Properties and Applications of Transistors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080136479, 9781483138886

Properties and Applications of Transistors

1st Edition

Authors: J. P. Vasseur
eBook ISBN: 9781483138886
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 462
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Properties and Applications of Transistors focuses on the evolution of transistors as one of the essential elements of modern electronics. The book first provides information on the physical principles of transistors, including conductivity of semiconductors, junction transistors, and transistor technology. The text also looks at the general discussion of linear two-ports. Topics include equivalent circuits for a two-port; relations between the two-ports corresponding to the possible methods of connection of transistors; and elements of matrix algebra. The selection also highlights the capabilities of transistors as linear-amplifiers. The stability and neutralization of transistors; measurement of power gain; transistors with complex base resistance; and point contact transistors at low frequencies are discussed. The text also looks at the maximum ratings of transistors, including maximum voltage and current, cooling by natural convection, and thermal runaway. The book is a vital reference for readers wanting to study transistors.

Table of Contents




Symbols and Notation

Meaning of Symbols

Meaning of Subscripts

Parameters of a Two-Port Or Equivalent Circuit

Graphical Symbols

Chapter One Physical Principles of the Transistor

1.1 Conductivity of Semiconductors

A. Band Structure of Crystals

B. Perfect Crystal At Absolute Zero

C. Effect of Thermal Agitation

D. Chemical Impurities — n Or p Semiconductors

E. Conductivity of a Semiconductor

F. Injection of Minority Carriers — Diffusion

G. Physical Imperfections — Carrier Lifetime

1.2 n-p Junctions

A. Rectifying Effect

B. Reverse Capacity of a Junction

C. Forward Capacity of a Junction

D. Breakdown of A Junction

E. Ohmic Contacts

1.3 Junction Transistor

A. The Transistor Effect

B. Input Resistance and Transconductance

C. Current Gain at Low Frequency

D. Variations In Base Thickness

E. Input and Output Capacities

F. Current Gain at High Frequency

G. Spurious Elements in the Real Transistor

H. Summary — Equivalent Circuit of a Transistor

1.4 Other Types of Transistors

A. Power Transistor

B. Tetrode Transistor

C. Drift and pnip Transistor

D. pnpn Transistor 51

E. Photodiode and Phototransistor

F. Point-Contact Transistor

G. Field-Effect Transistor

1.5 Transistor Technology

A. The Growing of Monocrystals

B. Preparation of Junctions By Alloying

C. Preparation of Grown Junctions

D. Preparation of Junctions By Diffusion

E. Other Techniques

F. Auxiliary Processes


Chapter Two General Discussion of Linear Two-Ports

2.1 Representation of A Transistor Working At Low Signal Level By a Linear Two-Port

2.2 Relations Between Current and Voltage In a Linear Two-Port

2.3 Passive, Active and Unidirectional Two-Ports

2.4 Relations Between The Different Sets of Parameters Representing a Two-Port

2.5 Equivalent Circuits For a Two-Port

2.6 Relations Between The Two-Ports Corresponding to The Three Possible Methods of Connexion of a Transistor

2.7 Gain of a Two-Port

2.8 Elements of Matrix Algebra

2.9 Thévenin's Theorem


Chapter Three Transistor Characteristics

3.1 Static Characteristics

A. Characteristic Curves

3.2 Small-Signal Low-Frequency Characteristics

A. Choice of Equivalent Parameters

B. Typical Values

C. Variation With The Operating Point

D. Variation With Temperature

3.3 Small-Signal Characteristics At Medium Frequencies

A. Natural Equivalent Circuit

B. Variation of The Parameters of The Natural Equivalent Circuit

3.4 Other Types of Junction Transistors

3.5 Point Contact Transistors

3.6 Analogies Between Transistors and Valves

3.7 Measurement of The Elements of The Equivalent Circuit

A. Application of Definitions

B. Bridge Measurements

C. Direct Measurement of The Elements of The Natural Equivalent Circuit

3.8 The Avalanche Effect

3.9 Punch-Through


Chapter Four The Transistor As a Linear Amplifier

4.1 Stability of a Transistor

A. Low-Frequency Stability

B. Note

C. Stability At Medium Frequencies

D. Example

E. Unconditional Stability of a Transistor

4.2 Neutralization of a Transistor

A. Some Common Neutralizing Circuits

B. Alternative Treatment

C. Neutralization By a Purely Reactive Circuit

D. Measurement of Neutralization 177

4.3 The Three Basic Modes of Connexion of a Transistor

4.4 Common-Emitter Connexion

A. Input Impedance

B. Output Impedance

C. Current Gain

D. Voltage Gain

E. Internal Feedback

F. Region of Stability

G. Power Gain

H. Figure of Merit of a Transistor

I. The Importance of High Current Gain

4.5 Common-Base Connexion

A. Input Impedance

B. Output Impedance

C. Current Gain

D. Voltage Gain

E. Internal Feedback

F. Region of Stability

G. Power Gain

H. Wide-Band Neutralization

4.6 Common-Collector Connexion

A. Input Impedance

B. Output Impedance

C. Current Gain

D. Voltage Gain

E. Internal Feedback

F. Region of Stability

G. Power Gain

4.7 Transistor With a Complex Base Resistance

4.8 Measurement of Power Gain

4.9 Point-Contact Transistors At Low Frequencies

A. Common-Base Point-Contact Transistor

B. Common-Emitter Point-Contact Transistor

C. Common Collector Point-Contact Transistor

4.10 Graphical Methods


Chapter Five Bias Circuits

5.1 General Principles

5.2 Drift of The Working Point

5.3 Calculation of The Stability Factor

5.4 Stabilization of The Working Point

A. Transistor Biased By Two Sources

B. Transistor Biased From a Single Source

C. Stabilization By Negative Feedback

D. Numerical Example

5.5 Stability Factor For Several D.C. Coupled Transistors

A. Two Common-Emitter Transistors In Cascade

B. A Common-Collector Transistor Followed By a Common-Emitter Transistor

5.6 Tandem Amplifiers

A. Stability Factors and Efficiency

B. Practical Arrangements

C. Numerical Example

D. Drawbacks to the Tandem Arrangement

5.7 Stabilization By Compensation of the Saturation Current

A. Compensation By a Junction Diode

B. Compensation By a Transistor

C. Symmetrical Arrangements

D. Example of High-Temperature Compensation

5.8 Difficulties Peculiar to Class B Operation

5.9 Low-Temperature Drift


Chapter Six Maximum Ratings of a Transistor

6.1 Maximum Voltage

6.2 Maximum Current

6.3 Thermal Runaway

A. Theory of Thermal Runaway

B. Transistor In Static Bias Conditions

C. Transistor In Class a Operation

D. Push-Pull Class B With Sinusoidal Drive

E. Push-Pull Class B With Square Wave Drive

F. Pulse-Driven Transistor In Class C Operation

G. Transistor With High-Resistance Load

6.4 Cooling By Natural Convection

6.5 Simplified Expressions

6.6 Dynamic Examination of the Phenomena

A. Cooling with No Applied Power

B. Temperature Rise in the Stable Region

C. Temperature Rise Towards a Point On the Limiting Curve

D. Temperature Rise in The Unstable Region

E. Transient Overload

6.7 Application to Other Devices

A. Maximum Dissipation For a Photodiode

B. Maximum Reverse Voltage For a Diode in the Cut-Off Condition

C. Maximum Rating of a Diode Power Rectifier

6.8 Measurements

A. Measurement of the Coefficient ɤ

B. Measurement of Junction Temperature

C. Measurement of The Cooling Coefficient

D. Measurement of Thermal Capacity

E. Experimental Determination of The Limiting Curves For Thermal Runaway


Chapter Seven Transistor Noise

7.1 General Discussion of Noise

A. Amplitude Distribution

B. Spectral Distribution

C. Correlation Between Two Noise Signals

D. Addition of Two Noise Signals

E. Transmission of Noise By a Linear Network

F. Representation of a Noisy Linear Two-Port

G. Noise of a Linear Passive Two-Port

H. Noise Figure

I. Signal-To-Noise Ratio

7.2 Normal Noise In a Transistor

A. Noise of An Ideal Diode

B. Representation of Noise In An Ideal Transistor

C. Representation of Noise In a Real Transistor

D. Noise Factor

7.3 Transistor Abnormal Noise At Low Frequencies

A. Noise Factor At Low Frequencies

7.4 Noise In a Wide-Band Amplifier

7.5 Comparison With Valves

7.6 Measurements

A. Measurement of Equivalent Generators

B. Measurement of Noise Figure


List of Tables



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About the Author

J. P. Vasseur