Progress in Microscopy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080095790, 9781483184593

Progress in Microscopy

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology: Modern Trends in Physiological Sciences

Authors: M. Françon
Editors: P. Alexander Z. M. Bacq
eBook ISBN: 9781483184593
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 306
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Description

Progress in Microscopy details the advancement in various areas of microscopy. The title covers the phenomena, techniques, measurements, and equations. The text first details the physical aspects of image formation in microscopy, and then proceeds to tackling phase contrast, interference, and reflected-light microscopy. Next, the selection deals with the geometrical measurements and the measurement of refraction indices, thickness, and slope. The text also covers infra-red and ultra-violet microscopy, microspectroscopy, microspectrophotometry, and chemical microscopy. The book will be of great use to physicists who specializes in optics.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Chapter I. Physical Aspects of Image Formation in Microscopy

1. Introduction

2. Image of a Luminous Point Exhibited by the Objective of a Microscope in Monochromatic Light

3. Image of a Luminous Point Originated by a Reflecting Objective

4. Image of a Luminous Point When the Microscope is Not Properly Focused (Monochromatic Light)

5. Image of a Luminous Point in White Light

6. Luminous Point Imaged in the Presence of Aberrations

7. Objects in Coherent, Incoherent and Partially Coherent Illumination

8. Extended Objects Imaged in Incoherent Illumination

9. Extended Objects Imaged in Coherent and Partially Coherent Illumination

10. Perception Limit and Resolving Power

11. Stray Light

12. Reducing the Grain of Photographic Images

Chapter II. Phase-Contrast Microscopy

1. Transparent Objects

2. Principle of the Phase-Contrast Method

3. Contrast and Sensitiveness of the Method

4. Image Structure in Phase-Contrast

5. Perception Limit and Resolving Power. Effects of Stray Light

6. Phase-Contrast Microscopes in Transmitted Light

7. Phase-Contrast Applications

Chapter III. Interference Microscopy in Transmitted Light

1. Object and Fundamentals of Interference Microscopy

2. Fundamentals of Two-Wave Interference Microscopes

3. Dyson's Interference Microscope

4. Leitz's Interference Microscope

5. Polarization Interference Microscopes

6. Theoretical Principle of Polarizing Interference Microscopes

7. Smith's Full Image Duplication Interference Microscope

8. Françon's Compensated Interference Eyepiece

9. L. P. Johansson's Interferometer Eyepiece

10. Nomarski's Interference Microscope

11. Axial Image Duplication Interference Microscopes

12. Multi-Wave Interference Microscopes

13. Menzel's Interference Microscope

14. Sensitivity of Interference Microscopes

Chapter IV. Reflected-Light Microscopy

1. Methods Applied in Reflected-Light Microscopy

2. Reflected-Light Phase-Contrast. Jupnik, Osterberg and Pride Phase Microscope. Françon, Nomarski, Bendford Seidenberg Layouts

3. Oblique Illumination and Dark Ground in Reflected Light. Schmaltz's Slit, Menzel's Method

4. Reflected-Light Interference Microscopes: Sagnac, Linnik-Zeiss, Krug And Lau, Hilger and Watt, Baker, Mirau, Dyson, Françon, Nomarski. Multi-Wave Layouts

5. Observation in Polarized Light

6. Scrutinizing of Hot-Metal Surfaces

Chapter V. Geometrical Measurements

1. Settings in Microscopy

2. Setting Accuracy

3. Measuring a Length in a Focusing Plane by Means of Two Transverse Settings

4. Measuring a Thin Object by Two Axial Settings

5. Measuring a Length Whose Ends Do Not Lie in the Same Focusing Plane

6. Measuring Small Areas and Volumes

7. Determining the Normal in a Point of a Small Reflecting Surface

8. High Precision-Measurement Microscopes

Chapter VI. Measuring Refraction Indices of Transparent Objects: Unpolarized Two-Wave Interference Microscopes

1. Measuring Path Differences

2. Determining the Refraction Index From Path Difference Measurement

Chapter VII. Measuring Refraction Indices of Transparent Objects: Polarizing Interference Microscopes

Application of the Full-Duplication Method

1. Measuring Path Differences by Means of the Flat-Tints Process (Full-Duplication Process)

2. Measuring Path Differences, Applying the Fringes Process (Full-Duplication Process)

3. Determining the Refraction Index from Path-Difference Measurement (Full-Duplication Process)

4. Measuring the Refraction Index of Liquids (Full-Duplication Process)

Application of the Differential Method

5. Measuring Path Difference Using the Flat-Tints Method (Differential Process)

6. Fringe-Shift Path-Difference Measurements (Differential Process)

7. Determining the Refraction Index from Path-Difference Measurements

8. Measuring the Refraction Index of Liquids (Differential Process)

9. Measuring Birefringence through a Polarizing Interference Microscope

10. Conclusion

Chapter VIII. Measuring Thickness and Slopes with Interference Microscopes. Measuring Dry Masses

1. Transparent Objects

2. Reflective Objects (Thickness Measurement)

3. Measuring Angles of Contact Between Liquid and Solid Surfaces

4. Measuring Dry Masses by Means of an Interference Microscope

Chapter IX. Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Microscopy

1. Objectives of Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Microscopes

2. Observing and Recording Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Imagery

3. Fluorescence

Chapter X. Microspectroscopy and Microspectrophotometry

1. Fundamentals of Microspectroscopy and Microspectrophotometry

2. The Object is Illuminated in Monochromatic Light

3. The Object is Illuminated in White Light

4. Microspectrophotometric Measurements

5. Causes of Errors in Microspectrophotometry

6. Photometric Eyepieces

7. Fluorescence Microspectrophotometry

Chapter XI. Chemical Microscopy

1. Introduction

2. Hot Stage and Cold Stage

3. Calibrating the Hot Stage

4. Determining the Melting Point

5. Measuring the Refraction Index of a Melted Substance

6. Köfler's Contact Method

7. Temperature Composition Diagram of Binary Mixtures

8. Application of Fusion Methods

9. Characterizing and Identifying Fusible Compounds

Short Bibliography

Index

Details

No. of pages:
306
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1961
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483184593

About the Author

M. Françon

About the Editor

P. Alexander

Z. M. Bacq