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Psychological Foundations of Attitudes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483230719, 9781483258515

Psychological Foundations of Attitudes

1st Edition

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Editors: Anthony G. Greenwald Timothy C. Brock Thomas M. Ostrom
eBook ISBN: 9781483258515
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 426
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Psychological Foundations of Attitudes presents various approaches and theories about attitudes. The book opens with a chapter on the development of attitude theory from 1930 to 1950. This is followed by separate chapters on the principles of the attitude-reinforcer-discriminative system; a systematic test of a learning theory analysis of interpersonal attraction; a "spread of effect" in attitude formation; Hullian learning theory; and possible origins of learned attitudinal cognitions. Subsequent chapters deal with mechanisms through which attitudes can function as both independent and dependent variables in the attitude-behavior link; and the problem of how people go about applying a summary label to their attitudes and the reciprocal effects that rating has on the content of attitude. The final chapters discuss a commodity theory that relates selective social communication to value formation; the freedoms there are in regard to attitudes; attitude change occasioned by actions which are discrepant from one's previously existing attitudes or values; and the conflict-theory approach to attitude change.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors



Part I: Introduction

1. The Emergence of Attitude Theory: 1930-1950

Contributors to Attitude Theory Development

Concluding Comments


Part II: Learning-Behavior Theory Contributions to Attitude Theory

2. Social Behaviorism and Human Motivation: Principles of the Attitude-Reinforcer-Discriminative System

Integrated Learning Principles

Integrated Learning Principles and Human Motivation Theory

Implications, Applications, and Extensions


3. A Learning Theory Approach to Interpersonal Attitudes

The Learning of Positive Interpersonal Attitudes

Consequences of Liking



4. A "Spread of Effect" in Attitude Formation

Rationale and Hypotheses

Experimental Procedure

Experimental Data

General Conclusions


5. An Extension of Hullian Learning Theory to Persuasive Communication


Instrumental Learning of Attitudes

Classical Conditioning of Attitudes



6. Cognitive Learning, Cognitive Response to Persuasion, and Attitude Change

Cognitive Responses to Persuasion

Studies of Cognitive Learning and Attitude Change

Conclusion — Cognitive Process, Cognitive Learning, and Attitude Change


7. Personality and Attitude Change: an Information-Processing Theory

The Nature of a Systems Theory

Two Experiments Designed to Test the Systems Theory


8. Attitudes as Self-Descriptions: Another Look at the Attitude-Behavior Link

Attitudes as Descriptions of Internal States

Attitudes as Descriptions of Behavior

Behavior as a Function of Attitudes


Part III: Cognitive Integration Theory Contributions to Attitude Theory

9. Psychological Perspective and Attitude Change

A Perspective Model for Attitudes

Tests of the Perspective Model



10. Implications of Commodity Theory for Value Change

Illustrative Problem Areas

Commodity Theory

Published Evidence

Summary of Unpublished Evidence

Review and Evaluation


11. Attitude Change from Threat to Attitudinal Freedom

What Freedoms are There with Regard to Attitudes?

What are the Threats to Attitudinal Freedom?

Relevant Evidence


12. Attitude Change through Discrepant Action: a Functional Analysis

A Functional Analysis of Discrepant Action and Attitude Change

A Comparison of Dissonance and Functional Theory Interpretations

A Study of the Effects of Moral and Hedonic Dilemmas on Issue and Task Attitudes

Moral and Hedonic Dilemmas in a PD Game


13. A Conflict-Theory Approach to Attitude Change and Decision Making

Stages in the Decision Making Process

Some Implications of the Analysis of States

Sources of Decisional Conflict: the Balance Sheet Model

Commitment and Postdecisional Conflict

The Continuity of Pre- and Postdecisional Conflicts

Alternative Modes of Conflict Resolution


Part IV: Conclusion

14. On Defining Attitude and Attitude Theory

Attitude Definition

A Framework for the Theoretical Study of Attitudes

Contributions to Attitude Theory




Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1968
1st January 1968
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Anthony G. Greenwald

Timothy C. Brock

Thomas M. Ostrom

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