Radiation Damage in Graphite

Radiation Damage in Graphite

International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: J. H. W. Simmons
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483186498

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Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This book discusses as well the changes in dimensions produced by irradiation and the effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties of graphite. The final chapter deals with the accumulation of stored energy, which is one of the main problems caused by the irradiation of graphite in nuclear reactors. This book is a valuable resource for physicists and chemical physicists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Plates 1 to 7

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    The Wigner Effect

    The Structure and Properties of Unirradiated Graphite

    Crystal Structure

    Natural Graphite

    Pyrolytic Graphite

    Bulk Synthetic Graphite


    Chapter 2. The Displacement of Atoms by Neutrons and Fast Charged Particles

    The Displacement of Atoms by the Primary Knock-on

    Atomic Collisions

    Loss of Energy by Electronic Excitation

    The Number and Distribution of Displaced Atoms

    The Displacement of Atoms by High Energy Nuclear Particles

    Electrons and Heavy Charged Particles

    Fast Neutrons

    Irradiation in Nuclear Reactors

    The Neutron Flux

    The Damaging Power of the Neutron Flux

    The Experimental Determination of the Damaging Power

    Measurement of Irradiation Dose

    Application of Experimental Results to Reactor Problems


    Chapter 3. Defect Structures in Irradiated Graphite

    Point Defects

    Energies of Formation and Motion of Point Defects (Theory)

    Experimental Results on the Properties of Vacant Lattice Sites

    Experimental Results on the Properties of Interstitial Atoms

    The Formation of Interstitial Complexes

    The Use of Diffraction to Study Radiation Defects

    Low Angle Scattering of X-Rays

    Slow Neutron Diffraction

    Dislocations in Graphite

    Observation of Dislocations in Thin Crystals

    Extended Dislocations in the Basal Plane

    Dislocation Loops

    Electron Microscope Observations of Radiation Defects

    Experimental Results

    Interpretation of Electron Microscope Observations

    The Theory of Radiation Damage

    Summary of Information on Radiation Defects

    Dependence of Radiation Damage on Time, Flux and Temperature


    Chapter 4. The Effect of Irradiation on the Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Graphite

    The Electronic Properties of Graphite

    Band Structure

    Electrical Properties

    Magnetic Properties

    The Effect of Irradiation at Medium and High Temperatures

    Electrical Resistivity

    Hall Constant and Magnetoresistivity

    The Thermo-electric Power

    Magnetic Properties

    Number of Electron Traps Introduced by Irradiation

    The Effect of Irradiation at Low Temperature

    Changes in Electrical Properties


    Chapter 5. The Effect of Irradiation on the Thermal and Structural Properties of Graphite

    The Specific Heat of Graphite

    The Thermal Conductivity of Graphite

    The Effect of Irradiation at Medium and High Temperatures

    The Effect of Irradiation at Low Temperature

    Stored Energy in Irradiated Graphite

    Heat of Combustion Measurements

    Stored Energy in Graphite Irradiated at Low Temperatures

    The Effect of Irradiation on the Crystal Structure of Graphite

    Changes in Lattice Parameters

    Line Broadening

    The Relation between the Changes in Properties and the Defect Structure

    Dimensional Effects

    Stored Energy


    Chapter 6. Dimensional Effects in Irradiated Graphite

    Thermal Expansion

    The Thermal Expansion of Graphite Crystals

    The Thermal Expansion of Nuclear Graphite

    The Effect of Irradiation Dimensional Changes in Nuclear Graphite

    Dimensional Changes Below 200°C

    Dimensional Changes in the Range 150 to 350°C

    Dimensional Changes at High Temperatures

    Summary of Results on Dimensional Changes


    Chapter 7. The Effect of Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Graphite

    The Deformation of Graphite Crystals

    Deformation of Nuclear Graphite

    Stress-Strain Relations and Plasticity in Nuclear Graphite

    Elastic Moduli of Nuclear Graphite

    The Effect of Irradiation on the Strength of Graphite

    Radiation Creep

    Experiments with Graphite Springs

    Experiments in Tension and Compression

    Restrained Growth Experiments

    The Interpretation of Radiation Creep


    Chapter 8. Stored Energy and Annealing Effects in Reactor Graphite

    Empirical Theories of Annealing

    Annealing with Constant Activation Energy

    Annealing Described by a Frequency Distribution

    Annealing with a Distribution of Activation Energies

    Activation Energies

    Stored Energy Measurements

    The Release of Stored Energy at Constant Temperature

    Adiabatic Release of Energy

    Linear Rise Measurements

    Special Methods of Using the Adiabatic Calorimeter

    Stored Energy in Gas Cooled Reactors

    Release of Energy from Graphite in Contact with a Gas Coolant

    Propagation of Energy Release through a Mass of Graphite

    Limitation of the Amount of Stored Energy

    The Specification of Conditions for Preventing a Release of Energy

    Introduction of Stored Energy into Transient Calculations

    The Control of Radiation Damage by Periodic Annealing

    Radiation Annealing


    Glossary of Symbols

    Name Index

    Subject Index

    Other Titles in the Series

Product details

  • No. of pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483186498

About the Author

J. H. W. Simmons

About the Editor

J. V. Dunworth

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