Questioned Documents

Questioned Documents

A Lawyer's Handbook

1st Edition - September 21, 2000

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  • Author: Jay Levinson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080515601

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Questioned documents are any documents that may be used as evidence in a trial, ranging from handwritten notes to counterfeit currency to contracts. This concise new handbook is designed specifically to aid lawyers involved in cases that involve questioned documents (QD) evidence. It explains the basics of document examination and helps litigators improve the way they present document evidence and question witnesses. It also provides references to professional literature and other legal sources, making it easy to find further information when needed.Questioned Documents: A Lawyer's Handbook provides analyses applied to many types of investigations and types of documents. It outlines the techniques for determining authenticity, age, ink and paper sources, handwriting identification, equipment used, forgeries, alterations, erasures, and more. In addition to helping the attorneys who mush present the QD evidence and ask the questions, this handbook is also an important resource for the expert witnesses who will be asked those questions at trial.

Key Features

@introbul:Key Features
@bul:* Explains the basics of document examination and shows how they apply to a variety of cases
* Helps litigators improve the way they present document evidence and interrogate witnesses
* Saves hours in pre-trial interviews by providing lawyers with the a thorough knowledge of the topic
* Presents case examples from the US, UK, The Netherlands, Germany, Nepal, Israel, Jordan, Russia, Romania and more
* Includes actual questions that can be asked of expert witnesses
* Provides an extensive list of references and research suggestions
* Helps document examiners learn about the application of their expertise in the courtroom, and what to expect when questioned by attorneys


Lawyers and law students, law enforcers, QD examiners

Legal Organizations (Europe) (20+ orgs)
UK - New Law Journal,Criminal Law Review

ABA, American Society of Questioned Document Examiners, National Assoc. of Document Examiners, International Assoc. of Crime Analysts, International Association for Identification.

Table of Contents

  • I. General

    1. Historical Survey of Questioned Documents
    2. Questioned Documents as a Court-Oriented Discipline
    3. Training of a Questioned Document Examiner
    5. Written Declaration of Expert Opinion
    6. Preparing for the Testimony of an Examiner
    7. In the Court
    8. Illustrations
    9. Opposing Witnesses
    10. Cross Examination
    11. How to Chose and Hire an Examiner
    12. Ethics

    II. Handwriting

    1. Factors Influencing Handwriting
    2. Conducting a Handwriting Examination
    3. Special Problems
    4. Forgery
    5. Effects of the Writing Instrument
    6. Intersecting Line
    7. Is Handwriting Examination Always Correct?
    8. Conclusions
    9. The Court
    10. Graphology

    III. Typewriters

    1. Introduction
    2. History
    3. Mechanical Principles of Operation
    4. Single Element Typewriters
    5. Make & Model, Type Fonts
    6. Using Typewriter Grids
    7. Maintaining Specimen Files
    8. Typewriter Individuality
    9. Toy Typewriters


    IV. Printers

    1. Introduction
    2. Printers in General
    3. Laser Printers
    4. Ink Jet Printers
    6. Conducting an Examination
    8. Conclusion

    V. Other Office Machines

    1. Facsimile (FAX)
    2. Perforator
    3. Check Writer
    4. Paper Cutter

    VI. Cachets & Seals

    1. Cachets
    2. Seals

    VII. Printing

    1. Introduction
    2. History
    3. Methods
    4. Printing Inks
    5. Examination Points

    VIII. Document Copying

    1. Photocopiers
    2. Examination of Photocopied Documents
    3. Other Duplicators
    4. Note

    IX. Photography

    1. General
    2. Examinations
    3. Demonstration
    4. Advice to the Lawyer

    X. Pens and Pencils, Inks and Dyes

    1. Fountain Pens
    3. Ball Point Pens
    4. Ball Point Ink Differentiation
    5. Fiber Pens
    7. Conclusions
    8. Pencils

    XI. Paper

    1. History
    2. Manufacture

    XII. Clips and Staples

    1. Paper Clips
    2. Staples

    XIII. Fingerprints on Documents

    1. Introduction
    2. Ninhydrin

    XIV. Examination Equipment

    1. UV, IR and IRL
    2. ESDA
    3. Magnifiers
    4. Microscope
    5. Projectina
    6. Laser

    XV. Materials to be Examined

    1. Passports
    2. Identity Cards
    3. Signatures on Art
    4. Erasures & Obliterations, Cut-and-Paste
    5. Currency
    6. Credit Cards
    7. Proof of Age
    8. Checks
    9. Travelers Checks
    10. Anonymous Letters


    Questioned Document Organizations

Product details

  • No. of pages: 250
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2000
  • Published: September 21, 2000
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080515601

About the Author

Jay Levinson

Jay Levinson received his Ph.D. and undergraduate degrees from New York University. From 1972 until 1981 he worked for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as a document examiner. He is a member of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners, and was certified as a diplomate by the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners. In 1981 Dr Levinson joined the Israel National Police, first as a document examiner, then as a training officer. He now heads up special projects in the crime laboratory division. Dr Levinson has published more than 80 articles and papers dealing with document examination and forensic science. He has also given instruction in document examination in more than 20 countries and as an invited lecturer at several universities.

Affiliations and Expertise

Israel National Police, Division of Identification and Forensic Science, Jerusalem

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