Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780124058972, 9780123978684

Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry

4th Edition

Authors: Gregory Choppin Jan-Olov Liljenzin Jan Rydberg Christian Ekberg
eBook ISBN: 9780123978684
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124058972
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th September 2013
Page Count: 866
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Radiochemistry or nuclear chemistry is the study of radiation from an atomic and molecular perspective, including elemental transformation and reaction effects, as well as physical, health and medical properties.

This revised edition of one of the earliest and best-known books on the subject has been updated to bring into teaching the latest developments in research and the current hot topics in the field. To further enhance the functionality of this text, the authors have added numerous teaching aids, examples in MathCAD with variable quantities and options, hotlinks to relevant text sections from the book, and online self-grading tests.

Key Features

  • New edition of a well-known, respected text in the specialized field of nuclear/radiochemistry
  • Includes an interactive website with testing and evaluation modules based on exercises in the book
  • Suitable for both radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry courses


Chemistry, physics, and engineering students as well as medical (radiological) degree courses; Professional engineers and professors in these disciplines

Table of Contents

Foreword to the 4th Edition

Chapter 1. Origin of Nuclear Science


1.1 Radioactive Elements

1.2 Radioactive Decay

1.3 Discovery of Isotopes

1.4 Atomic Models

1.5 Nuclear Power

1.6. Literature

Chapter 2. Elementary Particles


2.1 Elementary Particles

2.2 Forces of Nature

2.3 Waves and Particles

2.4 Formation and Properties of Some Elementary Particles

2.5 The Neutrino

2.6 Quarks and the Standard Model

2.7 Exercises

2.8. Literature

Chapter 3. Nuclei, Isotopes and Isotope Separation


3.1 Species of Atomic Nuclei

3.2 Atomic Masses and Atomic Weights

3.3 Determination of Isotopic Masses and Abundances

3.4 Isotopic Ratios in Nature

3.5 Physicochemical Differences for Isotopes

3.6 Isotope Effects in Chemical Equilibrium

3.7 Isotope Effects in Chemical Kinetics

3.8 Isotope Separation Processes

3.9 Exercises

3.10. Literature

Chapter 4. Nuclear Mass Stability

4.1 Patterns of Nuclear Stability

4.2 Neutron to Proton Ratio

4.3 Mass Defect

4.4 Binding Energy

4.5 Nuclear Radius

4.6 Semiempirical Mass Equation

4.7 Valley of β-Stability

4.8 The Missing Elements: 43Tc and 61Pm

4.9 Other Modes of Instability

4.10 Exercises

4.11. Literature

Chapter 5. Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay


5.1 Radioactive Decay

5.2 Conservation Laws

5.3 Alpha Decay

5.4 Beta Decay

5.5 Gamma Emission and Internal Conversion

5.6 Spontaneous Fission

5.7 Rare Modes of Decay

5.8 Decay Schemes and Isotope Charts

5.9 Secondary Processes in the Atom

5.10 Closed Decay Energy Cycles

5.11 Kinetics of Simple Radioactive Decay

5.12 Mixed Decay

5.13 Radioactive Decay Units

5.14 Branching Decay

5.15 Successive Radioactive Decay

5.16 Radioisotope Generators

5.17 Decay Energy and Half-Life

5.18 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

5.19 Exercises

5.20. Literature

Chapter 6. Nuclear Structure


6.1 Requirements of a Nuclear Model

6.2 Rotational Energy and Angular Momentum

6.3 The Single-Particle Shell Model

6.4 Deformed Nuclei

6.5 The Unified Model of Deformed Nuclei

6.6 Interaction between the Nuclear Spin and the Electron Structure

6.7 Radioactive Decay and Nuclear Structure

6.8 Exercises

6.9. Literature

Chapter 7. Absorption of Nuclear Radiation


7.1 Survey of Absorption Processes

7.2 Absorption Curves

7.3 Absorption of Protons and Heavier Ions

7.4 Absorption of Electrons

7.5 Absorption of γ-radiation

7.6 Absorption of Neutrons

7.7 Radiation Shielding

7.8 Analytical Applications of Radiation Absorption

7.9 Technical Applications of Radiation Sources

7.10 Exercises

7.11. Literature

Chapter 8. Radiation Effects on Matter


8.1 Energy Transfer

8.2 Radiation Tracks

8.3 Radiation Dose and Radiation Yield

8.4 Metals

8.5 Inorganic Non-Metallic Compounds

8.6 Water

8.7 Aqueous Solutions

8.8 Organic Compounds

8.9 Experimental Methods

8.10 Dose Measurements

8.11 Large-Scale Non-Biological Applications

8.12 Technical Uses of Small Dose-Rates

8.13 Exercises

8.14. Literature

Chapter 9. Detection and Measurement Techniques


9.1 Track Measurements

9.2 General Properties of Detectors

9.3 Gas Counters

9.4 Semiconductor Detectors

9.5 Scintillation Detectors

9.6 Čerenkov Detectors

9.7 Microchannel Plate Detectors

9.8 Electronics for Pulse Counting

9.9 Special Counting Systems

9.10 Absolute Disintegration Rates

9.11 Sample Preparation

9.12 Statistics of Counting and Associated Error

9.13 Exercises

9.14. Literature

Chapter 10. Energetics of Nuclear Reactions


10.1 Conservation Laws in Nuclear Reactions

10.2 The Mass Energy

10.3 The Coulomb Barrier

10.4 Rutherford Scattering

10.5 Elastic Scattering

10.6 Inelastic Scattering

10.7 Dissecting a Nuclear Reaction

10.8 The Compound Nucleus Model

10.9 Radioactive Neutron Sources

10.10 Exercises

10.11. Literature

Chapter 11. Mechanisms and Models of Nuclear Reactions


11.1 The Reaction Cross-Section

11.2 Partial Reaction Cross-Sections

11.3 Resonance and Tunneling

11.4 Neutron Capture and Scattering

11.5 Neutron Diffraction

11.6 Models for Nuclear Reactions

11.7 Nuclear Fission

11.8 Photonuclear Reactions

11.9 Exercises

11.10. Literature

Chapter 12. The Origin of the Universe and Nucleosynthesis


12.1 Observations from Space Probe Earth

12.2 In the Beginning of Time

12.3 Star Ignition

12.4 Fusion Processes in Stars

12.5 Neutron Capture Processes: From Iron to Uranium

12.6 Age of the Galaxy

12.7 The Evolution of the Planets and the Earth

12.8 Exercises

12.9. Literature

Chapter 13. Cosmic Radiation and Radioelements in Nature


13.1 Primary Cosmic Radiation

13.2 Secondary Reactions in the Earth's Atmosphere

13.3 Radioelements in Nature

13.4 Cosmogenic Radionuclides

13.5 Primordial Radionuclides

13.6 Radium and Radon in the Environment

13.7 Disequilibrium

13.8 Age Determination from Radioactive Decay

13.9 Natural Radioactivity of the Oceans

13.10 Anthropogenic Radioactivity in Nature

13.11 Exercises

13.12. Literature

Chapter 14. The Actinide and Transactinide Elements


14.1 Early “Transuranium” Elements

14.2 The Actinide Elements

14.3 Actinide Properties

14.4 Uses of Actinides

14.5 Transactinide Properties

14.6 The End of the Periodic Table

14.7 Exercises

14.8. Literature

Chapter 15. Radiation Biology and Radiation Protection


15.1 The Biological Target

15.2 Radiation Effects on the Molecular Level

15.3 Radiation Effects on Different Types of Cells

15.4 Some Concepts of Radiation Biology

15.5 Further Regularities at Large Doses

15.6 Epidemiological Observations of Effects at Large Radiation Doses

15.7 Radiation Sterilization

15.8 Genetic Effects

15.9 Radiomimetic Substances

15.10 Radiation Background

15.11 Somatic Effects of Low Radiation Doses

15.12 The Dose-Effect Curve

15.13 Regulatory Recommendations and Protection Standards

15.14 Protective Measures for Radiochemical Laboratory Work

15.15 Control of Radiation Protection Measures

15.16 Exercises

15.17. Literature

Chapter 16. Particle Accelerators


16.1 Charged Particle Accelerators

16.2 Ion Source

16.3 Single-Stage Accelerators

16.4 van de Graaff Accelerators

16.5 Multiple-Stage Linear Accelerators

16.6 Cyclotrons

16.7 Frequency Modulated Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons

16.8 Neutron Generators

16.9 Areas of Application for Accelerators

16.10 Exercises

16.11. Literature

Chapter 17. Production of Radionuclides


17.1 General Considerations

17.2 Irradiation Yields

17.3 Second-Order Reactions

17.4 Target Considerations

17.5 Product Specifications

17.6 Recoil Separations

17.7 Fast Radiochemical Separations

17.8 Exercises

17.9. Literature

Chapter 18. Uses of Radioactive Tracers


18.1 Basic Assumptions for Tracer Use

18.2 Chemistry of Trace Concentrations

18.3 Analytical Chemistry

18.4 Applications to General Chemistry

18.5 Applications to Life Sciences

18.6 Industrial Uses of Radiotracers

18.7 Environmental Applications

18.8 Exercises

18.9. Literature

Chapter 19. Principles of Nuclear Power


19.1 The Nuclear Reactor

19.2 Energy Release in Fission

19.3 Fission Probability

19.4 The Fission Factor

19.5 Neutron Moderation

19.6 The Neutron Cycle

19.7 Neutron Leakage and Critical Size

19.8 Reactor Kinetics

19.9 Fuel Utilization

19.10 The Oklo Phenomenon

19.11 Reactor Concepts

19.12 Research and Test Reactors

19.13 Thermal Power Reactors

19.14 Power Station Efficiency

19.15 Reactor Safety

19.16 Radioactive Reactor Waste

19.17 Nuclear Fusion

19.18 Nuclear Explosives

19.19 Exercises

19.20. Literature

Chapter 20. Nuclear Power Reactors


20.1 Thermal Reactors

20.2 Chemistry of Water Cooled Reactors

20.3 Breeder Reactors

20.4 Reactor Waste

20.5 Safe Operation of Nuclear Reactors

20.6 Exercises

20.7. Literature

Chapter 21. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle


21.1 Production of Fuel Elements

21.2 Power Generation

21.3 Composition and Properties of Spent Fuel Elements

21.4 Management of Spent Fuel

21.5 Alternative Fuel Cycles

21.6 Reprocessing of Uranium and Mixed Oxide Fuels

21.7 Reprocessing of Thorium Fuels

21.8 Wastes Streams from Reprocessing

21.9 Treatment and Deposition of Low and Medium Level Wastes

21.10 Tank Storage of High Level Liquid Wastes

21.11 Options for Final Treatment of High Level Wastes

21.12 Solidification of High Level Liquid Wastes

21.13 Deposition in Geologic Formations

21.14 Beneficial Utilization of Nuclear Wastes

21.15 Exercises

21.16. Literature

Chapter 22. Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment


22.1 Radioactive Releases and Possible Effects

22.2 Radionuclides of Environmental Concern

22.3 Releases from Large Reactor Accidents

22.4 Injection of TRU into the Environment

22.5 Present Levels of TRU in the Ecosphere

22.6 Actinide Chemistry in the Ecosphere

22.7 Speciation Calculations

22.8 Natural Analogues

22.9 The Oklo Reactor

22.10 Performance Assessments of Waste Repositories

22.11 Conclusions

22.12 Exercises

22.13. Literature

Appendix A. Solvent Extraction Separations

A.1 Single Stage Batch Extractions

A.2 Multiple Stage Continuous Processes

A.3 High Loadings

A.4 Solvent Extraction Equipment

A.5 Exercises

A.6. Literature

Appendix B. Answers to Exercises

Appendix C

Element and Nuclide Index



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About the Author

Gregory Choppin

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA

Jan-Olov Liljenzin

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden

Jan Rydberg

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden

Christian Ekberg

Christian Ekberg is a full professor in Industrial Materials Recycling (since 2007) as well as a full professor in Nuclear Chemistry (since 2012) at Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. He is also an elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy for Engineering Sciences. The main research focus on the last 25 years has been solution chemistry of the lightest to the heaviest elements in the periodic table (thermodynamics, solvent extraction etc) as well as statistical uncertainty analysis. In later years the focus has started to include recycling processes from various sources as well as the new Gen IV nuclear reactor systems. He has published more than 120 reviewed scientific papers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden


Reviews of the second edition:
"The book fully meets the authors objectives, it is well written in a logical, objective, thought-provoking and quite easily readable style. It should appeal to the serious student of radio- and nuclear chemistry at either undergraduate or postgraduate level, as well as to readers with a more general interest in nuclear science and its impact on the environment." --Applied Radiation and Isotopes, July 1995

"This book is an excellent, readable account of a significant part of the scientific achievements of more than half this century. The authors have dedicated the book to Nobel Laureate Glenn T. Seaborg and its scholarship makes it a fitting tribute." --Radiological Protection Bulletin, December 1995