# Quantum Electronics

### Basic Theory

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Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explains the role of the relaxation process in quantum electronics. The book then presents the possible quantum effects in ordinary electronics at very high frequencies and low temperature conditions. The behavior of quantum systems interacting in weak and strong fields and the equations of motion for two- and three-level systems are analyzed. The text also explains the theory of spontaneous and stimulated emission and this theory's association with classical theory. The book then takes up the development of lasers. The text explains that the laser's capability to generate concentrated electromagnetic fields with a very small spectral width can be used with the linear electro-optical effect, the Kerr effect, and the Faraday effect for better research. Readers with some knowledge in theoretical physics, particularly on quantum mechanics, will find this book valuable.

## Table of Contents

Foreword

Preface to the English Edition

Introduction

Volume 1. Basic Theory

Chapter I. The Quantum Theory of the Interaction of Radiation with Matter

1. The Basic Concepts of the Quantum Theory

2. The change of Quantum State with Time

3. The Quantum Theory of Fields in Ideal Resonators, Waveguides and Free Space

4. The Interaction of Matter with a Field

5. Non-Stationary Perturbation Theory. Transition Probability

Chapter II. The Quantum Theory of Relaxation Processes

6. General Properties of Irreversible Processes

7. The Quantum Transport Equation in Γ-Space

8. The Transport Equation in μ-Space

9. The Principle of the Increase of Entropy

10. The Transport Equation Description of Fluctuations

Chapter III. Quantum Effects Appearing in the Interaction of Free Electrons with High-Frequency Fields in Resonators

11. The Quantum Theory of Fields in Lossy Resonators

12. Quantum Effects in the Interaction of Electrons with the Field in a Resonator

13. Effects Connected with the Quantum Nature of the Motion of an Electron. Conclusions and Estimates

Chapter IV. The Behavior of Quantum Systems in Weak Fields

14. Susceptibility

15. Symmetry Relations for the Susceptibility

16. The Dispersion Relations

17. The Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem

18. Multi-Level Systems. The Absorption Line Shape

19. Two-Level Systems

20. The Method of Moments. Spin-Spin Relaxation

21. Cross-Relaxation

Chapter V. The Behavior of Quantum Systems in Strong Fields

22. The Non-Linear Properties of a Medium

23. Two-Level Systems in a Strong Field

24. Three-Level Systems

25. Distributed Systems, Taking Account of the Motion of the Molecules

Chapter VI. Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission

26. The Concept of Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission

27. The Classical Discussion

28. The Quantum Theory of Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission in a System of Two-Level Molecules

29. The Correspondence Principle

30. General Expressions for the Intensities of Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission

Chapter VII. Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission in Free Space

31. Coherence during Spontaneous Emission

32. Balance Equations and Transport Equations

33. The Natural Width and Shift of the Emission Line

34. Radiation from a System Whose Dimensions are much Larger than the Wavelength

Chapter VIII. Emission in a Resonator

35. The Fundamental Equations

36. Free Motion (with no External Field)

37. Stimulated and Spontaneous Emission in a Resonator

Chapter IX. Non-Linear Effects in Optics

38. Two-Quantum Processes. The Raman Effect, Stimulated and Spontaneous Emission

39. The Propagation of Parametrically Coupled Electromagnetic Waves

40. Stimulated Raman Emission

Appendix I

A.1. The Singular Functions δ(x), ζ(x) and Ρ/x

References

Index

Volume 2. Maser Amplifiers and Oscillators

Chapter X. Paramagnetic Maser Amplifiers

41. Equations of Motion of a Paramagnetic Placed in a High-Frequency Field

42. Susceptibility. The Shape of the Paramagnetic Resonance Line

43. Methods of Inversion in Two-Level Paramagnetic Substances

44. The Theory of the Resonator-Type Two-Level Amplifier

45. The Theory of the Resonator-Type Three-Level Amplifier

46. Four-Level Masers

47. Practical Information on Resonator-Type Paramagnetic Amplifiers

48. Multi-Resonator Amplifiers and Traveling-Wave Amplifiers

49. Non-Linear and Non-Stationary Phenomena in Amplifiers

50. Noise in Maser Amplifiers

Chapter XI. Maser Oscillators for the Microwave Range

51. Three-Level Paramagnetic Oscillator

52. The Molecular Beam Oscillator

53. Two-Level Solid-State Quantum Oscillators

Chapter XII. Lasers

54. Methods of Obtaining Negative Temperatures

55. The Elements of Laser Theory

56. Solid-State Lasers

57. The Kinetics of Oscillation Processes in Solid-State Lasers

58. Gas Lasers

Appendix II. Laser Resonators

A.2. General Theory

A.3. Resonators with Spherical and Plane Mirrors

Appendix III. The Spectra of Paramagnetic Crystals

A.4. The Hamiltonian of a Paramagnetic Ion in a Crystal

A.5. The States of a Free Many-Electron Atom

A.6. Crystal Field Theory

A.7. The Crystal Field Potential

A.8. Crystal Field Matrix Elements

A.9. The Splitting of the Energy Levels of a Single-Electron Ion in an Intermediate Field of Cubic Symmetry

A.10. The Splitting of the Energy Levels of a Many-Electron Ion in an Intermediate Field of Cubic Symmetry

A.11. The Optical Spectra of Paramagnetic Crystals

A.12. Crystal Paramagnetic Resonance Spectra. The Spin Hamiltonian

A.13. Calculating Spin Hamiltonian Levels

References

Index

## Product details

- No. of pages: 334
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Pergamon 1969
- Published: January 1, 1969
- Imprint: Pergamon
- eBook ISBN: 9781483147871

## About the Authors

### V. M. Fain

### Ya. I. Khanin

## About the Editor

### J. H. Sanders

Janet H. Sanders is an Associate Professor in the Department of Technology Systems at East Carolina University where her research focus includes quality, statistics, Lean Six Sigma, and process improvement methodologies. She has a BS in Ceramic Engineering, MS in Industrial Management, and a PhD in Industrial Engineering, and 30+ years of process improvement experience in various manufacturing, service, and healthcare industries.

#### Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, East Carolina University, USA