Radioistope Experiments for Schools and Colleges

Radioistope Experiments for Schools and Colleges

1st Edition - January 1, 1967

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  • Author: J. B. Dance
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483227016

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Description

Radioisotope Experiments for Schools and Colleges describes some radioisotope experiments to delineate atomic events and to provide evidence of the particulate nature of matter. This book is divided into nine chapters, and starts with a discussion on the fundamental of radioisotope, including radioactivity, atomic structure, decay kinetics, radiation-matter interaction, gamma radiation, and isotope production. The subsequent chapters deal with the nuclear radiation measurement methods and the occurrence of natural radioisotopes. These topics are followed by a review of the effect of radiation from external and internal sources on biological tissues. This book also provides demonstration experiments during elementary lectures on radioactivity or, in some cases, by individual pupils and do not involve any accurate measurement. The concluding chapters are devoted to specific experiments using naturally occurring radioisotopes, and sealed and unsealed artificially produced isotopes. This book is of value to physics teachers and students.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    1. Fundamentals

    The Discovery of Radioactivity

    Atomic Structure

    Types of Radioactive Change

    Decay Kinetics

    The Curie

    The Interaction of Radiation with Matter

    Bremsstrahlung

    Gamma Radiation

    Isotope Production

    2. The Measurement of Nuclear Radiation

    Geiger Counters

    Scintillation Detectors

    Semiconductor Detectors

    Sealers

    Statistics of Counting

    Resolving Time, Background Counts

    Ratemeters

    Absolute and Relative Counting

    Absorption Measurements

    Self-Absorption

    The Pocket Dosimeter

    The Quartz Fiber Ionization Chamber

    The Pulse Electroscope

    3. Naturally Occurring Radioisotopes

    Natural Radioactive Series

    Radioactive Equilibrium

    Branching Chains

    Uranium Compounds

    Thorium

    The Emanations

    Other Natural Radioisotopes

    4. Health Physics

    Radiation and Contamination

    Dose Units

    Maximum Permissible Doses

    Dose Rate Calculations

    Beta and Gamma Dose Rates

    Precautions in the Use of Closed Sources

    Measurement of Gamma Dose Rate

    Contamination

    Precautions in the Use of Unsealed Isotopes

    Monitoring

    Maximum Permissible Levels

    Film Badge Service

    5. Some Practical Considerations

    Sources

    Purchasing Unsealed Isotopes

    Geiger Counting Equipment

    Types of Detector

    Photographic Techniques

    Half-Life Experiments

    Half-Life Graphs

    Half-Life from a Growth Curve

    Carriers

    Solvent Extraction

    Ion Exchange

    Electro-Deposition

    Preparation of Solid Samples

    6. Some Demonstration Experiments

    Experiment 6.1. Becquerel'S Discovery

    Experiment 6.2. Distinction between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation

    Experiment 6.3. Deflection of Beta Particles in a Magnetic Field

    Experiment 6.4. Backscatter

    Experiment 6.5. Activity of Potassium Salts

    Experiment 6.6. Cloud Chambers

    Experiment 6.7. Relative Ionizing Power of Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiations

    Experiment 6.8. Scintillations

    Experiment 6.9. Dose Rate Measurements

    Experiment 6.10. The Spark Counter

    Experiment 6.11. Half-Life Experiments

    Experiment 6.12. Alpha Particle Range

    Experiment 6.13. Bremsstrahlung Production

    7. Experiments Using Naturally Occurring Radioisotopes

    Experiment 7.1. The Characteristics of a Geiger Tube

    Experiment 7.2. Geiger Pulse Amplitude and Duration

    Experiment 7.3. The Statistics of Counting

    Experiment 7.4. Determination as to Whether a Solid is Radioactive

    Experiment 7.5. External Beta Absorption Curves

    Experiment 7.6. Self-Absorption in a Beta Emitter

    Experiment 7.7. Self-Absorption in a Solution

    Experiment 7.8. The Separation of 234mPa by Solvent Extraction

    Experiment 7.9. The Separation of 234mPa by Precipitation with Zirconium Phosphate

    Experiment 7.10. The Preparation of 234mPa and 234Th by the Use of an Ion Exchange Column

    Experiment 7.11. The Preparation of 234Th by Precipitation

    Experiment 7.12. The Half-Life of Thoron Using an Ionization Chamber

    Experiment 7.13. The Determination of the Half-Life of Thoron Using a G.M. Tube

    Experiment 7.14. The Measurement of Gas Flow Rate Using Thoron Decay

    Experiment 7.15. The Preparation of 212Pb from Thorium Hydroxide by Electrostatic Deposition

    Experiment 7.16. The Preparation of 212Bi by Electrostatic Deposition

    Experiment 7.17. The Preparation of 212 Pb and 212Bi by Solvent Extraction

    Experiment 7.18. Backscatter

    Experiment 7.19. The Preparation of 208Tl by Liquid Extraction

    Experiment 7.20. The Preparation of 208Tl by Precipitation

    Experiment 7.21. The Separation of 208Tl by Adsorption

    Experiment 7.22. The Use of 212Pb as a Tracer

    Experiment 7.23. The Determination of the Surface Area of a Precipitate

    Experiment 7.24. The Determination of Small Concentrations of Uranium or Thorium by Means of Nuclear Emulsions

    Experiment 7.25. Estimation of the Branching Ratio of ThC Using a Nuclear Emulsion

    Experiment 7.26. The Determination of Long Half-Lives

    Experiment 7.27. Alpha Particle Ranges in a Nuclear Emulsion

    Experiment 7.28. The Estimation of the Half-Life of 40K

    Experiment 7.29. The Separation of ThX 224(Ra) with MsTh 1 (228Ra)

    Experiment 7.30. The Concentration of Airborne Radioisotopes

    8. Experiments Using Sealed Sources

    Experiment 8.1. The Inverse Square Law Experiment for Gamma Radiation

    Experiment 8.2. The Absorption of Gamma Radiation

    Experiment 8.3. The Decrease of Beta Flux with Source Distance

    Experiment 8.4. The Determination of the Resolving Time of Geiger Counting Equipment

    Experiment 8.5. Simple Gamma Radiography

    9. Experiments Using Unsealed Artificially Produced Isotopes

    Experiment 9.1. The Structure of the Thiosulphate Ion

    Experiment 9.2. The Dynamic Equilibrium between a Metal and Its Ions

    Experiment 9.3. Coprecipitation and Adsorption

    Experiment 9.4. The Preparation of a Labeled Compound

    Experiment 9.5. The Absorption of Phosphorus by a Plant

    Experiment 9.6. The Absorption of Phosphorus by Yeast

    Problems

    Appendix 1. Regulations on the Use of Radioisotopes in United Kingdom Educational Establishments

    Appendix 2. Radioisotope Data

    Appendix 3. Table of Resolving Time Corrections for a Dead Time of 400 Microseconds

    Appendix 4. List of Manufacturers

    References and Literature

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 212
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1967
  • Published: January 1, 1967
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483227016

About the Author

J. B. Dance

About the Editors

W. Ashhurst

L.L. Green

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