Radiation Chemistry of Organic Compounds - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080092973, 9781483184470

Radiation Chemistry of Organic Compounds

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Radiation Effects in Materials

Authors: A. J. Swallow
Editors: A. Charlesby
eBook ISBN: 9781483184470
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1960
Page Count: 394
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Description

Radiation Effects in Materials, Volume 2: Radiation Chemistry of Organic Compounds provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of radiation chemistry of organic compounds. This book reviews the published work on the radiation chemistry of organic compounds. Organized into nine chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the study of the chemical reactions produced by high-energy radiation. This text then explores the two groups of radiation sources, namely, natural and artificial, that have been equally valuable for radiation chemistry. Other chapters consider the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous systems that is important to organic radiation chemistry. This book discusses as well how radiation alters simple organic compounds, and how the response varies with the irradiation conditions and the presence of other substances. The final chapter deals with the economic aspects of the use of radiation sources in industry. This book is a valuable resource for radiation chemists.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter I. General Introduction

A. Net Chemical Effects Produced by Radiation

B. Mechanism of the Interaction of High-Energy Radiations with Matter

1. X- and γ-rays

2. Fast Electrons

3. Heavy Particles

4. Linear Energy Transfer

C. Transient Entities Formed by Radiation

1. Ions

2. Excited Molecules

3. Free Radicals

4. Unstable Chemicals

D. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter II. Experimental Methods

A. Radiation Sources

1. Electrical Machines

2. Radioactive Sources

B. Preparation, Irradiation and Analysis of Samples

1. Purification of Chemicals

2. Irradiation Conditions

3. Analysis

4. Yields

C. Dosimetry

1. Units

2. Calorimetry

3. Ionization Methods

4. Calculation from Source Strength

5. Charge Collection

6. Chemical Methods

7. Personnel Monitoring

D. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter III. Water and Aqueous Systems

A. Pure Water

B. Ferrous Sulphate Solutions

1. Reaction Mechanism

2. Use of Ferrous Sulphate System to Determine Molecular and Radical Yields for Irradiated Water

3. Determination of Relative Rate Constants

C. Solutions Containing Ferrous or Ferric Ions and Organic Substances

1. Ferric Ions in the Presence of Organic Substances but in the Absence of Oxygen

2. Ferrous Ions in the Presence of Organic Substances and Oxygen

3. Complexes of Ferrous or Ferric Ions

D. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter IV. Aliphatic Compounds

A. Saturated Hydrocarbons

1. Pure Hydrocarbons

2. Mixtures of Hydrocarbons with Other Substances

B. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

1. Pure Ethylenic Hydrocarbons

2. Ethylenic Hydrocarbons Mixed with Other Substances

3. Pure Acetylenic Hydrocarbons

4. Acetylenic Hydrocarbons Mixed with Other Substances

C. Vinyl and Related Compounds

1. Polymerization in the Liquid Phase

2. Graft Polymerization

3. Polymerization in the Solid Phase

4. Polymerization in the Vapor Phase

D. Halides

1. Chlorides

2. Bromides

3. Iodides

4. Use of Halides in Dosimetry

E. Alcohols and Hydroxy Acids

1. Alcohols

2. Hydroxy Acids

F. Ethers

G. Aldehydes and Ketones

H. Carboxylic Acids

1. Pure Acids

2. Aqueous Solutions

I. Esters

J. Amines

K. Nitro Compounds

L. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter V. Aromatic Compounds

A. Pure Aromatic Compounds

1. Benzene

2. Other Hydrocarbons

3. Compounds Other Than Hydrocarbons

B. Energy Transfer in Mixtures

C. Reactions in Mixtures

1. Mixtures with Other Organic Compounds

2. Mixtures with Inorganic Compounds

D. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter VI. Polymers

A. General Features in the Irradiation of Polymers

1. Cross-linking, Degradation and Other Changes

2. Relation between Chemical and Physical Changes

3. Formation of Free Radicals

4. Use of Polymers for Dosimetry

B. Polythene

1. Chemical Changes

2. Reaction Mechanism

C. Other Polymers

1. Vinyl Polymers

2. Polymers Other Than Vinyl Polymers

D. Polymers in Solution

E. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter VII. Dyestuffs

A. Methylene Blue

1. Methylene Blue in the Presence of Other Organic Substances

2. Methylene Blue in the Absence of Other Organic Substances

B. Other Dyes

C. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter VIII. Some Substances of Biological Interest

A. Steroids

1. Irradiation of Solid Steroids

2. Irradiation of Steroids in Solution

B. Carbohydrates and Polysaccharides

1. Carbohydrates

2. Polysaccharides

C. Amino Acids and Peptides

1. Glycine

2. Other Aliphatic Amino Acids

3. Aromatic Amino Acids

4. Peptides

D. Thiols and Disulphides

1. Thiols

2. Disulphides

E. Proteins and Enzymes

1. Irradiation of Proteins and Enzymes in the Dry State

2. Irradiation of Proteins and Enzymes in Aqueous Solution

F. Respiratory Proteins, Vitamins and Coenzymes

1. Respiratory Proteins

2. Vitamins and Coenzymes

G. Nucleic Acids and Related Compounds

1. Phosphate Esters

2. Irradiation of Nucleic Acids in Aqueous Solution

3. Irradiation of Dry Nucleic Acids

4. Changes in Biological Properties of Nucleic Acids

5. Irradiation of Nucleoproteins

H. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter IX. Radiation Chemistry and Other Fields

A. The History of the Earth

1. The Origin of Organic Compounds

2. The Origin of Petroleum

B. Radiobiology and Radiotherapeutics

1. Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Irradiation

2. Chemical Modification of Radiation Effect

3. Relative Biological Effectiveness

C. Use of Radiation to Determine Molecular Size

D. The Use of Radiation to Sterilize Pharmaceutical Products or to Preserve Food

1. Principles of Radiation Treatment

2. Radiation Damage

E. Economic Aspects of the Use of Radiation

1. Machine-produced Radiation

2. Radioactive Sources

3. Nuclear Reactors

F. Applications of Radiation in Chemical Industry

1. Advantages of Radiation Processing

2. Feasible Radiation Processes

3. The Cross-linking of Polythene

G. The Resistance of Materials to Radiation

1. Coolant-moderators

2. Processing Materials

3. Lubricants and Organic Liquids

4. Plastics and Elastomers

H. Summary and Conclusions

Conclusions

Bibliography

Subject Index

Name Index


Details

No. of pages:
394
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1960
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483184470

About the Author

A. J. Swallow

About the Editor

A. Charlesby

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