Radioactive Geochronometry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080967080, 9780080967097

Radioactive Geochronometry

1st Edition

A derivative of the Treatise on Geochemistry

Editors: Heinrich D Holland Karl Turekian
eBook ISBN: 9780080967097
Paperback ISBN: 9780080967080
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th September 2010
Page Count: 544
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Description

The history of Earth in the Solar System has been unraveled using natural radioactivity. The sources of this radioactivity are the original creation of the elements and the subsequent bombardment of objects, including Earth, in the Solar System by cosmic rays. Both radioactive and radiogenic nuclides are harnessed to arrive at ages of various events and processes on Earth.

This collection of chapters from the Treatise on Geochemistry displays the range of radioactive geochronometric studies that have been addressed by researchers in various fields of Earth science. These range from the age of Earth and the Solar System to the dating of the history of Earth that assists us in defining the major events in Earth history. In addition, the use of radioactive geochronometry in describing rates of Earth surface processes, including the climate history recorded in ocean sediments and the patterns of circulation of the fluid Earth, has extended the range of utility of radioactive isotopes as chronometric and tracer tools.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive, interdisciplinary and authoritative content selected by leading subject experts
  • Robust illustrations, figures and tables
  • Affordably priced sampling of content from the full Treatise on Geochemistry

Readership

professionals, researchers, and upper level undergraduate and graduate geochemistry students

Table of Contents

1. Cosmic-Ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites

2. Early Solar System Chronology

3. The Origin and Earliest History of the Earth

4. Long-Lived Chronometers

5. The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry of Impacts

6. Geochronology and Thermochronology in Orogenic Systems

7. Ages and Growth of Continental Crust from Radiogenic Isotopes

8. Radiocarbon

9. Natural Radionuclides in the Atmosphere

10. Groundwater Dating and Residence-Time Measurements

11. Cosmogenic Nuclides in Weathering and Erosion

12. Geochronometry of Marine Deposits

13. Chronometry of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

14. The Early History of Life

15. Heavy Metals in the Environment—Historical Trends

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4

Details

No. of pages:
544
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080967097
Paperback ISBN:
9780080967080

About the Editor

Heinrich D Holland

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Pennsylvania, USA

Karl Turekian

KARL KAREKIN TUREKIAN (1927–2013)

Karl Turekian was a man of remarkable scientific breadth, with innumerable important contributions to marine geochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, cosmochemistry, and global geochemical cycles. He was mentor to a long list of students, postdocs, and faculty (at Yale and elsewhere), a leader in geochemistry, a prolific author and editor, and had a profound influence in shaping his department at Yale University.

In 1949 Karl joined a graduate program in the new field of geochemistry at Columbia University under Larry Kulp with students Dick Holland and his fellow Wheaton alums Wally Broecker and Paul Gast. This was a propitious time as Columbia’s Lamont Geological Observatory had only been established a few years beforehand. It was during these years that Karl began to acquire the skills that led to his rapid emergence as a leader in geochemistry.

After a brief postdoc at Columbia, Karl accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Geology at Yale University in 1956, where he set out to create a program in geochemistry from scratch. Karl spent the rest of his life on the Yale faculty and was immersed in geochemistry to the end. He was deeply involved in editing this edition of the massive Treatise on Geochemistry, which has grown to 15 volumes, until only a month before his passing away on 15 March 2013.

Karl turned to the study of deep-sea cores and especially the analysis of trace elements to study the wide variety of geochemical processes that are recorded there. His work with Hans Wedepohl in writing and tabulating the Handbook of Geochemistry (Turekian, 1969) was a major accomplishment and this work was utilized by many generations of geochemists. Teaming up with his graduate students and in association with Paul Gast, he developed a mass spectrometry lab at Yale and began to thoroughly investigate the Rb–Sr isotopic systematics of deep-sea clays, not only as repositories but also as sites for exchange to occur and serve as a control of the geochemistry of ocean water.

Karl was a major player in a revolutionary marine geochemistry campaign known as the Geochemical Ocean Section Study (GEOSECS). GEOSECS was part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration in the 1970s, and it took aim at measuring and understanding the distribution of geochemical tracers for circulation and biogeochemistry in the world’s oceans.. It was also within this same time period that another large-scale ‘geochemical’ sampling program known as Apollo 11 came along. Here Karl utilized his INAA techniques to examine some of the first returned lunar samples for their trace elements. Karl was particularly proud of being the holder of the Silliman Chair and being curator of the Yale meteorite collection. In a continuation of Karl’s foray into cosmochemistry, Andy Davis came to Yale to study with Karl and Sydney Clark.

Equally important to the legacy of what Karl did for science in his research contributions on and across the planet was his influence on scientists. His legendary daily coffee hours were a training ground for many generations of students, postdocs, and visitors, as well as a proving ground for Karl’s own ideas. He had a great love for vigorous scientific debate. Karl loved to question and be questioned. Nothing was sacred and, in the act of questioning as in exploring, new science arises. He was extraordinarily supportive of people, always had time to discuss and listen, and helped everyone from students to his fellow faculty at Yale. Karl was twice department chair and even when not chair, a steadying influence in times of departmental difficulty.

Andrew M. Davis, Lawrence Grossman and Albert S. Colman

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

Mark H. Thiemens

University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

This Obituary was first published in PNAS, Vol. 110, No. 41, 16290–16291, 10th October 2013 © 2013

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States and is reproduced with permission.

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University, Connecticut, USA