria of Metallic Glasses

The Chemical Twinning Model as a Possible Guide to the Choice of New Glass Forming Compositions

Glass Forming Ability Studies in the Copper-Titanium System

Crystal Structures Competing with Glass Formation in Cu-Ti and Cu-Ti-Zr Alloys

Modeling of the Nucleation Temperature for Alloys in the Cu-Ti System Under Laser Irradiation Conditions

Fundamental Aspects of Crystallization

Crystallization Kinetics in Metallic Glasses

Nucleation, Growth and Transformation of Crystals in an Annealed High Density, Single-Component Glassy System

Interpretation of Experimental Measurements of Transient Nucleation

Crystallization Statistics in Metal-Metalloid Glasses

Solid-Undercooled Liquid Interfacial Energy of Pd-Cu-Si Alloy Glass

Crystallization of Rapidly Heated Metallic Glass

Effect of Quenching Rate on the Glass Transition and Crystallization Temperatures of Fe-B Based Metallic Glasses

Influence of Cold Rolling on the Internal Friction During Crystallization of Some Metal-Metalloid Glasses

Surface Crystallization

Photostimulated Exoelectron Emission Accompanying the Structural Transformations of Metallic Glasses

Some Comments on Metallic Glasses

Crystallization of Sputtered Iron-Carbon Amorphous Alloys with Carbon Contents in the Range 18-50 at.%

Fundamental Aspects of Crystallization

A Structural Study of Liquid-Quenched Fe-B Alloys by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and High Resolution Electron Microscopy

Location of Crystallization in Fe80B20 Metallic Glass by CEMS

The Study of Mechanism and Kinetics of Crystallization of Fe86B14 Metallic Glass

Crystallization Kinetics Studied by EDXD and Mössbauer Spectroscopy

Why Isothermal Long-Term Annealing (104h) Avoid Pitfalls as with DTA/DSC-Runs for Thermal Stability Assessments - Application to Metglasses (R) 2826 and 2826A

Crystallization Kinetics of Fe40Ni40P14B6 Glassy Alloy Under Isothermal and Nonisothermal Conditions

Free Energy Changes on Crystallization of Amorphous (Fe1-xNix)80P14B6 Alloys

Influence of Aluminium on the Crystallization of Fe-Ni-B Glasses

Annealing and Crystallization Behaviour of Fe67Co18B14Si1

In Situ Crystallization Observation in Iron - Rare Earth - Boron Glassy Alloys

Transformation Behavior and FeSiB Metallic Glasses by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

Activation Energy for Crystallization of Amorphous Fe83Si5B12 Alloy

Enthalpic and Structural Analysis of Crystallization in Fe-B-C and Fe-Si-B-C Metallic Glasses

A Comparative Study of Initial Stage Crystallization Structures and Morphologies for Some Iron and Nickel Based Glassy Alloys

Structural Evolution of a Fe-B-Si-C Metallic Glass

Crystallization of Iron-Based Metal-Metalloid Glasses

Investigation of Crystallization and Thermal Stability of Fe78B22-xSix Metallic Glass

Effect of the Composition on Properties of Fe Cr P C Amorphous Alloys

Crystallization of Intertransition Metal Glasses

Crystallization of Amorphous Cu-Ti Alloys

Thermal Stability of Cu-Zr-M Glasses as a Function of an Average Atomization Enthalpy

Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Crystallization Enthalpies in Amorphous Zr-Ni Alloys

Glass Forming Ability and Amorphous to Crystalline Transitions in Zr-Ni Alloys

Crystallization of Ni60Hf40 Amorphous Alloy

Thermal Stability of Fe-Zr-B Glasses

Crystallization of Other Glasses

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Crystallization of Amorphous Co-Gd

Formation and Crystallization of Cr-C Sputtered Amorphous Alloys

Crystallization of Selected Areas and Their Domain Image in Amorphous Mn-Ga Thin Films

The Vitreous Transformation and Crystallization Process of Amorphous Selenium

Double Glass Transition Phenomena and Fractional Crystallization in Ge20Te80 and Al23Te77-Glasses

Crystallization of Amorphous Ni78B14Si8

Effect of the Transition Metal Admixture on the Thermal Stability of Ni73TM5Si10B12 Metallic Glasses

Investigations of the Crystallization of Electrodeposited NiP Alloys by in Situ Electron Diffraction

Amorphous-Crystalline Transition in Ni-P-B Metallic Glasses

Crystallization Behavior of a Ni-Pd Based Glassy Alloy

Study of the Crystallization Kinetics of Pd(.83-x)XxSi.17(X=Fe, Co and Ni; X=.05, .10 and .15) Metallic Glasses

C. Structure


Direct Methods for the Determination of Atomic Short-Range Order in Amorphous Solids


Is the Local Structure of Amorphous Alloys a Consequence of Medium-Range Order?

Order and Disorder in Metallic Glasses

EXAFS and XANES Studies of Metallic Glasses

X-Ray Wide and Small Angle Scattering

Structural Investigation of Fe75Si10B15 Metallic Glass Wire

A Diffraction Study of Boron and Phosphorus in the Fe40Ni40B20-xPx Family

Structure of Amorphous (Zr,Hf)-Fe Alloys

Microstructures of Amorphous and Microcrystalline Electrodeposited Co-P, Ni-P and Fe-P

The Influence of Melt Temperature and Quench Rate on Ni-Zr Metallic Glasses

Non-Uniform Structures in Melt-Spun Iron-Based Glasses

Effect of Ternary Additions on Cu-Zr Glasses Around the Composition Cu60Zr40 : Still an Ideal Solid Solution?

Neutron Wide and Small Angle Scattering

Atomic Structure of the Metallic Glass Ni80P20

A Deeper Look Into the Structure of Amorphous Fe40Ni4011B20

Short Range Structure of Ni-Fe-B Metallic Glass by Neutron Diffraction

Dynamic Structure Factor of the Metallic Glass Ni24Zr76

Partial Structure Functions of NiZr Alloy Glass Determined by an Isotope-Substitution Neutron Diffraction Method

Compositional Variations in the Short-Range Structure of Ni1-xBx (x=0.18 - 0.40) Alloy Glasses

Structural Study of an Amorphous Ni36Zr64 Alloy

Structure Study of Amorphous Fe-B and Ni-Fe-B

The Structure of Be37.5Ti62.5 Metallic Glass

Magnetic and Nuclear Small-Angle Scattering of Neutrons in Metallic Glasses

Vibrational Spectra of a-Fe.78P.22 by Inelastic Neutron Scattering

Microscopic Methods and EXAFS

Sputtered Layers of Fe-Rich and B-Rich Fe1-xBx Investigated with an Imaging Atom Probe

Crystalline-Like Short Range Order in 'Amorphous' Alloys

Distributions of Metal-Metal Neighbours in Metallic Glass Using Field Ion Microscopy

EXAFS Studies of Dilute Solid Solutions

Short-Range Order in Ni33Y67 and Cu33Y67 Amorphous Ribbons

Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation

Structural Characterization and Electrochemical Behaviour of the 2605C0 Metglass

Positron Annihilation and Mössbauer Studies of ZrxFe1-x Amorphous and Crystalline Alloys

Improved Evaluation of the Local Order in Amorphous FeZr3 from Magnetically Perturbed 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy

Influence of Short Range Order on Properties of Fe-Co-B Glasses

Mössbauer Spectroscopy on Amorphous FexZr100-x (20<x<90) Alloys

Correlations Between Hyperfine Parameters in Fe-B Metallic Glasses

Structural Investigations in the Amorphous Iron-Boron System

The Distribution of Magnetic Hyperfine Fields in Iron-Based Metallic Glasses Containing Chromium

Modeling and Energy Calculation

C.S.R.O. and Potential Energies in Transition Metal Alloys

Short-Range Order in Relaxed and Unrelaxed Models of Binary Amorphous Alloys

A Model for Metallic Glasses Generated by Chemical Twinning

Simple Ideas on Structure of Amorphous Materials

Temperature Dependence of the Local Structure in Transition from Liquid to Glass: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Chemical Ordering in Concentrated Binary Amorphous Metals

A Theory of Medium Range Order in Supercooled Liquid and Amorphous Solid Metals

Structure and Local Anisotropy of Amorphous Tb-Fe Alloys

D. Structure Relaxation


Diffusion in Amorphous Alloys

Structural Relaxation

The Role of Two-Level Systems in Amorphous Alloys

Level Systems and Kinetic Processes in Amorphous Solids

Distributed Active Temperatures and the Kinetics of Structural Relaxation

Structural Effects

The Relaxation Behaviour of Nickel-Rich Metal-Metalloid Glasses

On Structures in the Amorphous State in the Fe-Ni-B System

Investigations of the Relaxation Behavior of Amorphous Fe-Ni-B Alloys

Microcalorimetric Investigations of Structural Relaxation Phenomena in Glassy Fe-Ni-B Alloys

Calorimetric Investigation of Isothermal Reversible Relaxation Processes in Fe40Ni40B20 Glass

Calorimetric and Resistometric Studies of Structural Relaxation Kinetics in Fe40Ni40P20 and Fe40Ni40B20

The Influence of Structural Relaxation on the Curie-Temperature of Amorphous FeMnBSi

Crossover Effect in Metallic Glasses

Kinetics of Short-Range Ordering in Metallic Glasses : Analysis of the Crossover Effect

Kinetics of Enthalpy Relaxation in Metallic Glasses

Thermophysical Investigation of Relaxation of Pd82Si18 and Fe85B15 Glasses

Comparison of the Structural Relaxation and Glass Transition in Both Liquid-Quenched and Sputtered Copper-Zirconium Amorphous Alloys - A Study By DSC and X-Ray Scattering

Structural Relaxation in Sputtered Zr-Cu Alloys Studied by Low-Temperature Thermal Conductivity and X-Ray Scattering

Magnetic Effects

Kinetics of the Reversible Relaxation Phenomena in Metallic Glasses

Activation Energy Spectra for Structural Polarization

Irreversible Relaxation of the Permeability Aftereffect in Amorphous Ferromagnets During Isothermal Annealing Treatments

Annealing Behaviour of Amorphous Fe81.5B13.5Si4C1

Electrical Effects

Measurements of Structural Relaxation in Amorphous Pd82Si18 : X-Ray Diffraction and Electrical Resistivity

Relaxation and Resistivity Changes in Metallic Glasses

Radiation Damage and Enhanced Short Range Ordering in Amorphous Cu50Ti50

Chemical Short Range Order in Amorphous Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 (Metglass 2826mb)

Kinetics of Structural Relaxation and Crystallization of Amorphous Fe80P13 Alloy

Electrical Resistance and Structural Relaxation of Amorphous and Microcrystalline Co1-xPx Alloys

Structural Relaxation and Crystallization in Superconducting, Amorphous Zr-Ni Alloys

The Temperature Dependence of Resistivity in Amorphous Cu-Zr Alloys at Elevated Temperatures

Elasticity and Density

Mechanical Relaxation in Metal Glasses

Internal Friction in Amorphous Pd77.5Cu6Si16.5

The Effect of Cooling Conditions on the Internal Friction of a Multicomponent Metallic Glass

Structural Relaxation and Elastic Properties of Electrodeposited Amorphous Ni-P Alloys

Structural Relaxation of Cu67Ti33 Monitored by Elastic Modulus

Relaxation of Elastic Modulus After Cold-Rolling

Thermal Stability of Ni-Zr Metallic Glasses

Influence of Annealing on the Density and on the Microhardness of Amorphous Fe81B13.5Si3.5C2

Phase Separation, Diffusion and Embrittlement

A Re-Evaluation of Phase Separation in Ti-Zr-Be Metallic Glasses

Diffusion of 59Fe and 32P in Amorphous Fe40Ni40B20

Self-Diffusion of Radioactive 59Fe Tracer Atoms in Amorphous Fe41Ni41B18

Phase Separation and Loss of Ductility in Amorphous Ti50Be40Zr10 and Ni61Nb39

The Study of Structural Changes in Ti-Based Metallic Glasses

Effect of Aging on Distributed Shear Relaxations, Hardness and Embrittlement in Cu59Zr41 and Fe80B20 Glasses

Diffusion of Si and B in FeB-, CoB-Glasses

Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Complementary Studies of n-Irradiated and Annealed Amorphous Fe40Ni40 10B20

E. Phases and Microstructures


Phase-Structure and Micro-Structure of Rapidly Quenched Alloys

Fundamental Aspects

Universal Behaviour of Binary Amorphous Alloys Containing Noble Mentals and Simple Metals and Their Description in the Frame of a New Hume-Rothery Phase

Some Fundamental Aspects of Solidification in a Supercooled Melt

Interface Morphology During Rapid Solidification

Cellular Solidification in Ni Based Melt Spun Alloys

Relationships Between Microstructure and Processing in Melt Spun Al-Fe Alloys

Effect of Process Conditions During Meltspinning on Solidification Morphology of Aluminium Alloys

Relation Between Solidification Morphology and Texture of Melt-Spun Al and Al-Alloys

Comparison of Structures Produced by Ion Implantation and Rapid Solidification

Lattice Defects in Some Rapid Quenched Face Centered Cubic Metals

Iron Alloys

Martensite Transformation in Melt Spun Co-Ni Alloys

Microstructure Modification and Properties of Rapidly Solidified Austenitic Manganese Steels Containing Mo

As-Quenched Microstructures in Fe-25Cr-20Ni Based Melt Spun and Sputtered Alloys

Microstructures of Rapidly Quenched Type 308 Stainless Steel Weld Filler Metal and Its Implications on Rapid Solidification Processes

Rapid Solidification of Surface Layers on Alloy Steels Melted by CW Laser

Structure of Rapidly Solidified High Speed Tool Steels

Metastable Crystalline and Amorphous Fe Alloys Produced by Vapor Quenching

Other Alloys

Aging Behaviour of Rapidly Quenched Inconel 713C Alloy Using Twin-Roll Technique

Phase Formation During Aging of a Rapidly Quenched Nickel-Base Superalloy

The Effect of Rapid Solidification Velocity on Microstructure and Phase Solubility Extension in NiAl-Cr Quasibinary Eutectic

Microstructures of Different Structural Transformations in Co-10 Wt% TaC Induced by Rapid Quenching

Phase Transformations in Metastable Nb-Alloys

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Rapidly Solidified Copper-Based Alloys

Cellular Microsegregation in Rapidly Solidified Ag-15 Wt% Cu Alloys

Method for the Determination of Helium Solubility in Metallic Glasses and Their Metals

Radiation-Induced Growth of Metallic Glasses

Light Metals

Excess Vacancies in Rapidly Quenched Aluminium Alloys

The Production of Segregation-Free Aluminium Powder by Ultrasonic Gas Atomization

Phase Decomposition Process of a Rapidly Solidified Al-3 Wt% Hf-0.3 Wt% Si Alloy During Aging

Microstructures of Rapidly Solidified Al-Ti Alloys Containing Titanium Up to 40% and Its Thermal Stability

Microstructures and Properties of a Rapidly Solidified Aluminum-Gadolinium Alloy

Rapidly Solidified Ternary Al-Mn-Cr Alloys

Ageing Behaviour of Aluminium-Rich Al-Cr-Zr Alloy Solid Solutions Extended by Rapid Solidification

Heat Treatment and Deformation of a Melt Spun Aluminium Alloy

Lattice Imaging Analysis and Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Liquid-Quenched Al-Fe Alloy

Structure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys Rapidly Solidified by Electron Beam Surface Treatment

Microstructure of Some Rapidly Solidified Al-Base Alloys

Rapidly Solidified Microstructures and Precipitation in a Ti-5.5w/o Ni Alloy

Second Phase Coarsening in Rapidly Solidified Ti-5sn-4.5 La System

The Production of Ultrafine Dispersions of Rare Earth Oxides in Ti Alloys Using Rapid Solidification

Structure, Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Rapidly Quenched Aluminium-Silicon Alloys

F. Electronic Properties


Electronic States in Glassy Metals

Electronic Properties

Electronic Structure Studies on Transition Metal Glasses Containing Hafnium and Yttrium

Systematic Studies of Electron Transport Properties of Metallic Glasses

Electronic Transport in Strongly Scattering Disordered Metals


Electronic States and Conductivity of Amorphous Metals

Electronic Density of States for Amorphous Alloys of Titanium-Copper

Theory of Electronic Transport in Disordered Metals : The Influence of Incoherent Atomic Motions

Electronic Structure

The Electronic Structure of Ni-P and Pd-Ni-P Glasses

Electronic Structure of Sputtered Amorphous Copper-Yttrium Alloys as Deduced by Optical and Electron Spectroscopy

The Influence of the Noble-Metal Content on the Structure-Induced Minimum of the Density of States at the Fermi Energy in Amorphous Alloys

The Electronic Structure of Glassy Pd-U-Si Alloys

Transport Properties, Magnetic Susceptibility and Specific Heat of Amorphous Ytterbium- Noble Metal Alloys

Low Temperature Specific Heats of Amorphous Fe-Zr Alloys in the Wide Concentration Range

NMR Investigations and Superconductivity of Amorphous MoRhP and MoRhB Alloys

The Thermal Expansion of Pd30Zr70, Ti50Be40Zr10, Cu40Zr60, Ni24Zr76 and Ni78Si8B14 in the Temperature Range 20 to 400k

Electronic Structure Calculation for the Metastable Fe3B Alloy

Electronic Transport

Electron Transport Properties and Related Electronic Structure of Mg-Based Metallic Glass

Electronic Transport in Amorphous Nickel-Niobium Alloys

The Resistivity of Amorphous FeZr Films

Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Resistance of Ni-B Based Amorphous Alloys

Electrical Resistivity of Amorphous and Crystallized (Fe-Mn)80B14Si6 Between 300 and 1200 K

Mössbauer and Electrical Studies on Glassy Alloy Fe72Co3Si15B100

The Change of Temperature Coefficient of Resistance of Amorphous Film (Ni,Cr,Fe) 75Si25 with Tempering Temperature and Non-Crystallinity

Curie Point Anomalies in the Electrical Resistivity of Amorphous Ferromagnets

Electrical Resistivity Minimum in Amorphous Fe40-xNi40CrxB20 Ribbons

Concentration Dependence of Resistivity and Magnetoresistivity of Amorphous Fe80B20 Alloys with W and Cr Additions

The Influence of the Contact Preparation and the Cooling Rate on the Hall Effect Measurements

Electrical Resistivity of Amorphous Co-Mn-B Alloys

Pressure Dependence of the Resistivity of Amorphous NiZr Alloys

Green Function Theory for the Electronic Transport Properties of Disordered Systems

Author Index for Volumes I & II

Subject Index for Volumes I & II

Index of Substances for Volumes I & II


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© North Holland 1985
North Holland
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About the Editor

S Steeb

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