Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up

Processes, Technologies and International Experience

1st Edition - October 31, 2013

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  • Editors: William Lee, Michael Ojovan, Carol Jantzen
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094353
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097446

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Description

Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up reviews radioactive waste management processes, technologies, and international experiences. Part one explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies. International safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management are also reviewed. Part two highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The experience in Japan, with a specific chapter on Fukushima, is also covered. Finally, part three explores the clean-up of sites contaminated by weapons programmes including the USA and former USSR.Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up is a comprehensive resource for professionals, researchers, scientists and academics in radioactive waste management, governmental and other regulatory bodies and the nuclear power industry.

Key Features

  • Explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies
  • Reviews international safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management
  • Highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America specifically including a chapter on the experience in Fukushima, Japan

Readership

Nuclear and radioactive waste management professionals; Nuclear power operators; Govermental and regulatory bodies in radioactive waste management and cleanup

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

    Foreword

    Preface

    Chapter 1: Fundamentals of radioactive waste (RAW): science, sources, classification and management strategies

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Controlled and uncontrolled wastes

    1.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) classification

    1.4 Sources of waste

    1.5 Managing controlled wastes

    1.6 Strategies for managing uncontrolled releases and contaminated site clean-up

    1.7 Sources of further information

    Chapter 2: Radioactive waste (RAW) categories, characterization and processing route selection

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Basic categories of radioactive waste (RAW)

    2.3 RAW characterization and control

    2.4 RAW processing route selection

    2.5 Sources of further information

    Chapter 3: International safety standards for radioactive waste (RAW) management and remediation of contaminated sites

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 International, regional and national organisations involved

    3.3 International standards for radiological safety and environmental protection

    3.4 Radioactive waste (RAW) management policies, regulations and standards

    3.5 RAW packaging and transportation practice

    3.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 4: Technical solutions for the management of radioactive waste (RAW): overview and methods of selection

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Waste routing, classification and categorization

    4.3 Waste management steps

    4.4 Technical options for waste management

    4.5 Methodologies for technology selection

    4.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 5: Irradiated nuclear fuel management: resource versus waste

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Temporary storage

    5.3 Fuel cycle options

    5.4 Managing wastes from fuel recycling

    5.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 6: Radioactive waste (RAW) conditioning, immobilization, and encapsulation processes and technologies: overview and advances

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Waste form definitions

    6.3 Types of immobilization processes and pre-processes

    6.4 Immobilization processes and technologies

    6.5 Waste forms, waste packages, and the geological environment

    6.6 Recent advances in waste form processing

    6.7 Radiation damage in glasses and ceramics

    6.8 Leach testing and its role in the waste acceptance process

    Chapter 7: Assessing and modelling the performance of nuclear waste and associated packages for long-term management

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Background

    7.3 Corrosion of relevant metals and alloys in mild and near-neutral pH environments

    7.4 Stress corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking of carbon steel and stainless steel

    7.5 Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) degradation

    7.6 Cladding performance

    7.7 Summary

    Chapter 8: Remediation of radioactively contaminated sites and management of the resulting waste

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction: definition and extent of the problem

    8.2 Planning and management of environmental remediation (ER)

    8.3 Waste from contaminated areas: characteristics and volume

    8.4 Decontamination methodologies and techniques

    8.5 Waste transportation

    8.6 Waste disposal

    8.7 Future trends

    8.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 9: Safety and risk assessment of radioactive waste (RAW) and contaminated sites

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Deterministic and probabilistic analysis methods

    9.3 Safety and risk assessment

    9.4 Application to the case of radionuclide escape from a near-surface disposal facility

    9.5 Correlation of emergency accident levels with probabilities of occurrence: implications for the safe operation of facilities

    Chapter 10: Russia: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Special features of radioactive waste (RAW) accumulation in the USSR

    10.3 Long-term RAW isolation strategy

    10.4 A new type of repository: the adoption of the controlled prolonged storage concept

    10.5 Survey of modern RAW management technologies

    10.6 The state system for the accounting and control of RAW and radioactive materials (RAM)

    10.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 11: Ukraine: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

    11.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management practice

    11.4 Chernobyl accident

    11.5 Problems and lessons learned

    11.6 Future trends

    11.7 Conclusion

    11.8 Sources of further information

    Chapter 12: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Poland: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

    12.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

    12.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

    12.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

    12.7 Sources of further information

    Chapter 13: Nordic countries: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

    13.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

    13.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

    13.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

    13.6 Future trends

    13.7 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 14: Germany: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Sources, types and classification of nuclear waste

    14.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

    14.4 German nuclear waste repository projects

    14.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

    14.6 Future trends

    Chapter 15: France: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

    15.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

    15.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

    15.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

    15.6 Future trends

    Chapter 16: England and Wales: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Structure of the UK nuclear industry

    16.3 Sources, types and classification of wastes

    16.4 Development of radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

    16.5 Current RAW management practices and strategies

    16.6 Contaminated site clean-up

    16.7 Sharing experience

    16.8 Future trends

    Chapter 17: Scotland: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Legal framework for decommissioning and radioactive waste (RAW) arrangements in Scotland

    17.3 Scottish government solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) policy

    17.4 Scottish government higher activity waste (HAW) policy

    17.5 Nuclear power plants in Scotland

    17.6 Dounreay research station under decommissioning

    17.7 Nuclear submarines and naval test reactors in Scotland

    17.8 Industry and small users

    17.9 Conclusion

    Chapter 18: United States: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site cleanup

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Policies and practices

    18.3 Regulations and standards

    18.4 Regulatory oversight: federal and state agencies

    18.5 Waste classification, characteristics, and inventory

    18.6 Blue Ribbon Commission

    18.7 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

    18.8 Site cleanup and closure experience

    18.9 Yucca Mountain: history and lessons learned

    18.10 Acknowledgement

    18.12 Appendix: acronyms

    Chapter 19: Canada: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site cleanup

    Abstract:

    19.1 Policies and regulations

    19.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

    19.3 Long-term management

    19.4 Contaminated site cleanup experience and planned projects

    19.5 Case studies and lessons learned

    19.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 20: South Africa: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Sources, classification and types of wastes

    20.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

    20.4 Waste acceptance criteria (WAC)

    20.5 Necsa solid waste management system

    20.6 Necsa radioactive waste management plan development

    20.7 Development of the Necsa radioactive waste management plan (NRWMP)

    20.8 Decommissioning strategies and planning

    20.9 Future trends

    Chapter 21: Republic of Korea: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategy, practice and issues

    21.3 Spent fuel management strategy, practice and issues

    21.4 Decommissioning and decontamination (D&D) strategy, practice and issues

    21.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 22: China: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management

    Abstract:

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Sources, types and classification of waste

    22.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

    22.4 Geological disposal of high level waste (HLW)

    22.5 Future trends

    Chapter 23: Japan: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

    Abstract:

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategy

    23.3 Spent fuel management strategy, practice and issues15

    23.4 Decommissioning strategy, practice and issues16–20

    Chapter 24: Fukushima: The current situation and future plans

    Abstract:

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Extent and composition of radioactive material released

    24.3 Dispersion and transport of radioactive materials

    24.4 Effects of released radiation on food, environment and human health

    24.5 Clean-up programme

    24.6 Mid- and long-term roadmap

    24.7 Sources of further information

    24.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 25: Management of radioactive waste (RAW) from nuclear weapons programmes

    Abstract:

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Waste types, classification and composition

    25.3 Nuclear safety and security

    25.4 Treatment and immobilization

    25.5 Waste form properties

    25.6 Future trends

    Chapter 26: Modeling and strategy approaches for assessing radionuclide contamination from underground testing of nuclear weapons in Nevada, USA

    Abstract:

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Hydrogeological setting of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    26.3 Underground testing and groundwater flow and transport in corrective action units

    26.4 Regulatory strategy

    26.5 Future trends

    26.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 27: Remote monitoring of former underground nuclear explosion sites predominantly in the former USSR

    Abstract:

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Effects of the underground nuclear explosions on the environment

    27.3 Problems as a consequence of underground nuclear tests

    27.4 Thermal anomalies as informative signs of underground nuclear explosions

    27.5 Space monitoring of thermal anomalies and prospects for its application

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 912
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: October 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094353
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857097446

About the Editors

William Lee

Professor William E. Lee FREng is Deputy Chair of the Government advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), and Director of the Centre for Nuclear Engineering at Imperial College London, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Immobilisation Science Laboratory, University of Sheffield, UK.

Michael Ojovan

Michael I. Ojovan has been Nuclear Engineer of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), visiting Professor of Imperial College London, Associate Reader in Materials Science and Waste Immobilisation of the University of Sheffield, UK, and Leading Scientist of Radiochemistry Department of Lomonosov Moscow State University. M. Ojovan is Editorial Board Member of scientific journals: “Materials Degradation” (Nature Partner Journal), “International Journal of Corrosion”, “Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations”, “Journal of Nuclear Materials”, and Associate Editor of journal “Innovations in Corrosion and Materials Science”. He has published 12 monographs including the “Handbook of Advanced Radioactive Waste Conditioning Technologies” by Woodhead and three editions of “An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation” by Elsevier – 2005, 2013 and 2019. He has founded and led the IAEA International Predisposal Network (IPN) and the IAEA International Project on Irradiated Graphite Processing (GRAPA). M. Ojovan is known for the connectivity-percolation theory of glass transition, Sheffield model (two-exponential equation) of viscosity of glasses and melts, condensed Rydberg matter, metallic and glass-composite materials for nuclear waste immobilisation, and self-sinking capsules to investigate Earth’ deep interior.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK

Carol Jantzen

Dr Carol Jantzen is a Consulting Scientist at Savannah River National Laboratory, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Savannah River National Laboratory, USA

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