Radiation Damage in Graphite - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080137537, 9781483186498

Radiation Damage in Graphite

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy

Authors: J. H. W. Simmons
Editors: J. V. Dunworth
eBook ISBN: 9781483186498
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 256
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Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This book discusses as well the changes in dimensions produced by irradiation and the effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties of graphite. The final chapter deals with the accumulation of stored energy, which is one of the main problems caused by the irradiation of graphite in nuclear reactors. This book is a valuable resource for physicists and chemical physicists.

Table of Contents



Plates 1 to 7

Chapter 1. Introduction

The Wigner Effect

The Structure and Properties of Unirradiated Graphite

Crystal Structure

Natural Graphite

Pyrolytic Graphite

Bulk Synthetic Graphite


Chapter 2. The Displacement of Atoms by Neutrons and Fast Charged Particles

The Displacement of Atoms by the Primary Knock-on

Atomic Collisions

Loss of Energy by Electronic Excitation

The Number and Distribution of Displaced Atoms

The Displacement of Atoms by High Energy Nuclear Particles

Electrons and Heavy Charged Particles

Fast Neutrons

Irradiation in Nuclear Reactors

The Neutron Flux

The Damaging Power of the Neutron Flux

The Experimental Determination of the Damaging Power

Measurement of Irradiation Dose

Application of Experimental Results to Reactor Problems


Chapter 3. Defect Structures in Irradiated Graphite

Point Defects

Energies of Formation and Motion of Point Defects (Theory)

Experimental Results on the Properties of Vacant Lattice Sites

Experimental Results on the Properties of Interstitial Atoms

The Formation of Interstitial Complexes

The Use of Diffraction to Study Radiation Defects

Low Angle Scattering of X-Rays

Slow Neutron Diffraction

Dislocations in Graphite

Observation of Dislocations in Thin Crystals

Extended Dislocations in the Basal Plane

Dislocation Loops

Electron Microscope Observations of Radiation Defects

Experimental Results

Interpretation of Electron Microscope Observations

The Theory of Radiation Damage

Summary of Information on Radiation Defects

Dependence of Radiation Damage on Time, Flux and Temperature


Chapter 4. The Effect of Irradiation on the Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Graphite

The Electronic Properties of Graphite

Band Structure

Electrical Properties

Magnetic Properties

The Effect of Irradiation at Medium and High Temperatures

Electrical Resistivity

Hall Constant and Magnetoresistivity

The Thermo-electric Power

Magnetic Properties

Number of Electron Traps Introduced by Irradiation

The Effect of Irradiation at Low Temperature

Changes in Electrical Properties


Chapter 5. The Effect of Irradiation on the Thermal and Structural Properties of Graphite

The Specific Heat of Graphite

The Thermal Conductivity of Graphite

The Effect of Irradiation at Medium and High Temperatures

The Effect of Irradiation at Low Temperature

Stored Energy in Irradiated Graphite

Heat of Combustion Measurements

Stored Energy in Graphite Irradiated at Low Temperatures

The Effect of Irradiation on the Crystal Structure of Graphite

Changes in Lattice Parameters

Line Broadening

The Relation between the Changes in Properties and the Defect Structure

Dimensional Effects

Stored Energy


Chapter 6. Dimensional Effects in Irradiated Graphite

Thermal Expansion

The Thermal Expansion of Graphite Crystals

The Thermal Expansion of Nuclear Graphite

The Effect of Irradiation Dimensional Changes in Nuclear Graphite

Dimensional Changes Below 200°C

Dimensional Changes in the Range 150 to 350°C

Dimensional Changes at High Temperatures

Summary of Results on Dimensional Changes


Chapter 7. The Effect of Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Graphite

The Deformation of Graphite Crystals

Deformation of Nuclear Graphite

Stress-Strain Relations and Plasticity in Nuclear Graphite

Elastic Moduli of Nuclear Graphite

The Effect of Irradiation on the Strength of Graphite

Radiation Creep

Experiments with Graphite Springs

Experiments in Tension and Compression

Restrained Growth Experiments

The Interpretation of Radiation Creep


Chapter 8. Stored Energy and Annealing Effects in Reactor Graphite

Empirical Theories of Annealing

Annealing with Constant Activation Energy

Annealing Described by a Frequency Distribution

Annealing with a Distribution of Activation Energies

Activation Energies

Stored Energy Measurements

The Release of Stored Energy at Constant Temperature

Adiabatic Release of Energy

Linear Rise Measurements

Special Methods of Using the Adiabatic Calorimeter

Stored Energy in Gas Cooled Reactors

Release of Energy from Graphite in Contact with a Gas Coolant

Propagation of Energy Release through a Mass of Graphite

Limitation of the Amount of Stored Energy

The Specification of Conditions for Preventing a Release of Energy

Introduction of Stored Energy into Transient Calculations

The Control of Radiation Damage by Periodic Annealing

Radiation Annealing


Glossary of Symbols

Name Index

Subject Index

Other Titles in the Series


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1965
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

J. H. W. Simmons

About the Editor

J. V. Dunworth