Psychoneuroimmunology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120437801, 9781483258904

Psychoneuroimmunology

1st Edition

Editors: Robert Ader
eBook ISBN: 9781483258904
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1981
Page Count: 688
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Description

Psychoneuroimmunology, Second Edition presents reports on the relationship between the nervous and immune systems.

The book is divided into four sections. The first section details the role of neural structures and neurotransmitter signals in communication with the immune system. It documents the extensive neural connections with organs of the immune system; the dynamics of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation of spleen and thymus; and the evidence for immune signaling of the CNS. Part II elaborates the role of hormones in the modulation of immune functions; the basis for bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems; and the potential physiological implications of these neuroendocrine-immune system interactions. The third part addresses behavioral influences on immune response; the effects of conditioning, stress and social interactions in modulating immune responses; and the behavioral consequences of experimentally altered or genetically determined immunologic states. The final section presents the effects of psychosocial factors on immune responses and the potential impact of behavioral interventions in modulating immunity in healthy human subjects and in patients with AIDS.

Neuroscientists, endocrinologists, and immunologists will find the book interesting.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Part I Neurochemical Links between the Nervous and Immune Systems

Central Neural Circuits Involved in Neural-Immune Interactions

Introduction

Effects of CNS Lesions on the Immune System

CNS Responses to Immunization

Mediators of Immune-Neural Communication

Immunologic Effects on Behavior

Conclusions

References

Innervation of Lymphoid Tissue

Introduction

Bone Marrow

Thymus

Spleen

Lymph Nodes

Other Lymphoid Accumulations

Interpreting Neuroanatomical Data

Summary

References

Ontogeny and Senescence of Noradrenergic Innervation of the Rodent Thymus and Spleen

Introduction

Ontogeny of Sympathetic Neurotransmission in the Thymus

Ontogeny of Sympathetic Neurotransmission in the Spleen

Noradrenergic Innervation of the Mature and Aging Thymus

Noradrenergic Innervation of the Mature and Aging Spleen

β-Adrenergic Receptors on Cells of the Immune System with Age

Significance of Age-Related Alterations in Noradrenergic Sympathetic Innervation of Lymphoid Organs: Possible Relationship to an Age-Related Decline in Immune Function

Summary

References

Neocortex Lateralization of Immune Function and of the Activities of Imuthiol, a T-Cell Specific Immunopotentiator

Introduction

Lateralized Influence of Neocortex on Immune Function

Immunoenhancing Effects of Imuthiol Are under Lateralized Neocortical Control

Conclusions

References

T-Lymphocyte Entry and Antigen Recognition in the Central Nervous System

Introduction

T-Lymphocyte Entry into the Central Nervous System

Antigen Presentation in the Central Nervous System

Summary

References

Interaction of the Mucosal Immune and Peripheral Nervous Systems

Introduction

Mucosal Architecture

Innervation of Immune Cells in Mucosal Sites

Nerve Growth Factor

Intersystem Communication

Possible Mucosal Neuroimmunological Pathways

Conclusions

References

Immunologic Properties of Substance P

Introduction

Substance P and Human Inflammatory Disorders

Cellular Interactions with Substance P

Substance P Receptors

Conclusions

References

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and Immune Function

Introduction

Structure and Biosynthesis

Availability and Distribution

Binding of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide to Lymphoid Cells

Opportunity of Lymphoid Cells to Bind Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide

Effects of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide on Lymphoid Cells

Vasoactive Interstinal Peptide

Future Directions

References

Production and Recognition of Neuropeptides by Cells of the Immune System

Introduction

Neuroendocrine Peptides from Immunological Cells

Conversion and Degradation of Neuropeptides by Immune Cells

Neuropeptide Mediation of Immunological Reactions, Inflammation, and Tissue Repair Processes

Human Lymphocyte Receptors for Neuropeptides

Pathogenetic Roles of Neuropeptides in Immune Diseases

Summary

References

Catecholamine Action and Immunologic Reactivity

Introduction

Catecholamines and Lymphocyte Responsiveness in Vitro

Catecholamines and Lymphocyte Activity in Vivo

Discussion: Role of Catecholamines in the Regulation of Immune Reactivity

Conclusions

References

Neurotransmitters and Molecular Signaling in the Immune Response

Introduction

Role of Catecholamines in Modulating Immunity

Modulation of T-Cell Function by Stimulation of β-Adrenergic Receptors

Molecular Neuroimmunomodulation—Consequences of Dual Receptor Signaling

Concluding Remarks

References

Part II Neuroendocrine—Immune System Interactions

Effects of Hypophysectomy on Immune Function

Introduction

The Pituitary Gland

Methods of Hypophysectomy and Pituitary Grafting

Hypophysectomy, Hemopoiesis, and Immunity

Discussion

Summary

References

Growth Hormone in Immunobiology

Introduction

A Look at the Past

Growth Hormone Deficiency

Growth Hormone, Thymic Involution, and Aging

Growth Hormone and Lymphocytes

Growth Hormone and Hemopoiesis

Growth Hormone and Phagocytic Cells

Growth Hormone in the Immune Response

A Look to the Future

References

Prolactin and Immune Function

Introduction

Physiological and Pharmacological Regulation of Prolactin Secretion

Effects of Prolactin on Immune Function

Cellular Effects of Prolactin in Immune Tissues

Questions for Future Research

Summary

References

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Proopiomelanocortin-Derived Peptides in the Modulation of Immune Function

Introduction

Induction of Proopiomelanocortin-Derived Peptides by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Influence of Proopiomelanocortin-Derived Peptides on Immune Function

Epilogue

References

Glucocorticoids and Immune Function

Introduction

Molecular Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Actions

Glucocorticoid Modulation of Mediators of Immune and Inflammatory Reactions

Glucocorticoid Effects on Mononuclear Phagocytes

References

Sex Hormones and Immune Function

Introduction

Male/Female Differences in Immunity

Effect of Sex Steroids on the Immune System

References

Role of the Pineal Neurohormone Melatonin in the Psycho-Neuroendocrine-Immune Network

Introduction

Immunologic Relevance of Endogenous Melatonin

Immunologic Effect of Exogenous Melatonin

Mechanism of Action

Preliminary Clinical Studies

Conclusions and Perspectives

References

Thymic Hormones and Immune Function: Mediation via Neuroendocrine Circuits

Introduction

Thymic Hormones and Reproductive Function

Thymic Hormones and the Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

Discussion

References

First and Second Messengers in the Development and Function of Thymus-Dependent Lymphocytes

Introduction

First Messengers

Second Messengers

Conclusion

References

Long-Term Effects of Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions during Early Development

Introduction

Interactions between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

Critical Periods in Development

Endocrine Influence on Immunity

Immune System Modulation of Endocrine Pathways in Early Development

References

Neuropeptide Hormones and Receptors Common to the Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems: Bidirectional Pathway of Intersystem Communication

Introduction

Neuropeptide Hormone Production by Cells of the Immune System

Neuropeptide Hormone Receptors on Cells of the Immune System

Discussion

References

Physiological Implications of the Immune-Neuro-Endocrine Network

Introduction

The Immune System as a Receptor Sensorial Organ

Immune-Neuro-Endocrine Regulatory Circuits

Host Metabolic Adjustments Mediated by the Immune System

Summary and Overview

References

Part III Behavior—Immune System Interactions

The Influence of Conditioning on Immune Responses

Introduction

Modern Studies of Conditioning and Immune Function

Dissociation of Conditioned Behavioral and Immune Responses

Adrenocortical Responses and Conditioned Immune Responses

Summary

References

Conditioned Immunosuppression: Analysis of Lymphocytes and Host Environment of Young and Aged Mice

Introduction

Conditioned Immunosuppression in Mice

T Cells, Aging, and Conditioned Immunosuppression

Summary and Future Research

References

Immunopharmacological Tolerance as a Conditioned Response: Dissecting the Brain-Immune Pathways

Introduction

Conditioning Analysis of Drug Tolerance

Immunopharmacological Tolerance: Associative Parameters

Immunopharmacological Tolerance: Mechanisms

Summary and Conclusions

References

Behavioral Adaptations in Autoimmune Disease-Susceptible Mice

Introduction

Taste Aversion Learning in Lupus-Prone Mice

Voluntary Consumption of Cyclophosphamide by Lupus-Prone Mice

Discussion

References

Autoimmunity and Cognitive Decline in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

Introduction

Immunologic Perturbation of Central Nervous System Function

The Blood-Brain Barrier and Neuroimmunopathology

Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Aging

Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Alzheimer's Disease

Autoimmunity and Neurobehavioral Alterations in Aging Rodents

General Discussion and Conclusions

References

Behavioral Consequences of Virus Infection

Introduction

A Viral Model of Hyperactivity

Ways in Which Viruses May Alter Behavior

References

Stress-Induced Changes in Immune Function in Animals: Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Influences

Introduction

Stress Effects on Lymphoid Cells

Stress Effects on in Vivo Immune Responses

Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Influences

Conclusion

References

Stress-Induced Immune Modulation in Animals: Opiates and Endogenous Opioid Peptides

Stress, Immunity, and Cancer

Stress-Induced Analgesia

Opiates, Opioid Peptides, Immunity, and Tumors

Summary

References

Psychoimmunology of Social Factors in Rodents and Other Subprimate Vertebrates

Introduction

Humoral Immunity and Social Factors

Cell-Mediated Immunity and Social Factors

Diseases, Resistance to Disease, and Social Factors

Social Factors in Tumor Growth and Survival

Concluding Comments

References

Behavior and the Major Histocompatibility Complex of the Mouse

Introduction

Methods

Technical Notes

Determination of Odortypes, the Olfactory Image

Reception of the Odortype

Behavior

Summary

References

Part IV Psychosocial Factors, Stress, Disease, and Immunity

Stress and Immune Function in Humans

Introduction

Major Stressful Life Changes

Depression and Chronic Stressors

Academic Stress

Intervention Studies

Social Relationships and Immune Function

Psychosocial Stressors, Immunity, and Health Consequences

References

Exercise and Human Immune Function

Introduction

Exercise Physiology

Exercise, Neuroendocrine Factors, and Psychological Function

Exercise and Immunity

Functional Significance of Immune Alterations

Conclusions and Implications for Further Studies

References

Depression and the Immune System

Introduction

Neuroimmunology

Psychosocial Influences on Immunocompetence and Health and Illness

The Nosology of Depression

Depressive Disorders and Immune Function

Immunocytes as Peripheral Models of Central Nervous System Alterations in Depression

Immunologic Influences on Central Nervous System Function in Depression

Conclusion

References

Immunosuppression by Marijuana and Components

Introduction

Background and Historical Observations

Blastogenic Responses of Lymphocytes from Marijuana Users

Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol to Experimental Animals

Marijuana and Disease

Resistance to Infection

Effects of Marijuana and Components on Immune System Parameters

Conclusions and Summary

References

Social and Psychobiological Factors in Autoimmune Disease

The Concept of Autoimmunity

Autoimmune Diseases

Role of Genetic Factors in Autoimmune Disease

Role of Gender in Autoimmune Disease

Psychosocial Factors in Autoimmune Disease

Psychosocial Factors in Specific Autoimmune Diseases

Conclusion

References

Asthma: Psychoneuroimmunologic Considerations

Introduction

The Genetic Premise

Mechanisms of Bronchoconstriction

Strategy for Categorization of Subtypes of Asthma

Research Issues

References

Behavioral Sequelae of Autoimmune Disease

Introduction

Multiple Sclerosis—A Clinical Model of Cellular Autoimmunity and Behavioral Change

Lupus—A Clinical Model of Antibody-Mediated Behavioral Disturbance

Animal Models and Mechanisms

Concluding Remarks

References

Psychosocial Interventions and Immune Function

Introduction

Psychosocial Interventions and Immunity

Adverse Consequences of Psychosocial Interventions

Discussion

References

Psychoneuroimmunologic Aspects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Introduction

HIV Infection and the Central Nervous System: Neuroimmune Connections

Immunobiology of HIV Infection

Psychosocial Responses to the AIDS Epidemic

Potential Pathways for the Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Progression of HIV Infection

Psychoimmunologic Research on HIV, AIDS-Related Complex, and AIDS

Conclusion

References

Part V Epilogue

A Personal Perspective on Psychoneuroimmunology

Text

Index

Details

No. of pages:
688
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483258904

About the Editor

Robert Ader

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Rochester, New York, U.S.A.