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Pyrethrum - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121629502, 9780323154901


1st Edition

The Natural Insecticide

Editor: John Casida
eBook ISBN: 9780323154901
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 347
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Pyrethrum: the Natural Insecticide covers the papers presented at the 1972 ""International Symposium on Recent Advances with Pyrethrum the Natural Insecticide"" held in conjunction with the American Institute of Biological Sciences Silver Anniversary Meeting at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. It deals with all aspects of pyrethrum, including its history, production, chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, pharmacology, and agricultural applications. The introductory part addresses the early history of pyrethrum, its recognition as a modern insecticide, and its worldwide production. The chemistry and biochemistry parts discuss the composition, isolation, structure, synthesis, biosynthesis, metabolism, and action on enzyme systems of natural pyrethrins extracted from pyrethrum flower. The book also examines the toxicology of pyrethrum and its constituents to mammals, fish, and wildlife, as well as tests for possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and allergenic activities. Finally, it discusses the domestic and agricultural applications of pyrethrum. Considering its desirable features, researchers find pyrethrum unsurpassed by any type of synthetic organic insecticide and even by the best synthetic analogs or pyrethroids.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors



Note on Nomenclature

Part I Introduction

Chapter 1 History of Pyrethrum

I. Introduction

II. Early History of MGK and Insect Flowers

III. Origin and Development of Pyrethrum Production in Kenya

IV. East African Sources and World War II

V. Postwar Scarcity of Supplies

VI. Pyrethrum Recognized as a Modern Insecticide

VII. Pyrethrum in the Future


Chapter 2 Pyrethrum Production

I. Introduction

II. World Production of Pyrethrum and Prices for Pyrethrum Products

III. Growing of Pyrethrum

IV. Plant Improvement Programs

V. Factors Affecting Pyrethrum Production

VI. Summary


Part II Chemistry

Chapter 3 Composition of Pyrethrum Extract and Analysis of Pyrethrins

I. Introduction

II. Composition of Pyrethrum Extract

III. Analysis of Pyrethrins

IV. Summary


Chapter 4 Chemistry of the Natural Pyrethrins

I. Introduction

II. Structure of the Natural Esters

III. Isolation of Natural Acids and Alcohols

IV. Absolute Stereochemistry

V. Preferred Conformations

VI. Synthesis

VII. Interconversion of Isomers of Chrysanthemic Acid

VIII. Radiolabeling

IX. Reactions

X. Photochemistry

XI. Insecticidal Activity of the Natural Esters


Chapter 5 Biochemistry of the Pyrethrins

I. Introduction

II. Action on Enzyme Systems and Intermediary Metabolism

III. Biosynthesis

IV. Metabolism

V. Summary


Part III Toxicology and Pharmacology

Chapter 6 Toxicity of Pyrethrum and Its Constituents to Mammals

I. Introduction

II. Toxicity to Mammals

III. Toxicity to Humans

IV. Summary


Chapter 7 Toxicity of Pyrethrum to Fish and Wildlife

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Area

III. Methods of Field Appraisal

IV. Results of Field Appraisal

V. Use of Laboratory Toxicity Data

VI. Interpretation of Results

VII. Summary


Chapter 8 Tests for Possible Teratogenic, Carcinogenic, Mutagenic, and Allergenic Effects of Pyrethrum

I. Introduction

II. Teratogenic Tests

III. Carcinogenic Tests

IV. Mutagenic Tests

V. Allergenic Effects

VI. Summary


Chapter 9 Interactions in the Toxicity of Pyrethrum, Synergists, and Other Chemicals to Mammals

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary


Chapter 10 Mode of Action of Synergists in Enhancing the Insecticidal Activity of Pyrethrum and Pyrethroids

I. Introduction

II. Mode of Action and Metabolism of Synergists

III. Metabolism of Pyrethroids in Insects

IV. Synergists and the Sites of Detoxication of Pyrethroids

V. Summary


Chapter 11 Mode of Action of Pyrethrum on Arthropod Nerves

I. Introduction

II. Actions of Pyrethrins on Arthropod Nerves

III. Actions of Pyrethrins on Other Species

IV. Neuropharmacology of Other Pyrethroid Insecticides

V. Concerning the Mode of Action

VI. Some Interesting Problems

VII. Summary


Part IV Use Areas

Chapter 12 Pyrethrum for Control of Insects Affecting Man and Animals

I. Insect Control in Homes and Other Structures

II. Insect Control in Outdoor Areas

III. Direct Application to Animals and Man

IV. Development of Resistance to Pyrethrins

V. Summary


Chapter 13 Pyrethrum for Control of Household and Stored-Product Insects

I. Introduction

II . Household Insects

III. Stored-Product Insects

IV. Summary


Chapter 14 Pyrethrum for Control of Agricultural Insects

I. Introduction

II. Historical Review

HI. Effects on Bees and the Natural Enemies of Harmful Insects

IV. Insects Controlled

V. Formulations

VI. Equipment for Application of Pyrethrins as Aerosols

VII. Recent Tests

VIII. Summary


Chapter 15 Pyrethrum for Control of Forest Insect Pests

I. Introduction

II . Stabilization of Pyrethrins

III. Spruce Budworm

IV. Western Hemlock Looper

V. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth

VI. Forest Tent Caterpillar

VII. Gypsy Moth and Elm Spanworm

VIII. Spray Application Technology

IX. Summary


Part V Summary

Chapter 16 Residue and Tolerance Considerations with Pyrethrum, Piperonyl Butoxide, and MGK

I. Introduction

II. Extraction of Pyrethrins and Synergists for Residue Analysis

III. Pyrethrins—Cleanup of Extracts and Analysis

IV. Piperonyl Butoxide and MGK 264—Cleanup of Extracts and Analysis

V. Tolerances Established

VI. Summary


Chapter 17 Advantages and Disadvantages of Pyrethrum

I. Introduction

II. Production, Chemistry, and Biochemistry

III. Uses

IV. Safety

V. Disadvantages

VI. Balance of Advantages versus Disadvantages

Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1973
1st January 1973
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

John Casida

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