Protein-Calorie Malnutrition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125261500, 9780323148177

Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

1st Edition

Editors: Robert Olson
eBook ISBN: 9780323148177
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1975
Page Count: 494
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Description

Protein-Calorie Malnutrition reviews the state of knowledge of metabolic phenomena in the syndromes embraced by the general term protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM), and places this new knowledge in perspective with the traditional descriptions of kwashiorkar and marasmus. The clarification it provides constitutes a benchmark for design of future programs of prevention, therapy, rehabilitation, research, or teaching. Highly noteworthy are the new advances in amino acid and protein metabolism; the enlightening evidence concerning lysine and carnitine; the evidences of derangements or deficiencies of the broad spectrum of nutrients from carbohydrates to vitamins and minerals; and the implications of these for recovery and therapy.
This book includes papers on the following: the impact of age on amino acid requirements; the mechanisms of adaptation to low-protein intakes; the metabolic consequences of essential amino acid deficiency in higher animals; carbohydrate metabolism; vitamin deficiencies associated with PCM; and mineral metabolism in PCM. Other studies deal with the effects of malnutrition on endocrine function; liver function in PCM; the synergistic interaction of malnutrition and infection; and the treatment and prevention of PCM.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgments

Amino Acid Requirements and Age

Introduction

Amino Acid Requirements and Protein Quality

Practical Applications

References

Discussion

Adaptation to Low-Protein Intakes

Introduction

Albumin Metabolism

Conservation of Nitrogen

Oxidation of Essential Amino Acids

Protein Metabolism in Muscle

Control Mechanisms

Conclusion

References

Protein Turnover in Various Nutritional States

Text

References

Discussion

Lysine Metabolism in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition with Attention to the Synthesis of Carnitine

The Lysine/Carnitine-Precursor/Product Relationship

Lysine Deficiency and Concomitant Impairment of Carnitine Biosynthesis: Nutritional Implications

References

Discussion

Cellular Energy Metabolism in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Introduction

Results

Discussion

Summary

References

Discussion

Brain DNA Synthesis in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Growth Retardation

Mechanisms Controlling Cellular Growth

Human Brain Growth

Summary

References

Electroencephalograms, Learning, and Malnutrition

Text

References

The Relationship of Severe Marasmic Protein-Energy Malnutrition and Rehabilitation in Infancy to Subsequent Mental Development

Subjects

Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Discussion

Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Protein- Calorie Malnutrition

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Fat Metabolism

Summary

References

Discussion

Water-Soluble Vitamins in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Prevalence of Vitamin Deficiencies Associated with PCM

Thiamine Status in PCM

Riboflavin Status in PCM

Folic Acid Status in PCM

Vitamin B12 in PCM

Pyridoxine in PCM

Niacin in PCM

Vitamin C in PCM

Summary

References

Nutritional Survey of Children in the Dominican Republic with Attention to Deficits in Water-Soluble Vitamins

Text

References

Discussion

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Protein-Calorie (Energy) Malnutrition

Protein-Energy Malnutrition

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins

The Deficiency States in Relation to PEM

Conclusion

References

Discussion

Mineral Metabolism in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Potassium

Organ Analyses

Significance of Changes in WBK and Organ Potassium

Magnesium

Sodium

The Genesis and Significance of These Changes

References

Mineral Metabolism in Protein Malnutrition

Text

References

Discussion

Endocrines and Malnutrition

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in Kwashiorkor and Marasmus (PEM)

Adrenal Function and Malnutrition

Insulin and Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Thyroid and Thyrotropin

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Conclusions

References

Discussion

Erythropoiesis in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Physiological Changes

Pathological Changes

Summary

References

The Anemia of Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Text

References

The Effect of Vitamin E on the Anemia of Protein-Calorie Malnutrition in Northern Thai Children

Text

References

Discussion

The Effect of Variations in Protein and Calorie Intake on the Rate of Recovery and Selected Physiological Responses in Thai Children with Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Design of the Study

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

Summary

References

The Liver in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition: An Ultrastructural Study

Text

References

Discussion

Calories in the Treatment of Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Text

References

Protein-Sparing Effect of Excess Calories during Adaptation to Low-Protein Intake

Summary

References

Discussion

Protein versus Calories in the Treatment of Protein-Calorie Malnutrition: Metabolic and Population Studies in India

Longitudinal Studies

Cross-Sectional Studies

Effect of Calorie Supplementation

Clinical Studies

References

Discussion

Interactions of Malnutrition and Infection: Advances in Understanding

Mechanisms of Interaction

Epidemiologie Evidence

Effect of Nutrition Intervention Studies

New Experimental Evidence of the Effects of Infection on Nutritional Status

The Experimental Evidence on the Effects of Malnutrition in Immunity

Summary

References

Immunoglobulins and Complement in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Text

References

Cell-Mediated Immunity in Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Text

References

Discussion

Treatment of Severe Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Location of Treatment - In or Outside the Hospital?

Opinions and Practices in Management

Nutrition Education and Prevention through Treatment Centers

Conclusion

References

The In-Patient and Out-Patient Treatment of the Child with Severe Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Diagnostic Program

Out-Patient Followup Program

Summary

References

Discussion

Prevention of Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Associated with Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

Summary

References

Discussion

Prevention of Protein-Calorie Malnutrition

The Problem

Prevention of PCM

Definition of Nutritional and Food Problems and Surveillance of the Population at Risk

Education

Control of Infections

Supplementary Feeding Programs: Treatment and Nutritional Rehabilitation

Agricultural and Socioeconomic Measures

References

Discussion

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
494
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1975
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323148177

About the Editor

Robert Olson