# Radiative Heat Exchange in the Atmosphere

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Radiative Heat Exchange in the Atmosphere analyzes the concerns in thermal radiation and the radiation balance of the earth's surface and of the atmosphere. The text first covers the basic definitions and concepts, and then proceeds to discussing the development of basic theories of actinometric measurements of thermal radiation fluxes. Next, the selection deals with the absorption of long-wave radiation in the atmosphere. In the fourth chapter, the title covers the solution of the problem of radiative heat transfer in the atmosphere. Chapter 5 details the examination of the approximate methods of calculation of thermal radiation fluxes, while Chapter 6 discusses the problem of the atmosphere and the net radiation at the ground. The seventh chapter tackles the radiation balance, and the last chapter covers the features of the methods and the results of calculating temperature changes caused by radiation. The book will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of astrophysics and meteorology. Ecologists and other environmental scientist will also benefit from the text.

## Table of Contents

Editor's Note

Introduction

1. Thermal Radiation. Basic Definitions and Concepts

1. Basic Quantitative Characteristics in the Field of Thermal Radiation

2. Basic Laws of Thermal Radiation

1. Kirchhofts Law

2. Planck's Law

3. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law

4. Wien's Displacement Law

3. Thermal Radiation of Real Bodies

1. Thermal Radiation of Dielectrics

2. Thermal Radiation of Conductors

3. Thermal Radiation of Translucent Reflecting Bodies

4. Thermal Radiation of Natural Surfaces

4. Basic Laws Governing the Radiative Heat Exchange between Bodies Separated by a Transparent Medium

5. Equation of Transfer of Radiant Energy for a Steady Field of Radiation

6. Determination of Thermal Radiation Fluxes in the Atmosphere

2. Fundamentals of the Theory of Actinometric Measurements of Thermal Radiation Fluxes

1. Instruments for the Measurement of Net Radiation and of Radiation Balance

1. Pyrgeometer of Yanishevskii

2. Differential Balance-Meter of Laikhtman and Kucherov

3. Other Instruments

2. Interpretation of the Results of Measurements of Net Radiation

3. Absorption of Long-Wave Radiation in the Atmosphere

1. Absorption of Radiation by a Single Spectral Line

1. Profile of the Line

2. Absorption Function for a Single Spectral Line

3. Absorption and Transmission of Radiation in the Actual Atmosphere

2. Total Absorption by a Simplified Absorption Band

1. Equidistant Lines of Equal Intensity

2. Statistical Model of the Absorption Band

3. Empirical Simplification of the Absorption of Long-Wave Radiation in the Atmosphere

4. Quantitative Characteristics of the Absorption of Long-Wave Radiation by Water Vapor

1. General Considerations

2. Logarithmic Absorption Coefficients

3. Generalized Absorption Coefficients

5. Absorption of Long-Wave Radiation by Carbon Dioxide and Other Polyatomic Gases in the Atmosphere

1. Carbon Dioxide

2. Ozone

3. Oxides of Nitrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Other Gases

6. Absorption and Transmission Functions for Diffuse Radiation

7. Integrated Absorption Function

8. The Selection and Simplification of Long-Wave Radiation Absorption Properties for Application To Atmospheric Problems

4. Calculation of the Transfer of Thermal Radiation — General Solution

1. Transfer of Monochromatic Radiation

2. Some Properties of the Function En

3. Transfer of Non-Monochromatic Radiation

5. Methods of Approximate Calculation of Radiative Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere

1. Approximate Calculation of the Diffusivity of Radiation

2. Approximate Transfer Equations and Their Use in Calculating Thermal Radiation in the Atmosphere

1. General Equations

2. Equations for Simplified Atmosphere Models

3. Radiation Charts

1. The Dmitriyev Charts

2. The Shekhter Chart

3. Other Charts

4. The Accuracy of Radiation Charts

4. Results of Calculation of the Atmospheric Thermal Radiation Fluxes at Various Altitudes

1. Numerical Values of Physical Parameters

2. Results of the Calculations

5. Outgoing Radiation

6. Radiative Heat Transfer in Clouds

6. Atmospheric Emission and the Net Radiation at the Ground

1. Regularities Observed in the Variation of the Net Radiation and Atmospheric Emission

1. Cloudless Sky

2. Cloudy Sky

3. Effect of Dry Haze, Smoke and Fog

2. Empirical Equations for the Calculation of Net Radiation and Atmospheric Emission

1. Clear Sky

2. Cloudy Sky

3. Approximate Theoretical Formulae for the Calculation of Net Radiation and Atmospheric Emission with a Clear Sky

1. "Normal" Stratification

2. Effect of the Surface Layer of the Atmosphere

3. Inversion Gradients

4. Comparison with Observational Results

4. Comparison of Empirical and Theoretical Equations for the Calculation of Net Radiation

5. The Effect on the Radiative Fluxes of the Dependence of Absorption on Pressure and Temperature

6. Effect of Thermal Radiation of Ozone upon the Radiation Balance of the Earth's Surface and Atmosphere

7. Angular Distribution of the Intensity of Net Radiation and Atmospheric Emission over the Sky

1. The Net Radiation

2. The Atmospheric Emission

8. Effect of Cloud, Fog, and Smoke on Net Radiation and Atmospheric Emission

1. Effect of Cloud

2. Effect of Fog and Smoke

9. Variation of Net Radiation with Height under the Cover of Trees

10. Net Radiation of Slopes

11. Distribution of Energy in the Spectrum of Net Radiation and Atmospheric Emission

7. Radiation Balance

1. Observations of the Radiation Balance of the Boundary Surface

2. The Results of Calculations of the Radiation Balance at the Ground

3. The Radiation Balance of Slopes

4. The Physical Nature of the Greenhouse Effect

5. The Radiation Balance of the Atmosphere and the System Earth-Atmosphere

1. Radiation Balance of the Atmosphere

2. Radiation Balance of the System Earth—Atmosphere

3. The General Picture of the Thermal Balance of the Earth

8. Temperature Changes in the Atmosphere Caused by Radiative Heat Exchange

1. Equation for the Heating Rate

2. Methods of Calculation of the Radiative Heating Rate

1. Applicability of the Diffusion Concept in the Calculation of Radiative Heating Rate

2. Charts for the Calculation of Radiative Heating Rate

3. Results of Calculations of Radiative Heating Rate

1. Free Atmosphere

2. The Surface Layer of the Atmosphere

3. The Stratosphere

4. Relation between the Radiative and Turbulent Heat Exchange in the Surface Layer

Bibliography

Additional References

Appendix

Index

## Product details

- No. of pages: 422
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
- Published: January 1, 1965
- Imprint: Pergamon
- eBook ISBN: 9781483184944

## About the Author

### K. Ya. Kondrat'Yev

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