Radioistope Experiments for Schools and Colleges - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483213583, 9781483227016

Radioistope Experiments for Schools and Colleges

1st Edition

Authors: J. B. Dance
Editors: W. Ashhurst L.L. Green
eBook ISBN: 9781483227016
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 212
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Radioisotope Experiments for Schools and Colleges describes some radioisotope experiments to delineate atomic events and to provide evidence of the particulate nature of matter. This book is divided into nine chapters, and starts with a discussion on the fundamental of radioisotope, including radioactivity, atomic structure, decay kinetics, radiation-matter interaction, gamma radiation, and isotope production. The subsequent chapters deal with the nuclear radiation measurement methods and the occurrence of natural radioisotopes. These topics are followed by a review of the effect of radiation from external and internal sources on biological tissues. This book also provides demonstration experiments during elementary lectures on radioactivity or, in some cases, by individual pupils and do not involve any accurate measurement. The concluding chapters are devoted to specific experiments using naturally occurring radioisotopes, and sealed and unsealed artificially produced isotopes.
This book is of value to physics teachers and students.

Table of Contents



1. Fundamentals

The Discovery of Radioactivity

Atomic Structure

Types of Radioactive Change

Decay Kinetics

The Curie

The Interaction of Radiation with Matter


Gamma Radiation

Isotope Production

2. The Measurement of Nuclear Radiation

Geiger Counters

Scintillation Detectors

Semiconductor Detectors


Statistics of Counting

Resolving Time, Background Counts


Absolute and Relative Counting

Absorption Measurements


The Pocket Dosimeter

The Quartz Fiber Ionization Chamber

The Pulse Electroscope

3. Naturally Occurring Radioisotopes

Natural Radioactive Series

Radioactive Equilibrium

Branching Chains

Uranium Compounds


The Emanations

Other Natural Radioisotopes

4. Health Physics

Radiation and Contamination

Dose Units

Maximum Permissible Doses

Dose Rate Calculations

Beta and Gamma Dose Rates

Precautions in the Use of Closed Sources

Measurement of Gamma Dose Rate


Precautions in the Use of Unsealed Isotopes


Maximum Permissible Levels

Film Badge Service

5. Some Practical Considerations


Purchasing Unsealed Isotopes

Geiger Counting Equipment

Types of Detector

Photographic Techniques

Half-Life Experiments

Half-Life Graphs

Half-Life from a Growth Curve


Solvent Extraction

Ion Exchange


Preparation of Solid Samples

6. Some Demonstration Experiments

Experiment 6.1. Becquerel'S Discovery

Experiment 6.2. Distinction between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiation

Experiment 6.3. Deflection of Beta Particles in a Magnetic Field

Experiment 6.4. Backscatter

Experiment 6.5. Activity of Potassium Salts

Experiment 6.6. Cloud Chambers

Experiment 6.7. Relative Ionizing Power of Alpha, Beta and Gamma Radiations

Experiment 6.8. Scintillations

Experiment 6.9. Dose Rate Measurements

Experiment 6.10. The Spark Counter

Experiment 6.11. Half-Life Experiments

Experiment 6.12. Alpha Particle Range

Experiment 6.13. Bremsstrahlung Production

7. Experiments Using Naturally Occurring Radioisotopes

Experiment 7.1. The Characteristics of a Geiger Tube

Experiment 7.2. Geiger Pulse Amplitude and Duration

Experiment 7.3. The Statistics of Counting

Experiment 7.4. Determination as to Whether a Solid is Radioactive

Experiment 7.5. External Beta Absorption Curves

Experiment 7.6. Self-Absorption in a Beta Emitter

Experiment 7.7. Self-Absorption in a Solution

Experiment 7.8. The Separation of 234mPa by Solvent Extraction

Experiment 7.9. The Separation of 234mPa by Precipitation with Zirconium Phosphate

Experiment 7.10. The Preparation of 234mPa and 234Th by the Use of an Ion Exchange Column

Experiment 7.11. The Preparation of 234Th by Precipitation

Experiment 7.12. The Half-Life of Thoron Using an Ionization Chamber

Experiment 7.13. The Determination of the Half-Life of Thoron Using a G.M. Tube

Experiment 7.14. The Measurement of Gas Flow Rate Using Thoron Decay

Experiment 7.15. The Preparation of 212Pb from Thorium Hydroxide by Electrostatic Deposition

Experiment 7.16. The Preparation of 212Bi by Electrostatic Deposition

Experiment 7.17. The Preparation of 212 Pb and 212Bi by Solvent Extraction

Experiment 7.18. Backscatter

Experiment 7.19. The Preparation of 208Tl by Liquid Extraction

Experiment 7.20. The Preparation of 208Tl by Precipitation

Experiment 7.21. The Separation of 208Tl by Adsorption

Experiment 7.22. The Use of 212Pb as a Tracer

Experiment 7.23. The Determination of the Surface Area of a Precipitate

Experiment 7.24. The Determination of Small Concentrations of Uranium or Thorium by Means of Nuclear Emulsions

Experiment 7.25. Estimation of the Branching Ratio of ThC Using a Nuclear Emulsion

Experiment 7.26. The Determination of Long Half-Lives

Experiment 7.27. Alpha Particle Ranges in a Nuclear Emulsion

Experiment 7.28. The Estimation of the Half-Life of 40K

Experiment 7.29. The Separation of ThX 224(Ra) with MsTh 1 (228Ra)

Experiment 7.30. The Concentration of Airborne Radioisotopes

8. Experiments Using Sealed Sources

Experiment 8.1. The Inverse Square Law Experiment for Gamma Radiation

Experiment 8.2. The Absorption of Gamma Radiation

Experiment 8.3. The Decrease of Beta Flux with Source Distance

Experiment 8.4. The Determination of the Resolving Time of Geiger Counting Equipment

Experiment 8.5. Simple Gamma Radiography

9. Experiments Using Unsealed Artificially Produced Isotopes

Experiment 9.1. The Structure of the Thiosulphate Ion

Experiment 9.2. The Dynamic Equilibrium between a Metal and Its Ions

Experiment 9.3. Coprecipitation and Adsorption

Experiment 9.4. The Preparation of a Labeled Compound

Experiment 9.5. The Absorption of Phosphorus by a Plant

Experiment 9.6. The Absorption of Phosphorus by Yeast


Appendix 1. Regulations on the Use of Radioisotopes in United Kingdom Educational Establishments

Appendix 2. Radioisotope Data

Appendix 3. Table of Resolving Time Corrections for a Dead Time of 400 Microseconds

Appendix 4. List of Manufacturers

References and Literature



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© Pergamon 1967
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

J. B. Dance

About the Editor

W. Ashhurst

L.L. Green

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